Children With Down Syndrome Can Learn

Teaching Down Syndrome

Although Home is Where the Smart Is is packed with information in its 104 pages, it is not an exhaustive work. It's a consideration of the basics of teaching your child with Down syndrome, starting from birth through the foundational elementary years. What's inside: Why Down syndrome is Not mental retardation .page 14 How you really can reat Down syndrome. . page 17 How you can save frustration and diapers with an old method of potty training . pg 49 How you can keep that tongue from sticking out . page 38, 69 The fastest way to teach your child to read . page 60 Developmental milestones, word lists, websites and resources . page 90 And, if you must be involved with the public school system, basic guidelines for Individual Educational Plans (Ieps) and 15 snippy questions to ask educators.

Teaching Down Syndrome Summary

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Author: Helen Middlebrooke

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Down Syndrome

Down syndrome, named after the physician Langdon Down, is the most common genetic form of mental retardation, occurring in 1 to 1.5 of every 1,000 live births. In approximately 95 percent of cases, Down syndrome results from an extra chromosome on the twenty-first of the twenty-three pairs of human chromosomes. Exactly what causes the addition of the extra chromosomal material associated with Down syndrome is not clear, although risk factors include maternal age and possibly paternal age. People with Down syndrome usually function in the moderate range of mental retardation, with IQs generally ranging from 40 to 55 on average, though IQs can sometimes be higher or lower. People with Down syndrome experience particular deficits in certain aspects of language development, particularly expressive language, articulation, and grammar. Despite these deficits, many individuals with Down syndrome have relatively good social skills. Rondal, Jean, Juan Perera, Lynn Nadel, and A. Comblain. Down...

Are You and Your Child Alone in This

As recently as 10-15 years ago, we estimated only 2-4 of every 10,000 individuals had an autism-related condition. But a very recent (2001) study published in the prestigious Journal of the American Medical Association found a much higher rate. The research team of Dr. Eric Fombonne, a prominent French epidemiologist (a scientist who investigates the rate of diseases in the community), studied over 15,000 individuals in a region of England, identifying every case of autism spectrum disorders in the geographical area (verifying the diagnoses themselves). They found a rate of 63 people with autism spectrum disorders in every 10,000 individuals in the general population, making autism spectrum disorders more common than Down syndrome and many other childhood conditions. Only about a quarter of the individuals with autism spectrum disorders in this epidemiological study were diagnosed with classic autism. Fully three-quarters of the children had diagnoses in the...

Causes of Birth Defects

Although the causes of most birth defects are unknown, many are attributable to a combination of factors. Some birth defects are the result of genetic determinants, such as an abnormality due to an inherited trait or a problem with a gene or chromosome. For instance, researchers have linked various physical malformations, metabolic abnormalities, certain vision and hearing losses, and other birth defects to specific genes that are inherited from one (or in rare cases, both) parent. Problems may also arise from defects in a gene or chromosome structure or number. Down syndrome, which may lead to mental retar dation, cardiac difficulties, and other problems, is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21. As one of the most common serious birth defects, Down syndrome affects 1 in 900 births, and there is a substantially increased risk of giving birth to a child with Down syndrome if the mother is over thirty-five years of age. Heart defects, the most common type of birth defect, affect...

Consequences of Birth Defects

One component of a child's psychosocial development is related to social pressure. Studies have found that individuals with spina bifida and Down syndrome do not perceive themselves as sick. Many of the social difficulties experienced by children with birth defects are not caused directly by the anomaly but by the expectations of what is normal and expected in their communities.

Children With Special Health Care Needs

Children with special health care needs include those with chronic illnesses (i.e., asthma, sickle cell anemia, diabetes), physical disabilities (i.e., cerebral palsy, spina bifida), and developmental emotional disabilities (i.e., autism, Down syndrome). As advances in health care have allowed medically fragile and or disabled children to live longer, attention has focused on understanding their unique ''developmental'' needs. The impact of an illness or disability on a child's cognitive, social, and emotional development varies over time as the child's developmental level changes. In addition, the implications of the illness disability are different depending upon the child's developmental level at its onset and the limitations of the disorder at each level of development. Professionals who work with children with special health needs must keep the above in mind, and must also understand the effects (both negative and positive) of the illness disability on the family system, and how...

Clinical Vignettes

A 41-year-old Down syndrome patient has had a gradual deterioration in cognitive functioning. Lately, she has been unable to remember her home address, and her daughter has noticed that she has difficulty remembering names of people she has known throughout the duration of her life. Her primary care physician diagnoses her with Alzheimer disease. Which chromosome has been implicated in Alzheimer disease in Down syndrome patients

In the Autism Spectrum Disorders

There appear to be a variety of traits that run in the families of people with autism and Asperger syndrome, especially related to the areas of language and social abilities. Higher rates of language delay, articulation problems, learning difficulties, social difficulties, and social anxiety are more often found in relatives of people with autism than in family members of people with other disabilities, such as Down syndrome. Studies indicate that these milder difficulties show up in about 10-20 of siblings of individuals with autism and often in parents as well.

Pharmacological Uses of Vitamin E

Been some suggestions that Alzheimer's disease maybe as well (Sun and Chen, 1998 Grundman, 2000). The neurological damage associated with Down's syndrome (trisomy 21) may also be related to radical damage the gene for superoxide dismutase is on chromosome 21, and overexpression in mice is associated with increased lipid peroxidation in the brain, apparently as a result of increased formation of hydrogen peroxide. However, controlled trials show no beneficial effects of vitamin E supplementation in any of these conditions (Shoulson, 1998 Tabet et al., 2000).

Congenital Deformities

Congenital deformities include a broad range of physical abnormalities existing from birth, although some, such as scoliosis, may not manifest until later in life. The most common are craniofacial deformities, such as cleft lip or palate, and skeletal deformities, such as clubfoot or spina bifida. Certain chromosomal disorders such as Fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome also have associated physical abnormalities, as have substance-induced problems such as fetal alcohol syndrome. The impacts of congenital deformities can be primary, such as delays in the development of motor and language skills, or secondary, such as social ostracism and low self-esteem. Surgical procedures may help with many of the physical abnormalities, although these can involve multiple surgeries and may cause more stress for the child and family members. Congenital abnormalities are best thought of as chronic illnesses multidisciplinary, as well as psychosocial, interventions at the individual, family, and...

Developmental Disabilities

The term developmental disabilities'' includes all mental and physical impairments or combination of mental and physical impairments that (1) occur before a person is twenty-two years old (2) are expected to continue indefinitely (3) result in limitations in one or more areas of development such as physical, cognitive, behavioral, emotional, or social development and (4) reflect a child's need for individualized services or treatment in school or community-based settings. Developmental disabilities is a generic term that includes medical or diagnosed conditions such as Down syndrome and cerebral palsy that have a known biological, genetic, or neurological cause. In addition, children with developmental disabilities may be delayed in attaining developmental milestones such as walking and talking for reasons that are unknown or thought to be related to environmental conditions such as poverty. Examples of common broad categories of developmental disabilities include mental retardation,...

How Children Qualify for Early Intervention

There are several ways children can participate in an early intervention program. The most common way is by having their level of development assessed using a formal, standardized assessment. Individual states have regulations regarding the use of these assessments and their role in qualifying children for early intervention services. Children are also eligible to receive early intervention services if they have a known disability, such as Down syndrome, which carries the likelihood that a delay in later development will occur. Finally, in most states, professionals who work with children may recommend that a child receive early intervention services based on their professional judgment.

Iipathophysiology Of Alzheimers Disease

AD occurs in both sporadic and inherited forms (4). A similar disease also appears in individuals with Down syndrome (5). Clinically, AD manifests as a progressive dementia, affecting higher-order cognitive functions such as memory, attention, language, judgment, and spatial reasoning. Patients often experience depression, irritability, aggression, and delusions. With time, the disease progresses to severe impairment of cognitive function, with preservation of the

Brain Dysfunction in Children

Down syndrome is a genetic disease of the brain. In normal persons, all 23 pairs of chromosomes divide in meiosis, the process by which one diploid eukaryotic cell divides to generate four haploid cells, called gametes. In 1959, Jerome Lejeune and Patricia Jacobs discovered that some patients had three rather than the normal two copies of chromosome number 21. This abnormality is called trisomy. When one pair of chromosomes does not divide, the resulting cells have 24 chromosomes and others have 22. A fertilized egg will develop into a child with Down syndrome, where the child inherits genes on 46 chromosomes 23 coming from the mother and 23 from the father. The extra chromosome causes physical and cognitive abnormalities, ranging from mild-to-severe learning disabilities. The symptoms are similar to those of patients with Alzheimer's disease. The genetic abnormalities in Down syndrome involve dominant genes. Hundreds of abnormal human traits are related to dominant inheritance,...

Syndromic congenital heart disease

Genetic Disorders List America

Down Syndrome (trisomy 21) Down Syndrome is the most common disorder of chromosome dosage with an incidence of 1 in 700 to 1 in 800 live births. The incidence is known to increase tremendously with increased maternal age, particularly above the age of 35. The main clinical manifestations of Down Syndrome are characteristic dysmorphic facies, mental retardation, premature ageing, congenital heart disease, hearing loss, and increased risk of hematologic malignancies.(Pueschel 1990) Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) Congenital Heart Disease occurs in 40 to 50 of Down Syndrome patients. The most common abnormality is Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD).(Marino 1993) Other malformations include VSD and TOF among others. Some CHD phenotypes are not seen in Down Syndrome patients such as Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA) and Situs Inversus.(Marino 1993) Adult patients with Down Syndrome are also predisposed to Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP) and fenestrations in the cusps of the aortic...

Chorionic villus sampling

Normally, a baby has two of every chromosome, totaling 23 pairs of chromosomes. Occasionally, a chromosomal abnormality occurs. This is the case with Down syndrome, which is characterized by three number 21 chromosomes. Abnormal numbers of chromosomes are called aneuploidies. Along with Down syndrome, other common aneuploidies that can be identified by FISH include As in amniocentesis, analysis of fetal cells in the sample can reveal whether your baby has a chromosomal abnormality, such as Down syndrome, or another genetic disorder, such as Tay-Sachs disease, if there's reason to look for them.

What about [Fill in the Blank Other Possible Causes

It has also been suggested that such complications are not causes of autism but consequences of it. This interesting hypothesis speculates that obstetric problems may occur in pregnancies in which something has already gone wrong with fetal development. Evidence for this comes from children with genetic disorders like Down syndrome, whose mothers have higher than average rates of pregnancy and delivery complications. Down syndrome is determined at the moment of conception. Therefore, there is something different about the growing baby long before the obstetrical complications take place. Some scientists have wondered if a similar scenario could account for the slightly elevated rate of prenatal and birth difficulties seen in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. They reasoned that genetic factors, as dis

Alzheimers Disease AD

William Klunk and Chester Mathis vadiolabelled a fluorescent dye, related to Congo Red, labeled with fluorine-18, that is bound by b-amyloid protein in plaques found in the brain of patients with AD. After years of research, they developed a dye with 34 times the affinity for amyloid than Congo Red. Some think that b-amyloid is the cause of AD, whereas others think it is the result. Patients with Down syndrome carry an extra copy of the amyloid gene, and they develop brain plaques and symptoms of AD when they reach middle age.

Developmental Defects of the Root

This root pulp anomaly occurs in the normal population with a prevalence that varies substantially from one race to anther ranging from 1.5 to 48 of the population MacDonald-Jankowski and Li, 1993 Toure et al., 2000 . Taurodontism is known to occur with many syndromes and chromosomal anomalies such as in individuals with Down syndrome, sex chromosome aneuploidy and hypodontia Jaspers and Witkop, 1980 Seow and Lai, 1989 Alpoz and Eronat, 1997 . Given the purported abnormal epithelial root sheath function in the etiology of taurodontism it is not surprising that many conditions affecting epithelial-derived tissues also are associated with taurodontism.

Amniocentesis

Amniocentesis is a prenatal diagnostic test in which amniotic fluid is extracted via a long thin needle inserted through the maternal abdomen into the uterus and the amniotic sac. The procedure is usually performed between the fifteenth and eighteenth week of gestation and results can be obtained nine to fourteen days later. Some major medical centers now use a procedure called Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) to obtain results within twenty-four hours. It is recommended for women over age thirty-five and those having risk factors for genetic abnormalities. Amniocentesis is a reliable (95 accuracy rate) indicator of chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, or genetic disorders such as Tay Sachs disease, Hunter's syndrome, or neural tube abnormalities such as spina bifida and others. While usually

Dementia

Dementia is normally a condition associated with older people, in which there is a gradual deterioration in areas such as memory, language and intellect. There will also be changes in mood, behaviour and personality. Alzheimer's disease is known to be the cause for approximately half of all dementias. People with Down syndrome are at a particular risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and it is not exclusive to old age cases of Alzheimer's disease being diagnosed in people as young as 30 are commonplace in people who suffer from Down syndrome. Prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease in adults with Down syndrome range from 22 to 45 per cent (Priest & Gibbs 2004). McCarthy (1997) explains this may be the result of a genetic link between the two conditions, both being linked to chromosome 21, of which Down syndrome sufferers have more than two and thus are more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease. It is also true that people with Down syndrome are living longer today this may be a...

Other Factors

Down syndrome down syndrome is a chromosome disorder that results in mental retardation and physical deformities that also can lead to a hearing loss. Children born with this syndrome often have irregularities in the middle and inner ears and are susceptible to middle-ear infections that can lead to conductive hearing loss.

High Risk Infants

Not all children with developmental disability have known risk factors at birth and many times the cause of delay is not known. An infant with an established risk typically has a diagnosed medical condition known to be associated with a high probability of developmental disability. Examples of conditions with established risk are chromosomal abnormalities (such as Trisomy 21), sensory impairments (such as visual or hearing impairment), and neurological defects.

Ultrasound

Using ultrasound, this first-trimester test measures the size of a specific region under the skin behind your baby's neck. An increase in the size may be an indication of Down syndrome, a birth defect of the heart (congenital heart disease) or other abnormalities. Health care providers aren't exactly sure why this is. They suspect that it may be because of a buildup of lymph fluid due to underdevelopment of the lymphatic ducts. A rigorous approach to standardizing this measurement is needed for the test to be as accurate as was reported in early studies.

Obesity

Crane Flow Fluids Handbook

Although the heritability of obesity has been estimated to be on the order of 60-80 on the basis of twin studies and family histories, the genetics of obesity are complex and just beginning to be understood. Adult weight is much more reflective of biological parents rather than adoptive parents in twin studies. Known genetic syndromes producing obesity in humans are rare (on the order of 1-2 of obese patients) but should be considered, such as trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome), Prader-Willi,

Genetic factors

Persons with extra chromosomes (genetic material contained in cells) or certain chromosomal abnormalities have a greater chance of developing leukemia. Children with Down syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Shwachman syndrome, Bloom syndrome, Franconi anemia, Kostmann syndrome, and ataxia telangiectasia have a higher risk of getting leukemia than do children without these genetic disorders. However, most children with these syndromes do not develop leukemia.

Maternal Diagnosis

Pregnant women have access to both screening and diagnostic tests to find out if an unborn child has Down syndrome. screening tests estimate the risk of the fetus having Down syndrome, whereas diagnostic tests tell whether or not the fetus actually has the condition. screening tests are typically offered between 8 and 20 weeks of gestation, but they can accurately detect about 60 percent of cases. Many women who undergo these tests will be given false-positive readings, and some women will be given false-negative readings. prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome is by chorionic villus sampling (CVs), amniocentesis, and percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS). Each of these procedures carries a small risk of miscarriage as tissue is extracted from the placenta or the umbilical cord to examine the fetus's chromosomes, but the procedures are about 98 to 99 percent accurate in the detection of Down syndrome. Amniocentesis is usually performed between 12 and 20 weeks of gestation, CVS...

Drowning 153

Most people with Down syndrome have some level of mental retardation ranging from mild to moderate range, but most children with Down syndrome learn to sit, walk, talk, play, toilet train, and do most other activities. Because speech is often delayed, careful attention should be paid to the child's hearing, as retention of fluid in the inner ear is a very common cause of hearing and speech difficulties.