Blood Coagulation System And Immune Complement System

Activation or normalization of immune function is one of the most important physiologic processes of needling. Whether needling promotes activation or normalization of the immune system depends on the baseline performance of the system. Whether immune activity is suppressed, as it is in infection, or overactivated, as in cases of inflammation, needling gradually brings immune function to its normal level.

Needling is used effectively for acute inflammation of soft tissues caused by injury from accidents, sports, and all kinds of pathologic conditions (e.g., tonsillitis; inflammation of the parotid gland, lymphatic vessels, and nodes; appendicitis; pancreatitis; postoperational infections; bacterial dysentery; hepatitis B; nephritis; and other hypoimmune reactions). ISDN is also used for improving hyperimmune response in cases of chronic inflammation such as hyperthyroidism, Hashimoto thyroiditis, sinusitis, asthma, allergy, urticaria, gastritis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, and low leukocyte count during chemotherapy. ISDN is a safe and beneficial adjunct therapy for all these conditions.

Research in some Chinese universities has yielded more knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of immune modulation as mediated by needling. Needling causes a minute trauma to the cells and very small, invisible internal bleeding. This lesion activates the immune response, thus promoting tissue healing and the restoration of homeostatic balance, which stimulates restorative control mechanisms and results in healing of the whole body.

Chemicals from connective tissue that have been needled, such as collagen fibers and mast cells, activate blood coagulation factor XII (Hageman factor). In addition to causing blood coagulation, factor XII activates other factors to attract immune cells to the site of needling. The needled tissue cells stimulate mast cells to produce peptides such as bradykinin and histamine, whose peripheral function includes vasodilatation and increased vascular permeability.

The enhanced vasodilatation of capillaries improves blood flow to the site, which enables immune cells to move from blood circulation to trigger the defensive immune reaction around the lesion. Chemicals are released to activate immune cells and excite nociceptive sensory fibers.

When the needle is removed, tissue repair processes are stimulated, the lesioned cells are digested, and protein synthesis is mobilized. The lesion-induced healing is directed by systemic neurohormonal mechanisms. The pituitary gland starts to increase the blood volume of adrenocorticotro-pic hormones (ACTH), which triggers the synthesis and secretion of physiologic corticosteroids and other hormones. This process protects the body from stress, including reduction of the inflammatory reaction. Descending neural control systems from the brain inhibit and desensitize the nocicep-tive nerves in both the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system. These systems also balance the autonomic nervous system, which normalizes blood flow and energy metabolism. Finally, the body's homeostasis is improved or restored, and local tissue healing and pain relief are accelerated.

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