Abdominal Muscles

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A well-functioning abdominal musculature unloads the back stress during lifting and stabilizes the spinal column, because the abdominal muscles are antagonists to the back muscles. The back muscles are always used during lifting, standing, and sitting. In the majority of people, abdominal muscles are weaker than back muscles. Strong abdominal muscles, hip flexors (iliopsoas, rectus femoris), and back extensors are very important for all sports. There are four abdominal muscles (Table 12-9 and Fig. 12-20).

TABLE 12-5 Long Back Muscles (Intermediate Layer)*

Erector Spinae

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Action

Iliocostals (lateral column): iliocostalis lumborum, iliocostalis thoracis. and iliocostalis cervicis Longissimus (intermediate column)

Spinalis (medial column): spinalis thoracis, spinalis cervicis, spinalis capitis

Broad tendons attached interiorly to posterior iliac crest, posterior sacrum, sacroiliac ligaments, and sacral and inferior lumbar spinous processes A broad tendon attached inferiorly to posterior iliac crest, posterior sacrum, sacroiliac ligaments, and sacral and inferior lumbar spinous processes Broad tendons attached inferiorly to posterior iliac crest, posterior sacrum, sacroiliac ligaments, and sacral and inferior lumbar spinous processes

Angles of the ribs

Transverse processes of thoracic and cervical vertebrae and mastoid process of temporal bone

Extend from spinous lumbar and thoracic processes

Dorsal rami of spinal nerves of corresponding segments

Dorsal rami of spinal nerves of corresponding segments

Dorsal rami of spinal nerves of corresponding segments

Side bending and ipsilateral rotation when muscles contract unilaterally Trunk extension when muscles contract bilaterally Side bending and ipsilateral rotation when muscles contract unilaterally Trunk extension when muscles contract bilaterally Side bending and ipsilateral rotation when muscles contract unilaterally Trunk extension when muscles contract bilaterally

Semispinalis capitis Splenius capitis

Longissimus capitis Splenius cervicis

Levator scapulae Longissimus cervicis Semispinalis cervicis Iliocostalis cervicis Infraspinatus, infraspinous fascia

Spinalis thoracis Iliocostalis thoracis Longissimus thoracis Iliocostalis lumborum External oblique

Internal oblique

Semispinalis capitis Splenius capitis

Longissimus capitis Splenius cervicis

Iliocostalis Longissimus Spinalis

Internal oblique

Figure 12-18 Muscles of the back.

Ligamentum nuchae Splenius capitis Sternocleidomastoid Splenius cervicis Scalenus posterior

Trapezius Teres major

Serratus posterior superior Rhomboid major

Iliocostalis thoracis Latissimus dorsi Longissimus thoracis Serratus anterior Serratus posterior inferior

Thoracolumbar fascia Erector spinae

Figure 12-18 Muscles of the back.

TABLE 12-6 Average-Length Back Muscles (Deep Layer)

Muscles

Origin

Insertion

Innervation

Action

Semispinalis

Transverse

Medial half between

Dorsal rami of

For corresponding region of spine:

capitis

processes of

superior and

spinal nerves of

ipsilateral rotation when muscles

T1-T6

inferior nuchal

corresponding

contract unilaterally, extension

line

segments

when muscles contract bilaterally

Semispinalis

Transverse

Spinous processes

Dorsal rami of

For corresponding region of spine:

cervicis

processes of

of C2-C5

spinal nerves of

ipsilateral rotation when muscles

T1-T6

corresponding

contract unilaterally, extension

segments

when muscles contract bilaterally

Semispinalis

Transverse

Thoracic spinous

Dorsal rami of

For corresponding region of spine:

thoracis

processes

processes

spinal nerves of

ipsilateral rotation when muscles

of thoracic

corresponding

contract unilaterally, extension

vertebrae

segments

when muscles contract bilaterally

Multifidus

Spinous processes

Spinous processes

Dorsal rami of

Side bending and ipsilateral rotation

and laminae

spanning one to

spinal nerves of

when muscles contract unilaterally

from S4-C2

three vertebrae

corresponding

Trunk extension when muscles contract

vertebrae

segments

bilaterally, stabilizing the spinal

column

TABLE 12-7 Short Back Muscles (Deepest Layer)*

Muscles

Origin Insertion

Innervation

Action

Intertransversarii

Uniting spinous and transverse processes

Dorsal rami of spinal

Laterally flex superior

of consecutive vertebrae

nerves of corresponding

vertebra; help extend

segments

vertebral column

Interspinalis

Uniting spinous and transverse processes

Dorsal rami of spinal

Help extend vertebral

of consecutive vertebrae

nerves of corresponding

column

segments

Rotatores

Transverse process Base of spinous

Dorsal rami of spinal

Rotate superior

of vertebra process of

nerves of corresponding

vertebra to the

superior vertebra

segments

opposite side

*See Figure 12-19.

*See Figure 12-19.

Costotransverse ligament

Levator costae longus Levator costae brevis Rotatores thoracis

Lumbalis vertebra I, vertebral arch

Ligamenta flava

Intertransversarii mediales lumborum

Intertransversarii mediales lumborum

Intertransverse ligament

Rib IX

Multifidi

Intertransverse ligament

Lumbar vertebrae, spinous processes

Figure 12-19 Deep short muscles of the back.

Intertransverse ligament

Rib IX

Multifidi

Intertransverse ligament

-Rib XII

Lumbar vertebrae, processes costal Intertransversarii laterales lumborum Thoracolumbar fascia (deep layer)

Multifidi

Erector spinae

Lumbar vertebrae, spinous processes

Figure 12-19 Deep short muscles of the back.

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