The knee has four supporting ligaments: the medial collateral, fibular collateral, anterior cruciate, and posterior cruciate. The medial collateral ligament spans from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial condyle of the tibia. This broad ligament holds the knee joint together on the medial side. Force applied to the lateral side may overstretch or tear this ligament partially or completely. A tearing of the medial meniscus may result from the sprain and necessitates surgical repair.
The anterior cruciate ligament spreads from the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia to the medial surface of the lateral femoral condyle. This ligament prevents posterior displacement of the femur on the tibia and helps check hyperextension of the knee. Sprain of the anterior cruciate ligament is another common injury. It can be caused by forceful twisting of the knee or by a direct blow on the knee.
Dry needling acupuncture is a helpful therapy for healing this type of injury. Needles can be applied directly into the inflamed, tender, swollen, and painful area and into related muscles on the thigh and lower leg. In addition, the treatment is used to balance the entire musculoskeletal system. Two treatment sessions per week should be provided. If surgery is required for repairing the ligament and the meniscus, dry needling acupuncture can be used before and after surgery to reduce pain and swelling.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.