Natural Dietary Supplements

Inner Peace Formula

The formula product of nutrition blends-inner-peace is well known, it is a remedy for plants used for a wide range of problems. In oncology, it is especially recommended as a topical treatment to prevent or treat skin irritations after radiotherapy. The product is a succulent plant with many amazing uses, it is then applied topically to the skin and hair or ingested. The product can also be combined with other natural ingredients to be part of your health or beauty routine. The product is scientifically proven the ingredients used in the Inner Peace formula have been specifically chosen because of scientific studies proving that they have the power to significantly improve the health and well-being of the individual. For decades, the soothing nature of nutrition blends-inner-peace formula has been known and respected by the people who believe in naturopathy. The product has compounds such as ashwagandha, magnolia, hops,l-Theanine, Passion Flower, Panax Ginseng, Hawthorn Berry that are extremely beneficial for human health. It has 18 amino acids that work in association with other compounds of the human body to deliver numerous health benefits. It has been reported extensively that Panax Ginseng supports the immune system by enhancing the body's resistance to illness and microbial attacks. Continue reading...

Inner Peace Formula Summary


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The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994

Dietary supplement usage in the United States has increased significantly since the passage in 1994 of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA, pronounced Dee-shay). This legislation defined dietary supplements as distinct from food and drugs, and it allowed them to be sold without a prescription. The passage of DSHEA provided consumers with the right to purchase dietary supplements that they felt would help them attain their personal health goals. At the same time, DSHEA transferred to consumers the responsibility for making informed choices about the supplements that they used. In contrast to prescription and over-the-counter drugs, where effectiveness and safety must be demonstrated prior to marketing of the drugs, premarket approval is not required of manufacturers of dietary supplements. As a result, there is a greater potential risk that dietary supplements may be ineffective, or even harmful, as compared with drugs. The dietary supplements industry is not...

Manufacturers Of Herbal Medicines And Natural Supplements In Australia And New Zealand

PDRfor Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ Medical Economics Co., 2001. Hoffmann D. The New Holistic Herbal. Dorset, UK Element Books, 1990. Kumar P, Clark M. Clinical Medicine, 5th edn. London WB Saunders, 2002. Lininger SW (ed). A-Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin interactions. California Prima Health, 1999. Mills S, Bone K. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. London Churchill Livingstone, 2000. Mills S, Bone K. The Essential Guide to Herbal Safety. Sydney Elsevier, 2005. Mills S. The Essential Book of Herbal Medicine. London Penguin Books, 1991. Mosby's Medical, Nursing and Allied Health Dictionary. 6th edn. Mosby, USA, 2002. Murray M. The Healing Power of Herbs. Rocklin, CA Prima Health, 1995 Price S, Price L. Aromatherapy for Health Professionals, 2nd edn. London Churchill Livingstone, 2002. Rang HP et al. Pharmacology, 4th edn. Edinburgh Churchill Livingstone, 2001. Shils M (ed). Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th edn. Baltimore Williams...

The Dietary Supplement Health And Education Act Dshea Of 1994

The current U.S. approach to the regulation of herbal products is rather complex and generally considered to be unsatisfactory. Until 1994, the FDA classified most herbal remedies as either food additives or drugs, and manufacturers had to meet strict FDA standards before placing their products on the U.S. market. This changed in 1994 when Congress enacted the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which placed herbs together with vitamins and minerals in a category know as dietary supplements. DSHEA defines a dietary supplement as follows

What Is a Dietary Supplement How Are They Regulated in Different Countries

Each country has developed regulatory definitions and systems that place dietary supplements, particularly botanicals, into categories of drugs, traditional medicines, or foods. However, in the late 1980s, many countries launched major changes in regulations that may or may not have been approved at the time of this writing. Many regulations are still in draft form. The US Congress defined the term 'dietary supplement' in the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994. A dietary supplement is a product, taken orally, that contains a 'dietary ingredient' that is intended to supplement the diet. The dietary ingredient includes vitamins, minerals, herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake (e.g., enzymes or tissues from organs or glands), or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, or extract. Dietary supplements may be found in many forms, such as tablets, capsules, softgels,...

Uicnih Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy

The UIC NIH Center for Botanical Dietary Supplement Research is a new initiative, designed to employ a multidisciplinary approach in studies involving the clinical safety and efficacy of botanicals. One initial focus will be on herbs used to treat women's health, such as black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) and red clover (Trifolium pratense), which show promise in the relief of symptoms associated with menopause.

Compilations of Composition Data for Dietary Supplements

As the use of dietary supplements increases worldwide, there is an increasing need to quantify intakes of nutrients and botanical products from these sources. Compiling nutrient profiles of such products into tables can be very time-consuming because the number of products continues to grow and formulations of existing products often change over time. Furthermore, average analytic data are seldom available from the supplement manufacturers, and thus database compilers must rely on whatever information is available from the product label. In many countries, a label showing the amount of each nutrient in the product is required.

Dietary Supplementation for Active Individuals

The use of nutritional supplements in athletes and in the health-conscious recreationally active population is widespread, as it is in the general population. A very large number of surveys have been published. A meta-analysis of 51 published surveys involving 10 274 male and female athletes of varying levels of ability showed an overall prevalence of supplement use of 46 , but the prevalence varies widely in different sports, at different levels of age, performance etc., and in different cultural backgrounds. See also Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia. Appetite Physiological and Neurobiological Aspects. Bone. Carbohydrates Chemistry and Classification Regulation of Metabolism Requirements and Dietary Importance. Electrolytes Water-Electrolyte Balance. Energy Balance. Exercise Beneficial Effects. Fats and Oils. Osteoporosis. Protein Synthesis and Turnover Requirements and Role in Diet. Sports Nutrition. Supplementation Dietary Supplements Role of Micronutrient Supplementation Developing...

Dietary Supplements An Advertising Guide for Industry

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has responsibility for monitoring the advertising of dietary supplements in print and broadcast advertisements, infomercials, catalogs, and similar direct marketing materials. Such advertising must be truthful, substantiated, and not misleading. The FTC has taken action against supplement manufacturers, advertising agencies, distributors, retailers, catalog companies, and others involved in the deceptive promotion of herbal products. (See Chapter 11 for more information on the role of the FTC.)

Vitamin Supplementation

Currently, several large-scale intervention trials are underway to determine if B vitamin supplements (folic acid, B12, B6), which effectively lower blood homocysteine levels, reduce the incidence of vascular disease (Table 3). If proven effective, such supplements would be an inexpensive and relatively Table 3 Intervention trials to determine the effect of B vitamin supplements on homocysteine and the risk of vascular disease innocuous means by which the risk of vascular disease may be reduced. However, it must be recognized that if these trials are successful, they will not serve as definitive proof that homocysteine is a vascular toxin. It may be the case that one or more of the B vitamins influences vascular disease risk through separate mechanisms. For example, several studies have shown that low B6 status has an association with vascular disease independent of homo-cysteine. The uncertain relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia, B vitamins, and vascular disease is summarized...

Controversies Surrounding the Use of Dietary Supplements

Public Health and School of Medicine, writes that DSHEA modifies the regulatory environment so that it becomes possible, even likely, that products will be marketed that inadvertently harm people (Zeisel, p. 1855). Zeisel believes that the DSHEA legislation makes it easy for small enterprises to market products without investing the time and money needed to prove their product's safety and efficacy. He contrasts the development of a new dietary supplement to that of a new drug or food additive, for which there is a formal process to evaluate safety. A manufacturer developing a new drug or food additive must conduct safety studies following FDA procedures. Results must be submitted to the FDA for review and approval before the ingredient or drug can be sold to the public. This is not the case for dietary supplements, however, because under DSHEA they are legally in a class by themselves. The FDA must simply be notified of the new product, and the notification must provide information...

Regulation of Dietary Supplements

Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which President Bill Clinton signed into law the same year. One provision of DSHEA clarified the definition for dietary supplements outlined above. DSHEA also mandated the establishment of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) within the National Institutes of Health. The ODS coordinates research on dietary supplements and acts as a clearinghouse for regulatory issues. It also maintains an excellent resource for consumers, the International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements (IBIDS), which is a database that contains citations published in scientific journals on the topic of dietary supplements. The public can access IBIDS on the ODS website. DSHEA established a new regulatory framework for supplement safety and for the labeling of dietary supplements by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Dietary supplements are regulated under food law, but with certain provisions that...

Potential Benefits of Dietary Supplements

The 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (new release due 2005) emphasizes choosing foods sensibly, maintaining a healthy weight, and exercising regularly. It acknowledges that some people may need a vitamin-mineral supplement to meet specific needs. Similarly, the Food and Nutrition Board and the American Dietetic Association also recognize that dietary supplements may be desirable for some nutrients and for some individuals. The following is a compilation of recommendations by these groups

Oral Nutritional Supplements

Mixed macro- and micronutrient liquid sip feeds and other oral nutritional supplements (bars, powders, and puddings) are widely used in the treatment of malnutrition in the community setting. A systematic review of 78 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (including 44 RCTs from the community setting) suggests oral nutritional supplements can improve energy and nutrient intakes, improve body weight (or attenuate weight loss), and improve a number of functional and clinical outcomes in various patient groups (Table 2). Meta-analysis of RCTs from both hospital and community settings suggests significantly lower mortality (odds ratio, 0.62 95 confidence interval, 0.49-0.78) and complication rates (infections and postoperative complications) (odds ratio, 0.29 95 confidence interval, 0.18-0.47) in patients given oral nutritional supplements (typically 1.05-2.5 MJ (250-600 kcal) daily).

What about nutritional supplements

If it's not possible to get this help, many people benefit (quite safely) from taking a good-quality multivitamin and mineral supplement. Regularly taking a fish oil and or linseed (flax) oil supplement containing essential fatty acids is also often found to be beneficial. Health food shops or pharmacists sell nutritional supplements or you may get some supplements on prescription.

Dietary Supplements

The demand for dietary supplements in the United States catapulted what was once a cottage industry into a 14 billion per year business in the year 2000. In 1994, the U.S. Congress formally defined the term dietary supplement as a product taken by mouth that contains a dietary ingredient intended to supplement the diet. The dietary ingredients in these products may include vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, enzymes, organ tissues, glandulars, and metabolites. Dietary supplements can also be extracts or concentrates, and may be found in many forms, such as tablets, capsules, liquids, or powders. The use of dietary supplements is widespread they are taken by half of American adults. But the use of supplements is not limited to adults. A study published in the November 2001 Journal of the American Dietetic Association showed that dietary supplement use is prevalent among students as well, with 17.6 percent of 1,532 eighth-graders reporting the use of a vitamin-mineral supplement....

Agerelated Cataract Prevention

A large cross-sectional survey of 2873 volunteers aged 49-97 years detected a link between dietary vitamin supplement and a lower incidence of both nuclear and cortical cataract. Vitamin A, niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, folate and vitamin B12 all appeared to be protective, either in isolation or as constituents of multivitamin preparations (Kuzniarz et al 2001).

Background And Relevant Pharmacokinetics

The generally accepted definition of a probiotic is 'a live microbial food supplement which beneficially affects the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance'. This definition is, however, rather limited as some probiotics are transient and do not take up residence in the intestinal tract. A better definition may be ' a microbial dietary supplement that beneficially affect the host physiology by modulating mucosal and systemic immunity, as well as improving nutritional and microbial balance of the intestinal tract' (Salminen et al 1998).

Resistance Training

Studies in female athletes have shown no effect on body composition or muscle strength following supplementation of 500 fjg chromium picolinate daily during 6 weeks of resistance training (Livolsi et al 2001). In a clinical trial of older women a high-dose chromium picolinate supplement did not affect body composition, skeletal muscle size or maximal strength above that of resistance training alone (Campbell et al 2002). A meta-analysis of trials of dietary supplements for enhancing lean muscle mass and strength during resistance training did not support the use of chromium for this purpose (Nissen & Sharp 2002).


Gamma-linolenic acid may be beneficial in the prevention of migraine headache when used in combination with other nutritional supplements and as part of an overall management plan, according to an open, prospective, uncontrolled trial involving 168 migraine patients. In the study, patients took a combination of GLA and alpha-LA (1800 mg day), other vitamins, coenzymes and antioxidants, and were instructed to lower their arachidonic acid intake. They were also instructed on correct techniques of self-medication and in stress-reduction and progressive relaxation techniques. Of the 129 patients who were evaluated after 6 months, 86 reported an improvement, with 22 of the total being free from migraine, while 14 were not able to implement the self-management of progressive relaxation and stress reduction techniques. Severity and frequency of attacks were decreased in patients reporting a positive response. Significant reduction in nausea and vomiting was reported in all groups except the...


Overall, acute toxicity is unlikely with combination vitamin supplements unless huge amounts have been ingested. In the case of toxicity or side-effects, signs and symptoms will relate to the individual nutrient ingested. In general, gastrointestinal symptoms such as discomfort, nausea and diarrhoea are the most frequent adverse effects.


Twenty patients with various end-stage cancers were given 500 mg twice daily for 6 months. After 6 months 16 patients were still alive with a statistically significant increase in both NK function and TNF-alpha levels. Haemoglobin, haematocrit and glutathione levels were all greatly increased (See et al 2002). Although these results are interesting it is difficult to examine the direct effect of Andrographis paniculata as many other nutritional supplements were given concurrently.

Measuring Nutrient Bioavailability in Humans

A large and growing number of people are consuming dietary supplements. However, due to the relative difficulty of labeling these supplements, in most cases, little information on the bioavailability of the nutrients in the supplements is available. A study of vitamin and mineral bioavailability from a popular multinutrient supplement found good absorption of the water-soluble vitamins (B vitamins and vitamin C) from the tablet but relatively poor absorption of copper and zinc.

Supplement Facts Label

To help consumers make informed choices, dietary supplements now contain a supplement facts panel that clearly labels the product as a dietary supplement and gives information such as the amount of a standard dose, the number of recommended doses per day, the list of components (and how much of each is present in a standard dose), and, if the product is a botanical, the Latin name of the plant and the part of the plant used to prepare the product. This latter information is important because the components responsible for a certain health effect may be in one part of the plant but In addition, DSHEA established standards for terms, such as high potency and antioxidant, and for the types of claims that could be made for a product. Claims that a dietary supplement may help to prevent or cure a disease cannot be made. Such claims are considered health claims and must be reviewed by the Food and Drug Administration for scientific accuracy prior to approval for use on a product label....

Other Cancer Treatments

Although there are other new and potentially helpful treatments being studied by researchers, in general, doctors and cancer treatment facilities do not accept alternative treatments. These treatments include special diets, medicines made from various plants, and vitamin supplements. The National Cancer Institute is constantly reviewing and testing alternative treatments to weigh their possible benefits against the possibility of their doing harm. Most doctors agree that trying to cure cancer with alternative therapies alone may keep patients from receiving standard treatments that have been proven effective.

Adverse Effects And Reactions Allergies And Toxicity

Seeds of A. squamosa are of notorious toxicity, and are thus barely used orally in traditional medicine (except as an abortive in India, where aqueous extracts are used). They are reported to cause irritation to the eye and mucosa. Oral ingestion provokes vomiting, related to the ACG content (McLaughlin, 2008). The plant is mentioned in the poisonous plants database of the FDA (American Food and Drug Administration), and the AFSSA (Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments Saisine 2007-SA-0231, 2007 12 21 pp 3, 5 Saisine 2008-SA-0171, 2010 04 28, 7 p.) has expressed safety concerns regarding its use in dietary supplements.

Folate and Neural Tube Defects

And, most importantly, the incidence of NTD by about 20 over the first years of universal fortification. Because 30 of the population takes vitamin supplements and presumably would not be expected to derive significant benefit from fortification, the actual effect may be closer to a 30 decrease due to fortification. Recent calculations suggest that, for a variety of reasons, the overall fortification amount was about twice the mandatory amount.

Inappropriate Nutrient Forms and Expressions

Composition tables and also on nutrition labels for both foods and dietary supplements. A more relevant unit of activity, micrograms of retinol equivalents (REs), was adopted in 1967 and has been used to set recommended nutrient intake levels. A lower relative pro-vitamin A activity of carotenoids was assumed, and thus it is not possible to directly convert IUs into REs, unless both the retinol and the carotenoid levels of a food are given. Recently, the estimated pro-vitamin activity of carotenoids has been further reduced and a newer unit proposed micrograms of retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). Again, it is not possible to convert between REs and RAEs (or between IUs and RAEs), unless the retinol and carotenoid components of a food are available. Increasingly, food composition tables are carrying separate variables for the specific forms of nutrients such as vitamin A and iron, but this is not the case for many of the older tables. Such disaggrega-tion is an obvious advantage...

European Regulations for Functional Foods

The concept of functional foods was first evaluated in Europe in the 1990s when the International Life Sciences Institute in Europe (ILSI Europe) developed a project on functional foods that became a European Commission (EC) concerted action, Functional Food Science in Europe. Approximately 100 experts in nutrition and medicine in Europe reviewed the scientific literature about foods and food components and their effects on body functions, and they developed a global framework that included a framework for the identification and development of functional foods and for the scientific substantiation of their health-related effects. From this evaluation, two types of claims for functional foods were suggested enhanced function claims and reduction of disease risk claims. From this evaluation, the ''Concepts of Functional Foods'' was produced by ILSI followed by publication of ''Scientific Concepts of Functional Foods in Europe Consensus Document.'' According to this concept document, ''a...

Dose Response Assessment

In view of the ongoing scientific debate regarding the sensitivity of newborn animals to the consumption of supplemental dicarboxylic amino acids, it is concluded that aspartic acid dietary supplements are not advisable for infants and pregnant women. Although the scientific data are not sufficient to develop a UL for aspartic acid, it should be noted that dietary supplement doses of up to 8 g d (approximately 120 mg kg body weight d) have not resulted in any documented adverse effects.

US Department of Commerce DOC

The DOC is the federal government department charged with promoting U.S. economic development and technological advancement. The DOC impacts the herbal industry in the United States through its involvement in international trade, import export control, and promoting access to the international pharmaceutical and nutritional supplements markets. It produces a variety of reports on the economic and business aspects of herbal commerce. Many of these are evaluations of the herbal product markets in a wide range of foreign countries, with valuable information on those countries' regulatory frameworks.

Application of Risk Assessment Methodology to Nutrients

Recent increases in demand for nutrients as a result of consumer interest in self-management of health, and provocative findings relating specific dietary constituents to possible health benefits, have provided incentives for industry to increase the availability and use of nutrients and food components in dietary supplements and for the voluntary fortification of foods. Thus, the need for science-based reviews of data on the potential for increased risk of serious adverse effects that may result from chronic consumption of individual nutrients in higher amounts than typically encountered with foods has grown in importance. Such reviews have been conducted by Canadian and US scientists through the Food and Nutrition Board, by the United Kingdom's Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals, and by the Scientific Committee on Food of the European Commission, among others. Each has worked on developing approaches to evaluating reports of adverse effects and establishing, if possible, upper...

Risk Characterization

Since there is no evidence that amino acids derived from usual or even high intakes of protein from food present any risk, attention was focused on intakes of the L-form of the amino acid found in dietary protein and amino acid supplements. Even from well-studied amino acids, adequate dose-response data from human or animal studies on which to base a UL were not available, but this does not mean that there is no potential for adverse effects resulting from high intakes of amino acids from dietary supplements. Since data on the adverse effects of high levels of amino acids intakes from dietary supplements are limited, caution may be warranted.

Dietary Sources and High Intakes

Pantothenate is widely distributed in food rich sources include animal tissues, especially liver, and yeast, with moderate amounts occurring in whole grain cereals and legumes (see Table 1). It is fairly stable during cooking and storage, although some destruction occurs at high temperatures and at pH values below 5 or above 7. Highly processed foods have lower contents than fresh foods. Commercial vitamin supplements containing pantothenate usually contain the calcium salt, which is crystalline and more stable than the acid.

Metabolicthermogenic Effects

Ephedra is promoted as a ''fat burner'' or thermogenic agent because of its reported effectiveness in increasing basal metabolic rate and contributing to weight loss. Several small studies have documented that the combination of ephedrine and caffeine increases oxygen consumption and lipid oxidation, raises resting energy expenditure (REE), and promotes weight loss (51-54). In contrast, there is no experimental evidence that caffeine or ephedrine alone is more effective than placebo in producing weight loss, despite demonstrated increased thermogenesis of the individual agents (55,56). Studies involving ephedra- and caffeine-containing dietary supplements have also shown modest weight loss compared to placebo (30,31).

Selenium Distribution Status Assays and Dietary Reference Values

Sources UK Department of Health (1991) Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom, Report on Health and Social Subjects No. 41. London HMSO. USA Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (2000) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium and Carotenoids. Washington, DC National Academy Press. WHO FAO WHO FAO (2002) Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements. Report of a Joint FAO WHO Expert Consultation, Bangkok, Thailand. Rome WHO FAO.

Biographical Sketches

Kraak, M.S., R.D., is a Senior Program Officer in the IOM's FNB. In addition to working on the Prevention of Obesity in Children and Youth Study, she directs the international activities within FNB. She received her B.S. in nutritional sciences from Cornell University and completed a coordinated M.S. in nutrition and dietetic internship at Case Western Reserve University and the University Hospitals of Cleveland. Prior to joining the IOM in 2002, she worked as a Clinical Dietitian at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center and as a Public Health Nutritionist specializing in HIV disease in New York City. From 1994 to 2000, she was a Research Nutritionist in the Division of Nutritional Sciences at Cornell University, where she collaborated on several domestic and international food policy and community nutrition research initiatives. She has co-authored a variety of publications related to food security and community food systems, nutrition and HIV AIDS, international food aid...

Prevalence of Micronutrient Supplement

In the United States, vitamins and minerals are the most widely used dietary supplements. Between 1993 and 2003, total retail sales of vitamins and minerals more than doubled, increasing from approximately 3 billion to 6.7 billion for vitamins and from approximately 0.6 billion to 1.8 billion for minerals. These figures include sales of multivitamin and multimineral combinations as well as individual vitamins and minerals. Multivitamin mineral preparations, accounting for almost half of micronutrient purchases, consistently have been the best-selling micronutrient supplements, with sales increasing from 2.64 billion in 1997 to 3.68 billion in 2003. Findings by several research groups show that micronutrient supplement use generally is more common among people with higher education levels, higher incomes, and better diets. Survey results in The Netherlands indicate that micronutrient supplements are used by approximately 20 of adults in that country, fewer than in the United States....

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

It is not only the glucosinolates and their breakdown products that have chemoprotective effects in several types of cancers sterols of mustard seeds do, too. Sterols (or phytosterols, Table 78.2), which are cholesterol-like molecules, are used as dietary supplements due to their cholesterol-reducing ability (Yadav, Vats, Ammini, & Gover, 2004). Some researchers have focused on the influences of plant sterols on stomach cancer, and a strongly negative relationship was found between total phytosterol intake and gastric cancer risk (De Stefani et al., 2000).

National Health and Nutrition Surveys and Small Scale Surveys

Of nutritional supplements, micronutrient deficiencies (Fe, I, vitamin A), complementary feeding practices, fertility and birth interval, vaccine coverage, morbidity, mortality Anthropometry, use of nutritional supplements, micronutrient deficiencies (Fe, I, vitamin A), complementary feeding practices, morbidity, mortality, sanitation Anthropometry Anthropometry, use of nutritional supplements, use of iodized salt, complementary feeding practices, parental education, vaccine coverage, morbidity, mortality, sanitation supplements, micronutrient deficiencies (Fe, I, vitamin A), use of iodized salt, complementary feeding practices, fertility and birth interval, parental education, vaccine coverage, morbidity, mortality Anthropometry, complementary feeding practices, morbidity, mortality Anthropometry, use of nutritional supplements, use of iodized salt, complementary feeding practices, fertility and birth interval, parental education, vaccine coverage, morbidity, mortality, sanitation of...

Antihypertensive Actions of Vitamin B6

A number of studies suggest that supplements of vitamin B6 may have a hypotensive action. Supplements of 300 mg of vitamin B6 per kg of body weight per day attenuated the hypertensive response of rats treated with deoxycor-ticosterone acetate (Fregly and Cade, 1995). At a more realistic level of supplementation (five times the usual amount provided in the diet), vitamin B6 prevented the development of hypertension in the Zucker (fa fa) obese rat. Withdrawal of the vitamin supplement led to the development of hypertension (Lalet al., 1996).


Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite that has shown anticatabolic actions through inhibiting ubiquitin-proteosome-mediated protein breakdown216 and that may prevent exercise-induced muscle damage.217 It is primarily used by bodybuilders as a supportive measure to induce changes in body composition, and could be a potential dietary supplement for body weight reduction.182 Randomized clinical trials conducted to assess the potential for HMB as an ergogenic aid reported modest effects in reducing fat mass and increasing lean body mass, and no apparent adverse effects (reviewed in references 199 and 218).

Enzyme Induction by Biotin

Glucokinase is the high-_RTm isoenzyme of hexokinase found in liver and pancreatic f-islet cells. In the liver, its function is to permit rapid uptake and metabolism of glucose when the concentration of glucose in the portal blood is high after a meal. In the pancreas, the increased uptake and metabolism of glucose caused by glucokinase acts as the signal for insulin release. Children with a genetic lack of glucokinase suffer from what has been termed maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) although they can synthesize and secrete normal basal amounts of insulin, they are unable to secrete additional insulin in response to glucose (Froguel et al., 1993). Presumably as a result of increased activity of glucokinase, high doses of biotin have a hypoglycemic effect in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. In non-insulin-dependent spontaneously diabetic mice, the administration of 2 mg of biotin per kg of body weight (considerably in excess of vitamin requirements) lowers blood glucose...

Europe And Germanys Commission E Monographs

Government agencies in North America and in several European countries are currently trying to develop a regulatory framework that would satisfy health professionals, consumers, and the herbal industry. Recent developments in North America include the establishment of the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) in the United States and the Office of Natural Health Products (ONHP) in Canada.

Hypervitaminosis A and Vitamin A Toxicity

Beta-carotene and other carotenoids in foods, even when consumed at high levels, are believed to be nontoxic, and therefore no UL was established for -carotene. Nonetheless, a 'safe range' of intracellular -carotene has yet to be determined. Individuals who have consumed large amounts of carotenoid-rich foods, juices, or extracts containing a large amount of -carotene over a prolonged period of time may show signs of carotene accumulation in fatty tissues, to the point where yellowing of the skin (caroteno-dermia) is apparent. This condition is not known to be harmful and the color subsides over time after carotene intake is reduced to normal levels. Nonetheless, epidemiological evidence suggests that the use of high-dose -carotene as a dietary supplement should not be regarded as safe because the current knowledge of the metabolism of high doses is inadequate, and some epidemiological studies have indicated that high doses of -carotene, at least in smokers, may be detrimental (see...

Toxicity of Vitamin B6

In 1983, sensory neuropathy was reported in seven patients who had been taking between 2,000 to 7,000 mg of pyridoxine day for several months (Schaumburg et al., 1983). On withdrawal of the vitamin supplements, there was considerable recovery of neuronal function, although there was residual nerve damage in some patients. Upper Levels of Vitamin B6 Intake Although there is no doubt that vitamin B6 is neurotoxic in gross excess, there is considerable controversy over the way in which toxicological data have been translated into limits on the amounts that may be sold freely as nutritional supplements. This appears to have been achieved by the application of standard toxicology safety margins, and taking as the upper safe limit of intake 1 of the no adverse effect level. Whereas this is appropriate for setting limits on additives and contaminants, it can be argued that it is not appropriate as a basis for setting limits on a nutrient for many nutrients, an upper limit of intake...

Point by point how do you answer charges that

Vitamin E is a natural blood thinner, which in part accounts for its beneficial effect in the prevention and treatment of heart disease. Certain medications, notably warfarin, also thin the blood and this effect may be enhanced too far by the additional taking of vitamin E. For this reason it is generally advised that individuals on warfarin or other anti-coagulant medication do not take vitamin E. If you are receiving medication for any health problem you should always check with your doctor before taking nutritional supplements (or any other dietary change) in case there is such a contra-indication.

Neurocutaneous syndromes

Folic acid is found naturally in green, leafy vegetables and in orange juice. In 1998 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration required the addition of folic acid to enriched grain products (such as breakfast cereals, breads, pastas, and rice), designed to provide an additional 100 micrograms of folic acid to a woman's daily diet. Still, to reach the recommended level of 400 micrograms daily, a vitamin supplement is usually necessary.

Types of CAM Modalities

Mind-body interventions recognize the connection between the physical body and the spiritual self, and include practices such as meditation, prayer, and music therapy. Biologically-based modalities are primarily nutrition-related and vary from special diets such as the macrobiotic diet to the inclusion of dietary supplements in the diet. Body-based methods involve hands-on manipulation of the body, and include such modalities as massage and chiropractic. The energy therapies are based on the concept that the body has an energy field that can be manipulated to promote healing. Included among the nutrition approaches that make up the biologically-based modalities is the use of dietary supplements. Dietary supplements may be botanical (herbal) supplements or nutritional supplements, which include vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, enzymes, metabolites, nonpre-scription hormones, glandular extracts, and various amino acids, fatty acids, and other nutrients.

Dietary and Nutritional Management of Secondary Undernutrition

In juvenile cholestasis, large amounts of fat-soluble vitamin supplements and medium-chain triglycerides are usually required for optimum growth. With protracted secretory diarrheal diatheses, fluid and electrolyte balance may be the primary concern, followed by macro- and micronutrient nutriture, invoking the institution of parenteral feeding. Cancer cachexia is a major secondary consequence of disseminated neoplasms. It is tempting to prescribe aggressive nutritional support, but a caveat is that certain nutrients acting with certain neoplasms favor the tumor's growth and dissemination. To the extent that various forms of cachexia are partly driven by catabolic responses mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, antagonists directed at counteracting their action hold promise for retarding the nutrient-wasting in various forms of cachexia.

Tocopherols and Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiological Evidence

87245 women, showed a 34 reduction in CHD in women who had consumed vitamin E supplements containing more than 67 mg a-TE daily for more than 2 years. However, there was no significant effect of vitamin E obtained from food sources. The Established Populations for Epidemiolodic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) trials showed that the use of vitamin E supplements significantly decreased risks for all-cause-mortality and mortality from heart disease. Another prospective study, performed in Canada, reported a consistent inverse association between CVD and vitamin E supplement usage. The Health Professionals Study, conducted on 39 910 men aged 40-75 years, also showed that dietary intakes of vitamin E were not significantly correlated with reduced risk of CHD or death. A protective effect was seen in those who took 67-160 mg supplemental a-TE daily for more than 2 years. In contrast, the Iowa Women's Health Study reported that dietary vitamin E (mainly 7-tocopherol) was inversely associated...

The Longwood Herbal Task Force LHTF

The LHTF was founded in the fall of 1998 by faculty, staff, and students from Children's Hospital, the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, and the Dana Farber Cancer Institute. Its mission is to help educate clinicians about the use of herbal remedies and other dietary supplements. The LHTF has comprehensive collections of fact sheets on herbs for both patients and their health care providers. Documents are available for the more popular herbs, such as echinacea and St. John's wort, but also for lesser-known herbs, such as rhubarb (Rheum officinale), dandelion (Taraxacum officinalis), and bearberry (Uva ursi). Information on herb-drug and herb-nutrient interactions is also available.

Toxins and Contaminants Phytic Acid

Because of its molecular structure, phytic acid is a highly effective chelator, which forms insoluble complexes with mineral cations. Its presence in plant foods has led to concerns that it may reduce the bioavailability of various dietary minerals and trace elements, including calcium, magnesium, iron,

Tolerable Upper Intake Level

The UL is based on an evaluation conducted by using the methodology for risk assessment of nutrients (see Chapter 4). The need for setting ULs has arisen as a result of the increased fortification of foods with nutrients and the use of dietary supplements by more people and in larger doses. The UL applies to chronic daily use and is usually based on the total intake of a nutrient from food, water, and supplements if adverse effects have been associated with total intake. However, if adverse effects have been associated with intake from supplements or food fortificants only, the UL is based on nutrient intake from one or both of those sources only, rather than on total intake. As in the case of applying AIs, professionals should avoid very rigid application of ULs and first assess the characteristics of the individual or group of concern (e.g., source of nutrient, physiological state of the individual, length of sustained high intakes, etc.).

Omega3 PUFA in Fish and Shellfish

The major PUFA in the adult mammalian brain is DHA. It is among the materials required for development of the fetal brain and central nervous system and for retinal growth in late pregnancy. Brain growth uses 70 of the fetal energy, and 80-90 of cognitive function is determined before birth. However, the placenta depletes the mother of DHA, a situation that is exacerbated by multiple pregnancies. Dietary enhancement or fortification with marine products before and during pregnancy, rather than after the child is born, would be of great benefit to the child and mother. Furthermore, the food sources that are rich in DHA are also rich in zinc, iodine, and vitamin A, so it may be possible to provide several dietary supplements at one time. Deficiencies of the latter micronutrients are established causes of mental retardation and blindness.

A case study tryptophan

Tryptophan is a naturally occurring amino acid, used for over 15 years in dietary supplements and infant formulas, and as a treatment for a number of conditions including depression, obesity, and insomnia. In late 1989, it was connected with a sudden outbreak of a debilitating syndrome that resulted in dozens of deaths in the U.S. and caused a variety of adverse effects in as many as 5,000 people. The case also had fallout that was more political than scientific. The responsibility of the FDA for controlling dietary supplements (as distinct from food and drugs) has been a gray area. In 1991, the Commissioner of Food and Drugs used the tryptophan example as a reason to take a completely new look at how these products should be regulated. The industry countered that this was unnecessary since the epidemic was not the result of dangerous dietary supplements, but rather the lack of regulation of biotechnology.

Phytates Introduction

There are two main contemporary approaches to the phytic acid problem in livestock production. The first involves the production and use of phytase enzymes as dietary supplements 5,8-9 . This approach is currently in use in Europe and the United States. The second approach is to reduce the phytic acid content of crops using genetics, such as in the isolation of low phytic acid mutants and their use in breeding low phytate or high available P crops 10 .

Regulation of Functional Foods in the United States

Current US food regulations do not specifically address functional foods but, rather, include them in several categories within conventional foods, food additives, dietary supplements, medical foods, or foods for special dietary use. All of these fall under the amended Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) of 1938 and are implemented under regulations from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Four types of claims can be used to communicate the usefulness of functional foods to consumers health claims, qualified health claims, structure-function claims, and nutrient content claims. Qualified health claims allow disease risk-reduction statements but, unlike health claims, must be qualified to indicate that the level of scientific support is not conclusive. Qualified health claims for dietary supplements were first authorized under a 1999 court decision in the case of Pearson versus Shalala regarding health claims for dietary supplements. In December 2002, the FDA announced the...

Potential Importance of Phytoestrogens to Human Health Molecular Mechanisms of Action

Some beneficial effects following dietary intervention with soy isoflavones have been observed on the cognitive function aspect of brain health, and the mechanism is likely to be via an oestrogenic action, particularly because ER , in addition to ERa, is expressed in brain. Although other mechanisms may contribute, they remain to be elucidated. Consumption by young healthy male and female subjects (parallel group design) of a high-soy diet (100 mg isoflavones day for 10 weeks) compared to a low-soy diet (0.5 mg isoflavones day) resulted in improved cognitive function, including significantly improved short-term and long-term memory and mental flexibility. These improvements were found in males and females. Consumption by post-menopausal women (parallel group design, placebo controlled) of a dietary supplement (soy extract containing 60 mg isoflavones day for 12 weeks) resulted in improved cognitive function, particularly improved long-term memory.

Nutritional Management of Tuberculosis Patients

The extent to which optimal nutrient intake improves the body's ability to heal during (and after) TB treatment is not well established. Fortunately, the immunological deficits associated with PEM and various micronutrient deficiencies are reversed rapidly with nutritional rehabilitation. One would expect this to improve recovery. The scientific literature is limited, however, with regard to the effect of nutrition on the outcomes of treatment. Only one randomized, double-blind trial is known, comparing vitamin A and zinc supplementation with placebo in 80 patients with pulmonary TB in Jakarta, Indonesia. BMI was < 18.5 kg m2 in 64 of TB patients, plasma retinol was < 0.70 mmol l in 32 , and plasma zinc was < 10.7mmol l in 30 . After treatment, plasma zinc was similar in the two groups, and plasma retinol was significantly higher in the supplement group. Sputum conversion and resolution of the radiographic extent of lung disease were slightly more rapid in the supplement group....

Herbal Organizations In The United States And Europe

The continued growth and evolution of the European Union (EU) as a unified political entity has important ramifications for the practice of herbal medicine in its individual countries. As the popularity of herbs and dietary supplements continues to grow, Europe is moving toward new legislation that attempts to harmonize the regulation of traditional herbal products.1 The European Herbal Practitioners Association (EHPA) was founded in 1993 as a result of fears that new EU regulations might adversely affect the availability of herbal preparations in the individual countries. A central aim of the EHPA and other European herbal groups is to encourage the creation of appropriate European legislation that ensures the continuing right of professional herbal practitioners to access traditional herbal medicines (EHPA web site).

Populus Candicans Medicine In South Africa Pharmacy

And dietary supplements, 115 federal guidelines, 39 fraudulent claims, 116 Good Housekeeping magazine, 122 on the Internet, 115-116 Africa Journals Online (AJOL), 72, 129 AfricaBib, 73, 129 Annual Bibliography of Significant Advances in Dietary Supplement Research, 93 Anti-quackery mailing lists, 160 (PDQ), 133 Cardiovascular diseases CAM Research Center, 67 hawthorn, 37, 67 herbs, 47 in old age, 59 CARDS (Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements), 138 Cascara tree (Rhamnus purshiana), 33 Cat's Claw (Uncaria tomentosa), xiii. See also Tropical Plant Database Catnip (Nepeta cataria), 21 Celtic Europe. See Flora Celtica Center for Alternative Medicine Research in Cancer University of Texas, 148 Center for Botanical Dietary Supplements Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, 66 Center for CAM Research in Aging. See Rosenthal Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine Research in Asthma, 58 Center for Complementary...

The Mammalian Detoxification System

The association between Phase II detoxification enzymes and cancer risk has been the focus of much study. Deficiencies as a result of genetic polymorphisms can often lead to increased susceptibility to toxins and chemically induced carcinogenesis. These factors are emphasized in the reported increased susceptibility of smokers null for GST M1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 and additional associations with increased incidence of colon cancer, skin cancer, and ovarian cancers for individuals who are GSTM1-null (115119). One possible means to reduce cancer risk, representing the basic principle of chemoprevention, is to modulate the activities of cellular protective enzymes using dietary supplements or dietary intervention. An increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables containing ITCs that can potentially stimulate the induction of Phase II detoxification agents may offer aid in improving human health.

Liver in Specific Hepatobiliary Disorders Hepatocellular Diseases

Table 1 summarizes the five published controlled trials of the effect of oral or enteral nutritional supplements on patients with alcoholic hepatitis. In most, nitrogen balance and or protein synthesis improved, although no effect on mortality was shown, perhaps because of the small number of patients studied and or the duration of follow-up. In the largest study, at 1-year follow-up, the experimental group had a significantly better survival 2 24 (8 ) died compared to 10 27 (37 ) of the controls. In general, the effects of parenteral nutrition in alcoholic liver disease are similar to those noted the studies of enteral nutritional supplements. Table 1 Studies on therapy of alcoholic hepatitis with oral or enteral nutritional supplements Table 1 Studies on therapy of alcoholic hepatitis with oral or enteral nutritional supplements

PMS and Dietary Factors

High doses of vitamin B6 have been found to be effective in treating most of the most common symptoms of PMS in several double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. For this reason administration of dietary supplements is a popular therapy for PMS used by many medical practitioners. However, as large doses have been associated with dependency and sensory neuropathy, doses higher than 50 mg per day should be avoided. See also Appetite Psychobiological and Behavioral Aspects. Behavior. Brain and Nervous System. Carbohydrates Regulation of Metabolism. Cofactors Inorganic Organic. Hunger. Magnesium. Phytochemicals Epidemiological Factors. Supplementation Dietary Supplements. Vitamin B6.

Aids Cure In Natural

Health claims, 1 263-266 dietary supplements, 1 156 food labels, 1 232 functional foods, 1 242, 243 general requirements, 1 265 healthy, 1 264 as dietary supplement, 1 156, 157, 2 49 IBIDS (International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements), 1 156 Ice cream, glycemic index, 1 251i 2 12-13 Insulin pens, 2 12-13 Insulin pumps, 1 145, 2 12-13 Integrative medicine, 1 30 See also Alternative medicines and therapies International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements (IBIDS), 1 156 International Children's Day of

Practical Management of Eating Difficulties

For the patient who is only able to swallow fluids, close attention must be paid to their intake and dietary supplements are likely to be necessary. Some people who can only manage liquids choose to liquidize their food this dilutes the nutrients, so meals should be fortified with butter, cream, glucose, cheese, etc. to add protein and energy. Trismus (difficulty opening the mouth) and difficulty chewing may be overcome with soft food or, failing that, with nourishing drinks and dietary supplements. If the person loses weight and can manage very little orally, an enteral tube feed should be considered. Try dietary supplements, such as milky drinks and glucose polymer power.

Dangerous Supplements

Athletes at all levels should have their supplement use carefully monitored. Coaches, parents, or others working with athletes should ask what they take and in what dosage and frequency. Labels should be examined, and all information should be documented in the medical record. It is best if athletes try only one product at a time, and supplement use should be discontinued if any unusual dizziness, stomach upset, or headaches occur. All coaches should be familiar with the available supplements and their dangers. see also Dietary Supplements Sports Nutrition. Medical Economics Company (2001). PDR for Nutritional Supplements. Montvale, NJ Medical Economics. Gatorade Sports Science Institute. Dietary Supplements. Available from < http> National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements. What Are Dietary Supplements. Available from

Ginger As An Antinausea Agent

Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy affects the majority of pregnant women and over the years various treatments have been used to try to alleviate the condition (reviewed in Ref. 56). Unsupervised herbal or alternative therapies are often pursued and ginger is a commonly used remedy (57). Although perhaps not as potent as some treatments (58), ginger has been shown to be effective for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy (59-61). At least one survey indicated that although overall use of dietary supplements in pregnant women appeared to be low, ginger was commonly recommended and used to prevent nausea (62). Randomized trials suggest that ginger consumption for nausea and or vomiting in early pregnancy has very few or no adverse side effects and may be effective (60,63,64). A recent survey of a group of obstetricians and gynecologists revealed that most of them would recommend taking an antiemetic (71.3 ), specifically ginger (51.8 ), to patients suffering from moderate to severe...

Antiinflammatory Effects Of Ginger

In humans, one recent study showed no difference between placebo and ginger in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee (48). On the other hand, patients suffering from osteoarthritis of the knee showed a consistently greater response to treatment with ginger extract compared with the control group (49). In addition, relief from pain and swelling was reported in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, general muscular discomfort when they used powdered ginger as a dietary supplement for 3 months-2 years. Investigators suggested that the effectiveness of ginger may be related to its ability to inhibit prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis (50). Others

How can I decrease my risk of getting cancer of the esophagus

Stroke, abnormal cholesterol, and diabetes. Eat fresh fruits and vegetables and avoid foods that contain preservatives. Fresh foods contain chemicals such as vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants that have a protective benefit. Regular exercise helps to maintain a healthy weight and decreases risk. Some vitamin supplements, such as calcium, folic acid, and antioxidants like selenium have demonstrated decreased cancer risks.

Pancreatitis and Enteral Nutrition

Colon Disorders Nutritional Management of Disorders. Diabetes Mellitus Dietary Management. Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa. Microbiota of the Intestine Probiotics. Nutritional Support Adults, Parenteral Infants and Children, Parenteral. Supplementation Dietary Supplements.

The big announcement that set America on its ear

Glucosamine is an over-the-counter dietary supplement that has gained a lot of attention from this recent coverage. It is completely safe, as it is a natural, non-toxic compound, and mounting evidence suggests it may improve symptoms for those who suffer from osteoarthritis.

Treatment of Food Allergies and Intolerances

The major mode of treatment for food allergies and intolerances is for the person to avoid consuming the food or foods that seem to cause health problems. This involves a high degree of dietary awareness and careful food selection. When foods are eliminated from the diet, it is important to ensure the nutritional adequacy of the diet, and some individuals may need to take dietary supplements. There are some food intolerances, such as lactose intolerance, where individuals may be able to reduce the amount of the food consumed and not totally eliminate it from the diet. People with lactose intolerance do not have to completely eliminate milk products, though they must reduce their intake of lactose (milk sugar) to a manageable level. SEE also Additives and Preservatives.

Occurrence of Low Intakes and Poor Biochemical Status in Present Day Societies

Other studies have shown that vitamin C absorption does not appear to be abnormally low in healthy older people. However, there is growing evidence that the multiple pathologies associated with old age (and with debility at any age) are associated with increased turnover of the vitamin. Older people with very low levels of vitamin C are at higher risk of dying sooner than those with high levels, although short-term vitamin supplements generally fail to reverse this increased risk. It thus appears that vitamin C status can act as a barometer of health as well as being a marker of adequacy of vitamin C intake. Further research is needed to determine the key mechanisms that affect the rate of vitamin C turnover and its control in different age

Vitamin Deficiencies

Other polymorphisms in MTHFR and other enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism (e.g., methionine synthase, methionine synthase reductase (EC, cystathionine -synthase) have been identified and their overall influence on homocysteine metabolism, B vitamin requirements, and disease risk have been and continue to be evaluated.

Adequacy of Nutritional Therapy

Carefully executed diet therapy for individuals with PKU is widely considered to be safe as well as efficacious in preventing mental and neurological impairment. However, it cannot be assumed that largely synthetic diets supplemented with individual vitamins, minerals, and trace elements will confer the same benefits as diets composed of whole foods. Synthetic diets may have an inherent inability to supply all essential nutrients. In addition, patients who are noncompliant or partially compliant with their intake of medical food are at increased nutritional risk. Formerly treated patients who are 'off diet' tend to select high-carbohydrate diets and continue their habit of avoiding high-protein foods such as meat, milk, and eggs. Micronutrients previously supplied by the medical food, such as vitamin B12, zinc, and iron, may not be replaced in adequate amounts on such a self-selected diet.

Spurlock Morgan 1970 American screenwriter and independent film director

Became so fatty his doctor warned him it was turning to pate, risking permanent damage. His girlfriend Alex Jamieson, a strict vegan and vegetarian chef, commented that in addition to the weight gain, he started having these uncharacteristic mood swings and, of course, the effect on our sex life was awful (Anon. 2004). She then placed him on a strict vegan detoxification plan which focused on vegetables, fruit, soy products, and vitamin supplements while eliminating all dairy, meat, caffeine, and refined carbohydrates such as white bread, rice, and sugar. After eight weeks on the detox diet, Spurlock lost 20 pounds, and his liver, blood pressure, and cholesterol returned to normal (Burstin 2004 31).

Risks Associated with Dieting

Other weight-loss methods, such as weight-loss diet pills, anorexic and bulimic behavior, and various surgical options pose an even greater risk to health than general diet. Prescription diet pills with the combination of fenfluramine and phentermine were proven to have dangerous side effects the most worrisome problem was the development of leaky heart valves. A study reported by the FDA in 1997 found that one-third of all patients on the fenfluramine, phentermine combination developed a leaky heart and another 25-30 percent displayed an abnormal echocardiogram (Berg 1999 279). More commonly used diet pills are sold over the counter (OTC). These can be dangerous because they are not regulated in the same fashion as prescription drugs by the FDA. OTC diet pills are usually classified as dietary supplements and not drugs, though drug manufacturers may claim that their product will diagnose, cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent a disease. Such claims may not legally be made for dietary...

The Literature On

Government-funded centers, such as the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) and the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), have begun to tackle some of the problems mentioned by producing new online information resources specifically designed for retrieving CAM information, such as the IBIDS database and CAM on PubMed. Other organizations, such as the Southwest School of Botanical Medicine, have made available elec

Regulatorypolicy Issues

The increasing number of adverse events reported in association with use of ephedra-containing dietary supplements has raised some concerns among health care professionals (68,69) about the accessibility and widespread use of these products by the general population. In addition, highly publicized reports of catastrophic adverse outcomes associated with ephedra use have drawn the attention of concerned lawmakers at the state and national levels. Indeed, several states, including Texas, New York, Hawaii, Florida, and California, have passed laws restricting the use of ephedra, required warning statements on product labels, and mandated an adverse-event reporting system. And, more recently, the FDA has announced a ban on all dietary supplements that contain ephedra alkaloids. Ephedra will remain legal as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. free access to alternative therapies that have been clearly mandated by the public. Perhaps an appropriate approach would be to classify natural...

Center for Science in the Public Interest CSPI

The CSPI was founded in 1971 by scientists who had previously worked for Ralph Nader's Center for the Study of Responsive Law. The center is a nonprofit education and advocacy organization that focuses on improving the safety and nutritional quality of the food supply. It represents citizens' interests before legislative, regulatory, and judicial bodies and was involved with petitioning the FDA about labeling requirements for dietary supplements. Go to the Nutrition Action Healthletter link for its Health Watch section, with feature articles and news items assessing current information on the efficacy of herbal remedies.

Herbal Products And Manufacturers

Along with the mainstreaming of herbal medicine in the United States has come a burgeoning of the market for herbal preparations. The actual size of the herbal market in the United States is difficult to determine, but it is now believed that annual sales exceed 3 billion.2 Herbal preparations are moving beyond health food stores into pharmacies and grocery stores. Much of the sales growth can be traced to the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act in 1994, which critics argue allowed herbal companies to promote their products with little oversight, as long as they do not claim that the products treat a specific disease or condition. The more responsible members of the herbal industry, though, including many manufacturers of herbal preparations, realize that if herbal medicines are to be integrated successfully into the health care system, companies will have to deal with issues such as safety, toxicology, and interactions with conventional drugs. Supported by the...

Inadequate Regulation

Since 1994 and the passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), herbal remedies in the United States are classified as dietary supplements and not as drugs or food, and are regulated far less stringently than conventional pharmaceuticals. Under the DSHEA regulations, herbal remedies are commodities sold for '' stimulating, maintaining, supporting, regulating, and promoting'' health rather than for treating disease. Dietary supplements may carry a statement that ''describes the role of a nutrient or dietary ingredient intended to affect the structure or function in humans'' or that''characterizes the documented mechanism by which a nutrient or dietary ingredient acts to maintain such structure or function.'' DSHEA allows general health or ''structure function'' claims but does not permit therapeutic claims. Although dietary supplements are sold to affect physiological functioning, they can be removed from the market only if the FDA can prove they are not safe....

The Potential Therapeutic Role of Vitamins

The potential therapeutic role of vitamins, such as vitamins D, K, B6, B12, and folate, has been investigated. However, additional studies are required to determine the role, if any, of such vitamins. It may be that some vitamins help protect against the side effects of tumor therapy, whereas some may modify tumor growth. Excessive dietary supplementation in cancer patients should be avoided until further evidence is available on the effects of vitamins on tumor growth. See also Cancer Epidemiology and Associations Between Diet and Cancer Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Cancers Other Than Colorectal Cancers Epidemiology of Lung Cancer Effects on Nutritional Status. Cobalamins. Colon Nutritional Management of Disorders. Diarrheal Diseases. Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa. Folic Acid. Nutritional Support Adults, Enteral Adults, Parenteral Infants and Children, Parenteral. Supplementation Dietary Supplements. Vitamin B6. Vitamin D Physiology, Dietary Sources and Requirements. Vitamin...

Centella asiatica L Urban

Mosby's handbook of herbs and natural supplements. Mosby, Inc. St. Louis. 52. Lininger, S. W., Gaby, A. R., Austin, S., Batz, F., Yarnell, E., Brown, D. J. and Constantine, G. 1999. A-Z guide to drug-herb-vitamin interactions how to improve your health and avoid problems when using common medications and natural supplements together. Prima Health Rocklin, CA.

Pharmacological Uses of Vitamin E

(vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Circulation Research 87, 349-54. Diplock AT (2001) Antioxidants, nutrition and health. In Food and Nutritional Supplements Their Role in Health and Disease, JKRansley, JK Donnelly, and NWRead (eds.), pp. 65-80. Berlin Springer. Frei B, Keaney JF Jr, Retsky KL, and Chen K (1996) Vitamins C and E and LDL oxidation.

Target Nutrient Intake Possibly Achievable

The nutritionist discusses with the patient alternatives to dietary intake and the use of oral nutritional supplements that may include enteral diets taken by mouth. These supplements include liquid formula diets as well as specific supplements (e.g., potassium, magnesium, calcium, zinc, and vitamins). If during a trial period there is progressive improvement in intake or the patient meets the target, this process is continued. If the patient cannot meet the target or is clearly unable to progress toward it, then formal EN is started.

Treatment of Folate Deficiency

If the deficiency is nutritional it is usually treated in the first instance with dietary supplements. In the past, daily supplements of 5.0mgday_1 have been used but more recent evidence suggests that such high levels would only be appropriate for the immediate treatment of an overt deficiency. More long-term treatment would recommend dietary changes to improve folate intake. In practice, to achieve effective changes is very difficult so the recommendation might be to improve intake through foods fortified with the synthetic form of the vitamin, namely folic acid, or the use of supplements of folic acid. In both of these instances the aim is to achieve a maximum increased intake via folic acid of 400 mgday-1. Long-term ingestion of larger amounts are not recommended because of their ability to mask the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiencies (discussed above). Other causes of folate deficiency are treated by removing the cause, e.g., alcohol abuse.

Regulations Related to Functional Foods

Functional foods are regulated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the authority of two laws. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD& C) of 1938 provides for the regulation of all foods and food additives. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 amended the FD& C Act to cover dietary supplements and ingredients of dietary supplements. Functional foods may be categorized as whole foods, enriched foods, fortified foods, or enhanced foods. Labeling claims that are used on functional foods are of two types (1) Structure and function claims, which describe effects on normal functioning of the body, but not claims that the food can treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure a disease

Omega3 and other polyunsaturated fatty acids in functional food products

Functional foods are food products that have beneficial effects on physiology and or have the ability to reduce the risk of a disease. Functional foods may be conventional food or foods that have been enriched with functional components to provide greater health benefits, but they do not include purified substances provided in pills or capsules. Since omega-3 PUFAs have been shown to have beneficial effects in several health conditions they are considered to be a functional food. The positive effects of omega-3 PUFAs in different diseases have been established and these fatty acids have been particularly interesting in coronary heart disease but also in several other conditions such as arteriosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, cancer, depression and asthma (de Lorgeril et al., 1994 Simopoulos, 1999 Ruxton et al., 2004 Nettleton and Katz, 2005). The beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFAs on health have resulted in the production of dietary supplements becoming a large industry. There is also a...

Safety and regulatory status

As noted above, G. cambogia extract HCA has been a component of dietary supplements in the USA for some years. In 2003 InterHealth announced that a panel of scientific experts had affirmed Super CitriMax as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) for use in functional beverages in the USA (Interhealth website, GRAS affirmation). This is the first step towards more general food application of HCA. It seems likely that if HCA becomes a mainstream ingredient raw material supply might become an issue. This has obviously been predicted by the Ireland-based Company, Shannon Minerals Ltd, who recently submitted a premarket notification of intention to market synthetic HCA as a new dietary ingredient for dietary supplement applications. The FDA rejected this application, unconvinced of equivalence to the currently marketed HCA extracted from G. cambogia.

Introduction of Dietary Therapy

For regular infant formula or breast milk. In some clinics, only phenylalanine-free formula is given for a few days so that blood phenylalanine will quickly decrease to an acceptable level. A prescribed amount of breast milk or standard infant formula, however, should be shortly introduced into the diet. Whole protein is needed to meet phenylalanine requirements and prevent phenylalanine deficiency, which will lead to muscle protein catabolism and inadequate weight gain. For formula-fed infants, both standard infant formulas and PKU medical foods are used in prescribed amounts and are bottle fed. Breast-feeding of an infant with PKU is possible and, as with all infants, should be encouraged whenever possible. Mature breast milk contains approximately 46 mg 100ml-1of phenylalanine compared to approximately 59 mg 100 ml-1 in cows' milk protein-based formula and approximately 88 mg 100 ml-1 in soy-based formulas. Therefore, breast-fed infants may initially have slightly lower plasma...

Future Work Conclusions and Recommendations

N-3 fatty acids should be added to foods rather than be used solely as dietary supplements, which is a quasi-pharmaceutical approach. Furthermore, the development of a variety of n-3-rich foodstuffs would allow increased n-3 dietary intakes with little change of dietary habits. n-3 fatty acids maintain their preventative and therapeutic properties when packaged in foods other than fish. Efficient use of dietary n-3 fatty acids will require the simultaneous reduction in the food content of n-6 fatty acids and their substitution with monounsaturated oils. Dietary n-3 fats give rise to higher tissue levels of EPA when the 'background' diet is low in n-6 fats. Compared to n-6 fatty acids, olive oil increases the incorporation of n-3 fatty acids into tissues.

Dietary Guidelines for Health Function and Disease Prevention

Robert Russell and colleagues constructed a food guidelines pyramid, which specifically focused on the health of the elderly. Among the elements and tenets that differed from the standard US pyramid are the following recommendations to drink additional water and liquid to increase consumption of dietary fiber and to consider dietary supplements such as calcium and vitamin E. Otherwise, selecting the same requisite serving portions of the specific food groups, and avoiding excess sugar, salt, and separated fats as indicated by the conventional guidelines emblem is recommended for the older population as well.

Selecting a CAM Modality

Selecting quality dietary supplements can be a bit more challenging. Both the natural products industry and the Food and Drug Administration are working to develop uniform standards of quality for dietary supplements. Until these standards are in place, however, consumers must be proactive in determining for themselves what supplements are consistent with their health goals and what manufacturers offer quality products. It is important not to be fooled by hype. Be wary of supplements that sound too good to be true or that promise to cure a medical condition. Quality natural ingredients and responsible product testing can add significantly to the cost of a dietary supplement. The cheapest supplement is not always the best buy, though a high price does not necessarily guarantee high quality. It is important to investigate the supplement manufacturer whose products are being considered. Manufacturer contact information appears on the supplement facts label. One should inquire whether the...

Plant ingredients interfering with the sympathoadrenal system

Caffeine (and other methylxanthines, abundant in coffee and teas) inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterases, thus prolonging the half-life of cAMP, which is a critical intracellular mediator for the lipolytic and thermogenic effects of catecholamines. Ephedrine, the principle alkaloid found in shrubs of plants of the genus Ephedra, and other Ephedra alkaloids, promote the release of noradrenaline from SNS terminals and possess adrenoceptor agonist activity, thus favoring thermogenesis, vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure in addition, Ephedra alkaloids have amphetamine-like effects in the central nervous system, promoting appetite suppression, mood elevation and resistance to fatigue (reviewed in reference 162). Combinations of ephedrine and caffeine are marketed both as pure compounds in capsular form and as herbal preparations sold under the category of dietary supplements. Ephedrine and Ephedra alkaloids, alone and especially when combined with caffeine or caffeine-containing...

Hydroxycitric acid 1031 Background

Wild but is also cultivated in some areas. The fruits of G. cambogia are about the size of an orange but resemble a small yellowish or reddish pumpkin. The dried rinds of the fruit are used in food preparation in several Southeast Asian countries where, amongst other attributes, they are said to be effective in making meals 'more filling' (FDA, 2005a). Good use of this feature of G. cambogia has been made by the dietary supplement industry, particularly in the USA where supplements containing Garcinia extract have been promoted for appetite suppression for many years.

Determination of Requirements

Having decided an appropriate criterion of adequacy, which will differ from one vitamin to another, the problem is to determine what are adequate intakes to meet those criteria. Studies of vitamin requirements can be divided into the following four groups. Depletion Repletion Studies There have been a number of studies to determine vitamin requirements by deliberate depletion of initially healthy subjects, following the development of biochemical and clinical signs of deficiency, then determining the intake required to reverse those signs. Such studies permit reasonably precise estimation of requirements to meet different criteria of adequacy and give some indication of the extent of individual variation. The number of subjects studied in this way has been relatively small, and estimation of requirements has generally been by interpolation into the results of experiments using a relatively wide range of intakes and is thus subject to considerable possible error. Such studies,...

Summary and Recommendations

Across the literature reviewed, adherence has emerged as an issue taking predominance over dietary content itself. Regardless of diet, the greatest weight loss is associated with duration of and adherence to the protocol. If adherence is the key factor, then Bal diets seem to be the best recommendation. In addition, these appear to produce no adverse effects and, unlike both Low-Cho and Low-Fat diets, require no extraneous vitamin supplements. Bal diets seem to constitute a moderate and healthful approach in which all food groups are represented and nutritional adequacy is met. A self-help book that encompasses this approach is Brownell's (2004) LEARN program. Interestingly enough, it ranks 285,607th among sales on Clearly it is not the first choice of consumers looking for a way to lose weight.

The Role Tobacco Plays

Seek professional advice if you feel you can't succeed in quitting on your own. Vitamin supplements, especially vitamin C, are helpful in reducing the incidence of gum problems. See your dentist or dental hygienist frequently and create a good oral hygiene regimen.

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