A

(ulna-wrist extensor)

Sternocleidomastoid

Triceps brachii (three-headed arm muscle) Pectoralis major (greater chest muscle)

(finger extensor)

(ulna-wrist extensor)

Sternocleidomastoid

Triceps brachii (three-headed arm muscle) Pectoralis major (greater chest muscle)

Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis (long and short radiuswrist extensor)

Semitendinosus Tibialis anterior (anterior shin bone muscle) Extensor hallucis longus (long big toe extensor)

Extensor digitorum longus (long toe extensor)

Serratus anterior (anterior serrated muscle)

Latissimus dorsi (broad back muscle) Obliquus externus abdominis (external oblique abdominal muscle) Adductor magnus (large adductor muscle) Rectus femoris (straight thigh muscle) Adductor longus (long adductor muscle) Sartorius (tailoris muscle) Gracilis

(slender thigh muscle)

Vastus medialis (internal vast thigh muscle)

Gastrocnemius (twin calf muscle)

Soleus

(flounder muscle)

Figure 12-1 Review of skeletal muscles.

Sternocleidomastoid Deltoideus (deltoid muscle)

Trapezius

Infraspinatus (below-the-shoulder-blade-spine muscle)

Serratus anterior (anterior serrated muscle)

Gluteus maximus (large buttock muscle)

Biceps femoris_\

(two-headed thigh muscle)

Gastrocnemius (twin calf muscle)

Soleus (flounder muscle)

Sternocleidomastoid Deltoideus (deltoid muscle)

Trapezius

Infraspinatus (below-the-shoulder-blade-spine muscle)

Serratus anterior (anterior serrated muscle)

Gluteus maximus (large buttock muscle)

Gastrocnemius (twin calf muscle)

Soleus (flounder muscle)

Extensor digitorum longus (long toe extensor) Extensor hallucis longus (long big toe extensor) Peroneus brevis (short calf muscle) Peroneus longus (long calf muscle) Soleus (flounder muscle) Gastrocnemius (twin calf muscle) Biceps femoris (two-headed thigh muscle) Vastus lateralis (external vast thigh muscle) Rectus femoris (straight thigh muscle) Tensor fasciae latae (tensor of the fascia of the thigh) Semitendinosus Adductor longus (long adductor muscle) Gracilis (slender thigh muscle) Sartorius (tailoris muscle) ,' -, Semimembranosus

Levator scapulae Rhomboideus minor (lesser rhomboid muscle)

Rhomboideus major_.

(greater rhomboid muscle)

Tibialis posterior (posterior shin bone muscle) Flexor hallucis longus (long big toe extensor)

Flexor digitorum longus (long toe extensor)

Supraspinatus (above-the-shoulder-blade-spine muscle)

Teres minor (lesser round muscle) Infraspinatus (below-the-shoulder-blade-spine muscle) Teres major (greater round muscle)

joint force on the head of the femur is about 2.5 times body weight.

The hip abductor muscles are subjected to great stress when a person runs uphill or downhill. During uphill running, the gluteus maximus is responsible for the powerful backward drive of the leg, which is necessary to raise the center of gravity. During downhill running, the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus stabilize the hip to control deceleration. The gluteus medius and gluteus minimus work eccentrically to restrain the upper body so that it does not fold medially at every step.

The gluteus maximus is used to swing the leg backward powerfully, and it can help straighten the knee. A part of the muscle is attached to the surface of the femur (at the gluteal tuberosity), which straightens the hip, and a part is inserted into a very strong, thick tendon, the iliotibial tract. This tendon band passes in front of the axis of motion of the knee and is inserted into the lateral tibial condyle. If the body is bent forward at the hip, the gluteus maximus can work with greater force because the distance between its origin and insertion becomes greater. Swinging the leg backwards

Sternocleidomastoid

Trapezius Deltoideus (deltoid muscle)'

Biceps brachii (two-headed arm muscle)

Biceps brachii (two-headed arm muscle)

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