The plantar fascia, also know as the plantar aponeu-rosis, is a tough, fibrous tissue that originates from the tuberosity of the calcaneus and inserts into the metatarsal heads. This fascia supports the longitudinal arch of the foot. This fascia is under stress when the calf muscles are tight.
Repetitive ankle movements, tight calf muscles and Achilles tendon, running on hard ground, arch problems, hyperpronation, and improper shoes can all cause this injury. The symptoms include pain at the calcaneus bone, which may diminish during exercise and worsen afterwards.
Dry needling acupuncture is effective therapy for treating this injury. Needles can be applied directly into the inflamed, tender, and painful site. Good results can be achieved when needling is combined with vacuum therapy and electrical stimulation to reduce adhesion and improve blood circulation. In addition, the treatment is used to balance the entire musculoskeletal system. Two treatment sessions per week should be provided.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.