Children

Children seem to be in a precarious position in the contemporary global dieting culture. Threatened with rising rates of obesity and related diseases (Wilfley and Saelens 2002), young people, from toddlers to teens, must wrestle with body image in a culture that worships slender-ness. Much is being done in schools and homes to reduce obesity numbers in children (Goldfield and Epstein 1995 573-7) however, the preoccupation with preventing overweight may distract parents and doctors from the...

Cheyne George

E nglish physician and diet therapist, personal physician and friend to Samuel Richardson, and the author of An Essay on Health and Long Life (1724). George Cheyne's autobiography is appended not to his book on longevity but also notably to his 1733 handbook, The English Malady, or, a Treatise of nervous diseases of all kinds, as Spleen, Vapours, Lowness of Spirits, Hypo-chondrical, and Hysterical Distempers (1733). Life experience becomes the basis for his claim to the authenticity of his...

Obsessive Compulsive Disorders

Is avoidance of fat people and things they ha ve touched a form of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) (Greist and Jefferson 1995 106) It sounds like it may be an eating disorder, such as anorexia nervosa. It is difficult to tell which diagnosis would be appropriate in this situation, as there seems to be relatively little information concerning the dietary and nutritional dangers associated with obsessive compulsive disorder, especially when compared to anorexia. Might there be a link between...

Hornby Lesley Twiggy 1949 Model actress and singer

B orn in London, England, her classmates called her Sticks because of her very slim, boyish figure, and at the age of fifteen, Hornby dropped out of school to pursue a career in modeling. She was nicknamed Twiggy by her boyfriend manager, Justin De Villeneuve. In 1966, Twiggy began her modeling career in London with success following almost instantly. England and, in fact, the world, seemed to have been searching for a change, something different, in what defined beauty and femininity. Twiggy...

Hopkins Sir Frederick Gowland 18611947 Considered the founder of British biochemistry

B orn in Sussex, England, as a child, Hopkins showed an exclusive interest in science, in particular chemistry, which continued for the rest of his life. Hopkins became the first Professor of Biochemistry at Cambridge in 1914. He pioneered the study and application of what he termed accessory food factors, which are now referred to as vitamins. In addition to his work on vitamins, Hopkins also pioneered the study of cell metabolism. One of his earliest contributions to biochemistry was the...

Columbia University

Leibel was known in his younger years, practicing at Harvard and Cambridge City Hospital, as an outstanding pediatric endocrinologist who specialized in hormone disorders. When one of his young patients' frustrated parents made him realize how little he really knew about obesity, he took up a position in Jules Hirsch's laboratory at Rockefeller University in 1978. Leibel was particularly interested in finding out how the body controlled its weight altering the set point. Sometimes thought of as...

References and Further Reading

Anon. (2005) Phytochemicals, Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia (September 2), available online at imagepages i9303.htm> (accessed March 15, 2007). Bennick, Maurice R. (2001) Dietary Soy Reduces Colon Carcinogenesis in Humans and Rats, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Nutrition and Cancer Prevention New Insights into the Role of Phytochemicals 492 11-17. Birt, Diane F. (2001) Soybeans and Cancer Prevention A Complex Food and a Complex Disease, Advances in Experimental Medicine and...

Greek Medicine and Dieting

In ancient Greek medicine, as the Hippocratic author of On Ancient Medicine famously claimed, it is physicians and not philosophers who understand best the nature of man. In ancient Greece, fat as a pathological category appears in texts ascribed to Hippocrates (440-340 bce). Hippocrates, or at least as attributed to him in the approximately sixty texts of the Hippocratic corpus, based his notion of health and illness on the balance of the humors, the chymoi. According to this view, these four...

Murray George R MD 18651939 Physician and endocrinologist who discovered the effect of thyroid extract

E ducated at Cambridge (MD, 1896), Murray studied in Paris and Berlin and returned to the United Kingdom in 1890 to take an appointment as a pathologist at the University of Durham. He was engaged as part of a larger committee to investigate the cause of myxedema, a widespread disease with prominent signs and symptoms Bulging eyes, increased body weight, mental confusion, and, often, goiter. This disease, found also in sheep, was variously labeled Grave's or Basedow's Disease. In 1873, Sir...

China in the early twentieth century

I n early twentieth-century China, there was a popular fascination with diet, perhaps as a result of the images of famine that marked Western and Chinese views of the pathological body in the nineteenth century (Edgerton 2002 Mallory 1926). Indeed, when you systematically read the standard Western medical journal published in China, the China Medical Journal, from the beginning of the twentieth century to the Japanese invasion of China, the central medical discourse concerning diet and the body...

Noorden Carl Von 18581944 German Internist

Trained in Leipzig (MD, 1881), in 1894, Noorden became Director for Internal Medicine at the City Hospital in Frankfurt, where he created a private clinic for diabetes and dietetic cures. In 1906, he became the Head of the Clinic for Internal Medicine in Imperial Vienna and was as much a celebrity doctor there as his contemporary Sigmund Freud. In 1913, he returned to Frankfurt and then, in 1929, returned again to Vienna (now the capital of a republic), recalled by the new Socialist Minister of...

Wigmore Ann 190994

O ne of the founders of the post-World War II raw-foods movement who advocated the health benefits of wheat-grass and other living foods, such as sprouts. She was an apostle of the nineteenth-century Christian vegetarian movements in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. At a time of deep despair, while reading her Bible she heard Jesus's call to become a minister and build my temples (Wigmore 1975 33). Her temples were not buildings but the course of treatments that relied on the natural...

Manheim Camryn 1961 Jewish American actress

No one, she writes, understood what it was like to grow up as a fat, Jewish girl in America (Manheim 1999 161). Ethnicity and body size still play a major role in her self-representation. She is considered overweight by the American public because she is 5 foot 10 inches tall and weighs over 200 pounds however, she is also a highly visible celebrity and icon of the fat-positive movement. In 1998, she won an Emmy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her performance...

Celebrity diets

Because celebrities so often set the standards of beauty around the world, their respective diets are viewed as vehicles to attain such standards. Often individuals who admire a particular celebrity's body will follow the diet they are reported to follow in the hope of achieving a similar figure. Due to the power of their marketing influence, celebrities have served as spokespeople for diets, raising both their own earnings, as well as the earnings of the particular diets. As pop culture's...

Sports

The nature of athletic competition requires participants to be highly in tune with their bodies. An athlete's success is largely determined by the fitness of his or her body. As long as athletic competition has been around, serious athletes have shared a concern with achieving and maintaining a body type that will allow them to be as successful as possible in their chosen activity. Although the ideal body type is very different for a gymnast or a sumo wrestler, both kinds of athletes put...

Fat Camps

O ver the past twenty years, American parents, educators, and health professionals have become increasingly concerned with the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults in the U.S.A. and around the world. Results from the 2003-4 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicate that an estimated 17 percent of children and adolescents aged two to nineteen are overweight (Johnston and Steele 2006 1 National Center for Health Statistics 2003-4). The numbers...

Sugar Busters

Sugar Busters is a popular high-protein diet developed by a group of New Orleans based physicians (and a layperson) in the late twentieth century. The authors of the popular diet book, Sugar Busters include Samuel S. Andrews, MD (endocrinologist), Morrison C. Bethea, MD (thoracic surgeon), Luis A. Balart, MD (gastroenterologist), and H. Leighton Steward (the ghost writer and a New Orleans entrepreneur). Their premise, Sugar is toxic claims refined sugars are toxic for the body, causing it to...

Pritikin Nathan 191585 Creator of the Pritikin Diet

P ritikin initially developed the Pritikin Diet as a way to combat his own heart disease. A self-taught inventor, Pritikin held over two dozen patents in fields from engineering to photography and aeronautics. He had observed that the results of the famines of war reduced the onset of heart disease and diabetes in Europe during World War II. Lester Morrison, a Los Angeles cardiologist, had given half of a group of cardiac patients a diet mimicking the low-fat wartime food rations. By 1955, the...

Low Fat and Fat Free Foods

F or years, people have debated the efficacy of diets that promise to help one lose weight and keep it off. The subjects of these debates include low-carbohydrate, no-carbohydrate, low-fat, fat-free, and high-fiber diets, among others. As dieting has become an integral part of American culture, specific foods and diets have been created and marketed to appeal to the desires of the public. In recent years, supermarkets have continuously been filled with new food products created and labeled as...

Vegetarianism

V egetarianism in itself may or may not be considered dieting. Political, ideological, and religious restrictions or prescriptions for food intake fall largely outside of the purview of a dieting culture. Francis Bacon undertook a self-cure by consuming fruit and vegetables. But it was Thomas Tyron (1634-1703), in his The Way to Wealth, Long Life and Happiness, who first and most dramatically linked Bacon's diet to the original ways of Eve and Adam in Gen. 1 29. Man could return to paradise,...

Literature and Fat Bodies

T he image of the female body and questions of ideal beauty and its relationship to size have been central to many works of modern fiction. For example, in British author Fay Weldon's The Life and Loves of a She Devil (1983) (made into a movie starring Meryl Streep and Roseanne Barr in 1989), the protagonist, Ruth, described on the book's flap copy as a lumbering, clumsy woman, over six feet tall, with a jutting jaw topped by spouting moles, revenges herself on her petite (and beautiful) rival...

Homeostasis

B iological systems like the human body are designed to operate in harmony with the environment in which they live. The body is also designed to operate under very specific conditions for example, body temperature is maintained at approximately 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit, and the heart rate is generally maintained around 70 beats per minute (Widmaier 2006 408). These conditions or set points allow optimal function within the body. When something in the environment changes, the body has to make...

Emaciated Body Images in the Media

The pop culture industry's idealization of stick-thin body types has received a large amount of attention in recent years, especially due to increasing evidence that American women are less satisfied with their bodies than ever before. Eating disorders are commonly discussed in the U.S.A., and body image is distorted to the point that 45 percent of healthy-weight women believe that they are overweight (and many of those report being on a diet). The literature attributes a large portion of this...

Lambert Daniel 17701809 The exemplary fat man of the nineteenth century

B y profession a jailer, Lambert came to represent the freakish nature of fat. The novelist George Meredith described London as the Daniel Lambert of cities, and the sociologist Herbert Spencer used the phrase a Daniel Lambert of learning. A wax model of Lambert found its way to America and was shown in the Mix Museum in New Haven in 1813 and later in P.T. Barnum's famous American Museum. Lambert had been displayed as a wonder of nature along with giants and dwarfs much against his own desires...

Bariatric Surgery

Bariatric surgery is the practice of bypassing parts of the digestive tract to allow a morbidly obese patient (BMI > 40) to lose weight either through consuming less food or through malabsorption. Malabsorption refers to food passing directly through the digestive tract without the nutrients being absorbed by the body. This practice is only recommended for patients for whom other weight-loss options, including medical diets, have failed, and if the patient has a serious condition assumed to...

Very LowCalorie Diets

V ery-low-calorie (VLC) diets are administered by physicians who use them to treat a variety of conditions, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hormonal disorders. These diets have undergone many changes since they were first developed and are the topic of ongoing debates amongst obesity researchers. Questions about safety and efficacy permeate these debates, but at a time when doctors and patients are looking for radical remedies to the growing problem of obesity, VLC...

Introduction

Some Weighty Thoughts on Dieting and Epidemics I n July 2004, the then-American Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy G. Thompson announced that Medicare was abandoning a long-held policy that said obesity was not a disease, opening the way for the Government to pay for a whole range of possible treatments. Soon after Thompson's decision, a cartoon by Dick Locher of Tribune Media Services appeared. A portly little boy having read the newspaper with the headline Obesity Now Considered a...

Johnson Samuel 170984 English wit and raconteur

Compiler of what is seen as the first English dictionary, Johnson suffered from chronic illness from his childhood in Lichfield. When he was two and a half, he contracted scrofula and was taken by his mother in March 1712 to be touched by Queen Anne for what was then called the King's Evil (Keynes 1995). This cure had as little impact on his future life as did his later recourse to dieting. As Johnson aged, he became corpulent. At this time, some of the older traditions of weight loss, such as...

Morton Richard 163798

M orton was raised in Suffolk, England and eventually attended medical school at Oxford before earning his fellowship in London in 1678. Morton was credited with writing the first medical description of nervous consumption in 1689, which is known today as anorexia nervosa (Pearce 2004 191). It is with Morton that the clinical history of anorexia nervosa begins prior to that, the distinction between fasting and pathologies of eating was not clearly differentiated (Gutierrez 2003). In his written...

Eating disorders

Due to the demand for tremendous beauty among celebrities, severe extremes are often sought in order to attain specific beauty standards. Among various celebrities, the pressures to maintain a low weight in Hollywood have led to the occurrence of eating disorders. The scrutiny of weight in Hollywood among celebrities has no doubt transferred onto pop-culture followers. At the same time, celebrities who have publicly spoken about their personal battles with eating disorders have often helped...

Bodybuilding

Bodybuilding includes weight training and increasing caloric intake in order to build muscle mass. Many people compete in bodybuilding competitions, and they are judged on the physical appearance of their muscles. It began as a sport only for men in the i890s. The first popular bodybuilder was Eugene Sandow (i867-i925), who organized the first bodybuilding contest on September i4, i90i in London. Sandow and an entire following generation saw bodybuilding as both aesthetic enhancement and body...

Linn Robert 1933 Creator of a 1970s fad diet that entailed fasting and consuming a drink called Prolinn

R obert Linn is a doctor of osteopathy, and his diet was known as The Last Chance Diet. Prolinn was a drink, consisting of animal hooves, hides, tendons, horns, bones, and other animal products, which people on the diet drank numerous times a day. In a day, this drink provided 400 calories. The Prolinn diet created a lot of controversy, and there were warnings issued about the drink and its lack of nutrients. At the time, many people thought that it could harm the kidneys due to the protein...

Scales and Public Weighing

W eighing the body is definitely a marker of the twentieth century however, there is some evidence that people started to weigh themselves using various instruments in previous centuries. The first public weighing machines were developed in France in the seventeenth century and first appeared in 1760 in London. The medical theory regarding physical weight had been developed by the Venetian Sanctorius Sanctorius in late sixteenth-century Padua. Sanctorius monitored his body weight for thirty...

Disability

O besity is now considered a disability, though for a long period of time it was not. In 1973, Carolyn Soughers brought the first (but unsuccessful) size-discrimination lawsuit. She had been denied employment with a county civil-service agency on account of her size. It was only in 1993 that the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ruled that severely obese people could claim protection under federal statutes barring discrimination against the disabled. A friend of the court brief...

Developing World

I n the developing world, undernourishment in the form of famine has historically been a bigger public health concern than overnourishment. There are serious health consequences when a person does not have enough food to eat or does not have sufficient variety in the diet. Mal-nourishment can lead to lack of energy, early death, and social disorder. Specific conditions of undernourishment can also exist when there is not enough of a specific type of nutrient such as protein or a particular...

Hay William Howard MD 18661940 Creator of the Hay Diet in 1911 the original inspiration for food combining

Hay's approach was based on the idea that eating certain foods together will yield improved digestion and that certain foods are simply incompatible with one another. He categorized foods as protein, neutral, or starch and urged people to eat proteins and starches separately, although neutral foods could be eaten with either group. Hay believed that, according to the immutable laws of chemistry, mixing the food groups led to incomplete digestion, which would then lead to the accumulation of...

Roman Medicine and Dieting

E arly Roman medicine, following the lead of classical Greek medicine, saw obesity as a sign of illness. This was best articulated in the works of the Alexandrian physician Celsus (fl. 30 ce). He argued, however, that the body tended toward fat naturally. Nevertheless, too much weight was a sign of disease. The obese, many of them, are throttled by acute diseases and difficult breathing they die often suddenly, which rarely happens in the thinner person (Celsus 1935 I 97). In treating extra...

Israeli Isaac ben Salomon Known as Isaac Judaeus and Abu Yakub ibn Sulaiman Alisrili before 832932 ce

A Jewish physician, born in Egypt, Israeli had his major impact in Tunis where he died. As a student of 'Ishak ibn 'Amran al-Baghdadi, he incorporated the traditions of Greek medicine as understood by contemporary Jewish and Muslim physicians. He was court physician to the last Aghiabite prince, Ziyadat Allah, and in 909 ce became the official physician to the Fatimid caliph Ubaid Allah al-Mahdi and, as such, had enormous influence in the medical world of his day. He was the author of, among...

Cabbage Soup Diet

Cabbage Soup Diet is claimed to be based on a fat-burning soup, low in fat and high in fiber, containing negligible calories (less than 500 if followed exactly). It is part of a longstanding belief that natural foods are by definition not only healthful but also health-giving. The diet appeals to most because it is said that the more soup you eat, the more weight is lost. There are no limitations on how much soup one can eat. The diet lasts seven days and is intended for rapid weight loss,...

China Today

T he fear of obesity has reappeared in China during the past decade in an age that remembers another moment of famine against which it defines itself. Mao Zedong's famine from 1958 to 1961, which resulted from the collectivization of the peasants killed millions in China and evoked the horrors of the famines of the 1940s during the war against the Japanese, the civil war, and the policies of the nationalist government (Becker 1996). For adults in today's China, famine evokes their own...

Fashion

I f you attach no importance to weight problems, if not being able to wear new, trendy small-sized clothes does not cause you any regret, this book is not for you, states fashion designer Karl Lagerfeld (1933-). He gained fame or notoriety when he lost 80 pounds in one year. I suddenly wanted to dress differently, to wear clothes designed by Hedi Slimane, he said. But these fashions, modeled by very, very slim boys and not men my age required me to lose at least eighty pounds. It took me...

Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand 18691948

B orn on October 2, 1869 in Porbandar, India to a family of the Vaisya, or merchant, caste, Gandhi's childhood ambition was to study medicine, but because this was considered defiling to his caste, his father persuaded him to study law instead (Anon. 1998). Gandhi's religious background influenced his eating habits throughout his life. Ironically, he did not at first trust the connection between his religion and his family's diet, but, according to his autobiographical account, it was through...

Sweeteners

A fter you order your favorite coffee drink, you walk to the counter to grab a stirrer and some napkins. Before your eyes can distinguish the words, you see numerous blue, pink, and yellow packets of sugar sweetener and table sugar in its own jar. The questions then arise Which artificial sweetener should I use Do they actually cause cancer Are three packets too much Since the early 1970s, sugar substitutes have been the subject of a vigorous public controversy regarding their safety. However,...

Lindlahr Henry 18621924

L indlahr first achieved success in politics and was appointed Mayor of Kalispell, Montana in 1893. At the height of his political success, he began to suffer from diabetes, which he believed was due to his excessive weight. Because insulin was yet to be discovered, his condition was thought to be incurable. Leaving the U.S.A. to search for a cure, Lindlahr sought out Father Sebastian Kneipp's hydrotherapy center at Woerishoffen, Bavaria. There he underwent water therapy and began a new...

Gull Sir William Withy 181690 Known for naming the disease anorexia nervosa in 1874

M any credit Gull with the discovery of the disorder, which he described as emaciation as a result of severe emotional disturbance and a perversion of the ego. His article entitled Anorexia Nervosa (Apepsia Hys-terica, Anorexia Hysterica) was published in the Trans actions of the Clinical Society of London in i874 and was based on a speech he gave at Oxford in i868 (Gull 1896 205-14). The formulation anorexia nervosa, however, first appears in his i874 essay. It is clear that there was a...

Tarnower Herman MD 191080 Developer of the Scarsdale Diet 1979 which stresses high protein and low calories

T arnower states that he developed the diet at the Scars-dale Medical Center in suburban, affluent New York when he urged his cardiac patients to take off that unhealthy flab (Tarnower and Baker 1980 2). His diet suggestions came out of his general and cardiac practice, but clearly followed the growing health and diet consciousness of the middle-class, suburban baby boomer generation, who by the i970s were entering into middle age. Successful diet books could sell millions of copies, and diet...

Stress

C hanges in appetite and eating habits are commonly accepted as a major response to chronic stress. However, stress does not affect all people in the same way. Some people lose their appetites when they are under stress others become ravenously hungry. The reason for this seeming incongruity lies in the human body's physiological reaction to a stressful environment (Takeda et al. 2004). Modern evolutionary psychologists argue that for most of human history, an individual's survival depended on...

Also known as William the Conqueror 10278 io87

D uke of Normandy (1035-87) and the King of England (1066-87), William was raised in France and was also known as William of Normandy and William the Bastard. He was 5 foot 7 inches tall, an unusual height for a man of the times, with excessively long legs and arms (Bates 1989 90). His contemporary William of Malmsbury observed that his arms and shoulders were so strong that he could draw a bow that others could not bend and that while riding (Bates 1989 91). In his old age, however, he became...

Imes Jackson MoNique 1967 Comedienne and television and movie actress

M o'Nique has established herself as a celebrated role model and advocate for voluptuous women. Mo'Nique has been awarded four NAACP Image awards for her performance as Nikki Parker on the television series The Parkers. From August 2000 until 2002 she had her own line of clothing, Mo'Nique's Big Beautiful and Loving It. Her New York Times-bestselling book Skinny Women are Evil also garnered much attention in 2003. The installment of the first-ever full-figured beauty pageant reality television...

Lessius Leonard 15541623 Flemish Jesuit and theologian

I n 1613, Lessius wrote his account of his struggles with dieting, the Hygiasticon. This text simply repeated much of the diet reformer Cornaro's life as his own nevertheless, it was widely translated from the Latin and often cited by those arguing for a sober lifestyle, which would assure longevity. It is still in print today. Rescued from a world of dissipation and fat after his physicians had given him up as lost, he found the simple pleasures of sobriety and self-limitations, which enabled...

Hauser Bengamin Gayelord 18951984 Popular advocate of diet and nutrition

Born Helmut Eugene Benjamin Gellert Hauser in Germany, he was also known as Eugene Helmuth Hauser and legally changed his name in 1923. Described as a youngish man with a flashy smile and a broken accent (Anon. Garbo's Gayelord, 1942) and a handsome man who wears his hair in a permanent wave (Fishbein 1938 113), Dr. Hauser studied naturopathy and chiropractic medicine but dropped his claim to have an MD following an investigation by the American Medical Association. Hauser said that at the age...

Brillat Savarin Jean Anthelme 17551826

B rillat-Savarin's 1825 account of food and its pleasures, The Physiology of Taste or, Meditations on Transcendental Gastronomy, was also a study of fat and its dan gers and stressed the physiognomy of obesity. The appearance of obesity was a clue to its dangers. A lawyer by trade, Brillat-Savarin had been elected a deputy to the National Assembly in 1789, where he argued for the death penalty. During the Reign of Terror, he was forced to flee France, eventually settling in the U.S.A. He...

Weight Gain

I n our twenty-first-century dieting culture, we assume that everyone on a diet is trying to lose weight, but there are some hard gainers whose greatest struggle is to keep weight on. Historically, such need for weight gain has been an intrinsic part of dieting culture. Athletes may be particularly interested in putting on weight to improve their strength and performance. Sports-medicine training books generally provide at least a few pages of technical information about gaining weight, which...

Craig Jenny 1932 and Craig Sid 1932

F ounders of Jenny Craig, Inc., one of the world's largest weight-management companies. Jenny Craig's official account of her life stated that she wanted to share her philosophy of balancing nutrition, physical activity, and lifestyle, which helped her embark on a career that brought her international acclaim as a weight-loss expert and author, as well as gave her the ability to help millions of people live healthier lives. Jenny Craig had an experience that many of her followers seemed to...

Electrotherapy

I n the 1790s, based on the work of Luigi Galvani (173798), scientists began to study animal magnetism. Gal-vani identified the movement of the muscles in a frog when it came in contact with two metals (brass and iron) (Pera 1992). The galvanic (direct) currents produced were seen as a natural phenomenon inherent to the very composition of the body. With the discovery by Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) in 1816 of the voltaic pile (battery), induced currents could be mastered in ways that static...

Van Helmont Johannes Baptista 15771644 Early seventeenthcentury Flemish chemist

V an Helmont introduced radical empiricism into medicine in his posthumously published compendium, Ortus medicinae (1648) (van Helmont 1683). He argued, following the teachings of Paracelsus (1493 4-1541), against the notion that the imbalance of the humors caused illness. For him there had to be material reasons. Van Helmont imagined that there might be wild spirits, which could neither be seen nor kept in vessels. He called them chaos (pronounced in Dutch, gas). Everything, when burnt, gave...

Aboulia

T oday there seems still to be an assumption that fat equals lazy, weak-willed and unattractive (Large 2006 1). According to this view obesity is the fault of weak-willed, gluttonous individuals (Metcalf 2006 53). Yet are the 3.2 million New Yorkers who are overweight or obese all lazy, weak-willed people (Louis 2006 21). For many it is clearly the obese who are at fault for their state Fat people are thought to be gluttonous, lustful, greedy, lazy, weak-willed, and lacking any kind of...

Post Charles William 18541914 Health food provider and cereal tycoon

P ost was the commercial genius who built the Postum Cereal Company as one of the major players in the American food reform movement of the late nineteenth century and, incidentally, made a 17-million-dollar fortune. In 1890, Post, a self-taught inventor and salesman, arrived at the Battle Creek sanitarium in Michigan because of his own failing health. The sanitarium was run for the Seventh-day Adventist Church by Dr. John Harvey Kellogg. The town had been a major center for religion-based...

Elisabeth von Wittelsbach Empress of Austria 183798

E lisabeth Amelia Eugenia, Empress-Consort of Franz Joseph I, otherwise known as Sisi, was one of the beauty celebrities of the nineteenth century. After her marriage to Franz Josef I, Emperor of the Austro-Hungarian Empire on April 24, 1854, she became the reigning star of her age (Sinclair 1998 189). Like Diana, Princess of Wales, to whom she has been frequently compared, she became the symbol of celebrity beauty as the ultimate sign of tragedy (Daimler 1998 241-52 Sinclair 1998 200-4). Like...

Ornish Dean MD

O rnish was part of the revolution in chronic disease prevention in the i990s when he wrote Reversing Heart Disease with Knife and Fork. In his book, he prescribed a diet very low in saturated fat and cholesterol. In order to achieve the recommended maximum of i0 percent of calories coming from fat, people following the diet must eliminate fatty meat products, high fat dairy, and egg yolks. He claimed this dietary approach would help prevent heart disease. He later published Eat More, Weigh...

Davis Adelle 190474

O ne of the early twentieth-century diet authorities who had a professional background in nutrition. Trained in dietetics and nutrition at the University of California at Berkeley, she received her M.S. degree in biochemistry from the University of Southern California in 1938. Her work piggybacked on that of Gayelord Hauser in that she was an early advocate of nutritional supplements as well as natural foods in specific combinations. In i935, Stationers' Hall of London, England published her...

Old Age and Obesity

I n Classical Greek medicine, the elderly have, by definition, a cold and dry temperament they were seen as melancholic and are thus in need of therapy. Youth has a sanguine complexion, as Shakespeare's Falstaff fantasizes himself as a healthy, middle-aged man A goodly portly man, i' faith, and a corpulent, of a cheerful look, a pleasing eye, and a most noble carriage (Henry IV, Part I, Act II, Scene 4, lines 422-4). What is happy corpulence in youth is inherently different from melancholic...

Mazel Judy Creator of the Beverly Hills Diet 1981

T he Beverly Hills Diet is a fad diet that focuses on a lifestyle of conscious combining, a technique, which involves eating specific mixtures of food in a specific order for optimum digestion. Mazel asserts, It isn't what you eat or how much you eat that makes you fat it is when you eat and what you eat together (Mazel and Shultz 1981 vi). The diet relies heavily on fruit (especially pineapple) and recommends never eating protein with carbohydrates, eating carbohydrates with fats and other...

Hormones Used in Dieting

I n 2004, Forbes magazine reported that the thirty-two teams in the National Football League had an operating income of 851 million dollars on revenue of 5.3 billion dollars. As a result, players on professional sports teams are making millions. In 2003, the average salary for a Major League Baseball player was 2,555,476 dollars, amazingly high but not even the highest in professional sports. Players in the National Basketball Association in 2003 brought in an average of 4.5 million dollars a...