No Aggressive Needle Manipulation

Needles must not be manipulated strongly or aggressively (rotating or in a piston-like movement

Acupuncture Accidents in TABLE 16-2 China Reported from 1950 to 2002*

Types of Injuries

Cases

Deaths

Pneumothorax

172

16

Injuries of medulla oblongata

15

6

Heart injuries

6

5

Large-scale bleeding

12

4

Needling-induced infection

45

4

Cerebral bleeding

3

3

Liver injuries

3

3

Bleeding in subarachnoid space

40

2

Trachea injuries

3

2

Intestine injuries

15

2

Indirect reaction of unclear origin

10

2

Cerebellar injuries

1

1

Spinal cord injuries

4

1

Soft tissue injuries (atrophy)

412**

0

Syncope

183

0

Injuries of peripheral nerves

85

0

Allergic reactions

28

0

Gall bladder injuries

10

0

Vagus nerve injuries

9

0

Stomach injuries

8

0

Blood vessel inflammation

7

0

Spleen injuries

3

0

Kidney injuries

3

0

Urinary bladder injuries

2

0

Other unknown reactions of

91

0

unknown origin

total

1170

51 (0.4%)

^Modified from Zhang Ren: Prevention of acupuncture accidents, Shanghai, 2004, Shanghai Science and Technology, p 17. **Soft tissue injuries were caused mostly by wet needling.

^Modified from Zhang Ren: Prevention of acupuncture accidents, Shanghai, 2004, Shanghai Science and Technology, p 17. **Soft tissue injuries were caused mostly by wet needling.

up and down). Needling efficacy does not depend on needle manipulation.

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