References and Further Reading

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American Society for Bariatric Surgery (2006) "Story of Surgery for Obesity." Available online at <http:// www.asbs.org/patients/story.html> (accessed January 30, 2006).

Pories, Walter and Beshay, Joseph E. (2002) "Surgery for Obesity: Procedures and Weight Loss," in Christopher G. Fairburn and Kelly D. Brownell (eds), Eating Disorders and Obesity: A Comprehensive Handbook, 2nd edn, New York: Guilford Press, pp. 562-7.

Pories, Walter and Beshay, Joseph E., Togerson, Jarl, and Sjostrom, Lars (2002), "Surgery for Obesity: Psychosocial and Medical Outcomes," in Christopher G. Fairburn and Kelly D. Brownell (eds), Eating Disorders and Obesity: A Comprehensive Handbook, 2nd edn, New York: Guilford Press, pp. 658-72.

Zingmond, David S., McGory, Marcia L., Ko, and Clifford Y. (2005) "Hospitalization Before and After Gastric Bypass Surgery," Journal of the American Medical Association (special issue), 294: 1918-24.

Barr, Roseanne (1952-) Comedian and star of the hit television series Roseanne (1988-97)

R oseanne's years in the limelight have been rife with controversy over her life and work. She is a woman of size who has been hated for her weight, celebrated for her success "in spite of it," claimed as a role model for fat women, and criticized for her eventual decision to have bariatric surgery. She is a tough, gritty actress who appears not to care what the critics think. She is known for being unpredictable, performing such acts as "grabbing her crotch and spitting" after an off-key rendition of the "Star Spangled Banner" at a i990 San Diego Padres game. Behaviors such as these combined with her weight, fueled media mockery of her femininity.

The show, and much of Roseanne's comedy, is about working-class culture. In part because of her weight, "Roseanne's body . . . can perhaps be read as an expression of gender-specific class culture" (Bettie 1995: 138). In the show, Roseanne plays a hard-working, no-nonsense mother, who bounces from job to job in an effort to make enough money to pay the bills. She is quite the opposite of the "domestic goddess" image common to many other sit-com mothers. Her husband, played by John Goodman, is also an overweight/obese man who passes in and out of various blue-collar jobs. All three of the children are thin, reinforcing the contemporary image in the i990s of working-class families.

Despite being considered by some as a fat-positive icon, Roseanne has been fairly public about her struggles with dieting and her weight obsession. In her autobiographies, her issues with weight are linked to childhood sexual assault. More recently, she has been very open about her gastric bypass surgery and weight-loss success, serving as a sort of unofficial spokesperson for weight-loss surgeries.

SLG/Angie Wiley

See also Bariatric Surgery; Fat-Positive; Sex; Socioeconomic Status

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