Allen JC, Keller RP, Archer P, Neville MC. 1991. Studies in human lactation: Milk composition and daily secretion rates of macronutrients in the first year of lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 54:69-80. Amiel SA, Caprio S, Sherwin RS, Plewe G, Haymond MW, Tamborlane WV. 1991. Insulin resistance of puberty: A defect restricted to peripheral glucose metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 72:277-282. Anderson DM, Williams FH, Merkatz RB, Schulman PK, Kerr DS, Pittard WB. 1983. Length of gestation and nutritional composition of human milk. Am J Clin Nutr 37:810-814.
Anderson GH, Atkinson SA, Bryan MH. 1981. Energy and macronutrient content of human milk during early lactation from mothers giving birth prematurely and at term. Am J Clin Nutr 34:258-265. Archer SL, Liu K, Dyer AR, Ruth KJ, Jacobs DR, Van Horn L, Hilner JE, Savage PJ. 1998. Relationship between changes in dietary sucrose and high density lipo-protein cholesterol: The CARDIA Study. Ann Epidemiol 8:433-438. Aronow WS, Ahn C. 1998. Risk factors for new coronary events in older African-
American men and women. Am J Cardiol 82:902-904. Arslanian S, Kalhan S. 1992. Effects of growth hormone releasing hormone on insulin action and insulin secretion in a hypopituitary patient evaluated by the clamp technique. Acta Endocrinol 127:93-96. Assel B, Rossi K, Kalhan S. 1993. Glucose metabolism during fasting through human pregnancy: Comparison of tracer method with respiratory calorimetry. Am J Physiol 265:E351-E356. Azar GJ, Bloom WL. 1963. Similarities of carbohydrate deficiency and fasting. II. Ketones, nonesterified fatty acids, and nitrogen excretion. Arch Intern Med 112:338-343.
Benito R, Obrador A, Stiggelbout A, Bosch FX, Mulet M, Muñoz N, Kaldor J. 1990. A population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer in Majorca. I. Dietary factors. Int J Cancer 45:69-76. Bier DM, Leake RD, Haymond MW, Arnold KJ, Gruenke LD, Sperling MA, Kipnis DM. 1977. Measurement of "true" glucose production rates in infancy and childhood with 6,6-dideuteroglucose. Diabetes 26:1016-1023. Bloom WL, Azar GJ. 1963. Similarities of carbohydrate deficiency and fasting. I. Weight loss, electrolyte excretion, and fatigue. Arch Intern Med 112:333-337.
DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES: SUGARS AND STARCHES 325
Bolton-Smith C, Woodward M. 1994a. Coronary heart disease: Prevalence and dietary sugars in Scotland. J Epidemiol Community Health 48:119-122.
Bolton-Smith C, Woodward M. 1994b. Dietary composition and fat to sugar ratios in relation to obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 18:820-828.
Bolton-Smith C, Woodward M, Smith WCS, Tunstall-Pedoe H. 1991. Dietary and non-dietary predictors of serum total and HDL-cholesterol in men and women: Results from the Scottish Heart Health Study. Int J Epidemiol 20:95-104.
Bossetti BM, Kocher LM, Moranz JF, Falko JM. 1984. The effects of physiologic amounts of simple sugars on lipoprotein, glucose, and insulin levels in normal subjects. Diabetes Care 7:309-312.
Boushey CJ, Beresford SA, Omenn GS, Motulsky AG. 1995. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease: Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. J Am Med Assoc 274:1049-1057.
Bowman SA. 1999. Diets of individuals based on energy intakes from added sugars. Fam Econ Nutr Rev 12:31-38.
Brand JC, Colagiuri S, Crossman S, Allen A, Roberts DCK, Truswell AS. 1991. Low-glycemic index foods improve long-term glycemic control in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 14:95-101.
Brito MN, Brito NA, Migliorini RH. 1992. Thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue is reduced in rats fed a high protein, carbohydrate-free diet. J Nutr 122:2081-2086.
Britten P, Basiotis PP, Davis CA, Anand R. 2000. Is intake of added sugars associated with diet quality? Online. Nutrition Insights No 21. USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. Available at http://www.usda.gov/cnpp/insights.htm. Accessed June 8, 2001.
Brooks GA, Mercier J. 1994. Balance of carbohydrate and lipid utilization during exercise: The "crossover" concept. J Appl Physiol 76:2253-2261.
Brosnan JT. 1999. Comments on metabolic needs for glucose and the role of gluconeogenesis. Eur J Clin Nutr 53:S107-S111.
Bruning PF, Bonfrer JMG, van Noord PAH, Hart AAM, de Jong-Bakker M, Nooijen WJ. 1992. Insulin resistance and breast-cancer risk. Int J Cancer 52:511-516.
Burley VJ. 1997. Sugar consumption and cancers of the digestive tract. Eur J Cancer Prev 6:422-434.
Burley VJ. 1998. Sugar consumption and human cancer in sites other than the digestive tract. Eur J Cancer Prev 7:253-277.
Burt RL, Davidson IWF. 1974. Insulin half-life and utilization in normal pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol43:161-170.
Buyken AE, Toeller M, Heitkamp G, Karamanos B, Rottiers R, Muggeo M, Fuller JH. 2001. Glycemic index in the diet of European outpatients with type 1 diabetes: Relations to glycated hemoglobin and serum lipids. Am J Clin Nutr 73:574-581.
Cahill GF. 1970. Starvation in man. N Engl J Med 282:668-675.
Cahill GF, Owen OE, Morgan AP. 1968. The consumption of fuels during prolonged starvation. Adv Enzyme Reg 6:143-150.
Cahill GF, Aoki TT, Ruderman NB. 1973. Ketosis. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 84:184-202.
Calloway DH. 1971. Dietary components that yield energy. Environ Biol Med 1:175-186.
Carlson MG, Snead WL, Campbell PJ. 1994. Fuel and energy metabolism in fasting humans. Am J Clin Nutr 60:29-36.
Chandramouli V, Ekberg K, Schumann WC, Kalhan SC, Wahren J, Landau BR. 1997. Quantifying gluconeogenesis during fasting. Am J Physiol 273:E1209-E1215.
Chew I, Brand JC, Thornburn AW, Truswell AS. 1988. Application of glycemic index to mixed meals. Am J Clin Nutr 47:53-56.
Chryssanthopoulos C, Hennessy LCM, Williams C. 1994. The influence of pre-exercise glucose ingestion on endurance running capacity. Br J Sports Med 28:105-109.
Chugani HT. 1993. Positron emission tomography scanning: Applications in newborns. Clin Perinatol 20:395-409.
Chugani HT, Phelps ME. 1986. Maturational changes in cerebral function in infants determined by 18FDG positron emission tomography. Science 231:840-843.
Chugani HT, Phelps ME, Mazziotta JC. 1987. Positron emission tomography study of human brain functional development. Ann Neurol 22:487-497.
Cohen JC, Schall R. 1988. Reassessing the effects of simple carbohydrates on the serum triglyceride responses to fat meals. Am J Clin Nutr 48:1031-1034.
Colditz GA, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Willett WC, Speizer FE. 1992. Diet and risk of clinical diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr 55:1018-1023.
Collier GR, Wolever TMS, Wong GS, Josse RG. 1986. Prediction of glycemic response to mixed meals in noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 44:349-352.
Collier GR, Giudici S, Kalmusky J, Wolever TMS, Helman G, Wesson V, Ehrlich RM, Jenkins DJA. 1988. Low glycaemic index starchy foods improve glucose control and lower serum cholesterol in diabetic children. Diabetes Nutr Metab 1:11 -19.
Condon JR, Nassim JR, Millard FJC, Hilbe A, Stainthorpe EM. 1970. Calcium and phosphorus metabolism in relation to lactose tolerance. Lancet 1:1027-1029.
Coppa GV, Gabrielli O, Pierani P, Catassi C, Carlucci A, Giorgi PL. 1993. Changes in carbohydrate composition in human milk over 4 months of lactation. Pediatrics 91:637-641.
Cott A. 1977. Treatment of learning disabilities. In: Williams RJ, Kalita DK, eds. A
Physician's Handbook on Orthomolecular Medicine. New York: Pergamon Press. Pp. 90-94.
Coulston AM, Hollenbeck CB, Liu GC, Williams RA, Starich GH, Mazzaferri EL, Reaven GM. 1984. Effect of source of dietary carbohydrate on plasma glucose, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses to test meals in subjects with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 40:965-970.
Cousins L, Rigg L, Hollingsworth D, Brink G, Aurand J, Yen SSC. 1980. The 24hour excursion and diurnal rhythm of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide in normal pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 136:483-488.
Cowett RM, Susa JB, Kahn CB, Giletti B, Oh W, Schwartz R. 1983. Glucose kinetics in nondiabetic and diabetic women during the third trimester of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 146:773-780.
Crapo PA, Kolterman OG. 1984. The metabolic effects of 2-week fructose feeding in normal subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 39:525-534.
Décombaz J, Sartori D, Arnaud M-J, Thélin A-L, Schürch P, Howald H. 1985. Oxidation and metabolic effects of fructose or glucose ingested before exercise. Int J Sports Med 6:282-286.
DeFronzo RA, Bonadonna RC, Ferrannini E. 1992. Pathogenesis of NIDDM. A balanced overview. Diabetes Care 15:318-368.
DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES: SUGARS AND STARCHES 327
Dekaban AS, Sadowsky D. 1978. Changes in brain weights during the span of human life: Relation of brain weights to body heights and body weights. Ann Neurol 4:345-356.
DeMarco HM, Sucher KP, Cisar CJ, Butterfield GE. 1999. Pre-exercise carbohydrate meals: Application of glycemic index. Med Sci SportsExerc 31:164-170.
Denne SC, Kalhan SC. 1986. Glucose carbon recycling and oxidation in human newborns. Am J Physiol 251:E71-E77.
De Stefani E, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Mendilaharsu M, Ronco A, Carzoglio JC. 1998. Dietary sugar and lung cancer: A case-control study in Uruguay. Nutr Cancer 31:132-137.
Dewey KG, Lönnerdal B. 1983. Milk and nutrient intake of breast-fed infants from 1 to 6 months: Relation to growth and fatness. JPediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2:497-506.
Dewey KG, Finley DA, Lönnerdal B. 1984. Breast milk volume and composition during late lactation (7-20 months). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 3:713-720.
Diez-Sampedro A, Eskandari S, Wright EM, Hirayama BA. 2001. Na+-to-sugar stoichiometry of SGLT3. Am J Physiol Penal Physiol 280:F278-F282.
Dobbing J, Sands J. 1973. Quantitative growth and development of human brain. Arch Dis Child 48:757-767.
Dreon DM, Frey-Hewitt B, Ellsworth N, Williams PT, Terry RB, Wood PD. 1988. Dietary fat:carbohydrate ratio and obesity in middle-aged men. Am J Clin Nutr 47:995-1000.
Du Bois EF. 1928. The control of protein in the diet. J Am Diet Assoc 4:53-76.
Dunnigan MG, Fyfe T, McKiddie MT, Crosbie SM. 1970. The effects of isocaloric exchange of dietary starch and sucrose on glucose tolerance, plasma insulin and serum lipids in man. Clin Sci 38:1-9.
Edmond J, Austad N, Robbins RA, Bergstrom JD. 1985. Ketone body metabolism in the neonate: Development and effect of diet. Fed Proc 44:2359-2364.
Egger J, Carter CM, Graham PJ, Gumley D, Soothill JF. 1985. Controlled trial of oligoantigenic treatment in the hyperkinetic syndrome. Lancet 1:540-545.
Ercan N, Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ. 1994. Effect of added fat on the plasma glucose and insulin response to ingested potato given in various combinations as two meals in normal individuals. Diabetes Care 17:1453-1459.
Ernst N, Fisher M, Smith W, Gordon T, Rifkind BM, Little JA, Mishkel MA, Williams OD. 1980. The association of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with dietary intake and alcohol consumption. The Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study. Circulation 62:IV41-IV52.
FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization). 1998. Carbohydrates in Human Nutrition. Rome: FAO.
Farris RP, Nicklas TA, Myers L, Berenson GS. 1998. Nutrient intake and food group consumption of 10-year-olds by sugar intake level: The Bogalusa Heart Study. J Am Coll Nutr 17:579-585.
Febbraio MA, Keenan J, Angus DJ, Campbell SE, Garnham AP. 2000. Preexercise carbohydrate ingestion, glucose kinetics, and muscle glycogen use: Effect of the glycemic index. J Appl Physiol 89:1845-1851.
Fehily AM, Phillips KM, Yarnell JWG. 1984. Diet, smoking, social class, and body mass index in the Caerphilly Heart Disease Study. Am J Clin Nutr 40:827-833.
Felig P. 1973. The glucose-alanine cycle. Metabolism 22:179-207.
Ferris AM, Dotts MA, Clark RM, Ezrin M, Jensen RG. 1988. Macronutrients in human milk at 2, 12, and 16 weeks postpartum. J Am Diet Assoc 88:694-697.
Fitzsimons D, Dwyer JT, Palmer C, Boyd LD. 1998. Nutrition and oral health guidelines for pregnant women, infants, and children. J Am Diet Assoc 98:182-189.
Fomon SJ, Thomas LN, Filer LJ, Anderson TA, Nelson SE. 1976. Influence of fat and carbohydrate content of diet on food intake and growth of male infants. Acta Paediatr Scand 65:136-144.
Fontvieille AM, Acosta M, Rizkalla SW, Bornet F, David P, Letanoux M, Tchobroutsky G, Slama G. 1988. A moderate switch from high to low glycaemic-index foods for 3 weeks improves the metabolic control of type I (IDDM) diabetic subjects. Diabetes Nutr Metab 1:139-143.
Fontvieille AM, Rizkalla SW, Penfornis A, Acosta M, Bornet FRJ, Slama G. 1992. The use of low glycaemic index foods improves metabolic control of diabetic patients over five weeks. Diabet Med 9:444-450.
Ford ES, Liu S. 2001. Glycemic index and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration among US adults. Arch Intern Med 161:572-576.
Forshee RA, Storey ML. 2001. The role of added sugars in the diet quality of children and adolescents. J Am Coll Nutr 20:32-43.
Forsum E, Kabir N, Sadurskis A, Westerterp K. 1992. Total energy expenditure of healthy Swedish women during pregnancy and lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 56:334-342.
Foster-Powell K, Brand Miller J. 1995. International tables of glycemic index. Am J Clin Nutr 62:871S-890S.
Franceschi S, Dal Maso L, Augustin L, Negri E, Parpinel M, Boyle P, Jenkins DJA, La Vecchia C. 2001. Dietary glycemic load and colorectal cancer risk. Ann Oncol 12:173-178.
Frost G, Wilding J, Beecham J. 1994. Dietary advice based on the glycaemic index improves dietary profile and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 11:397-401.
Frost G, Leeds A, Trew G, Margara R, Dornhorst A. 1998. Insulin sensitivity in women at risk of coronary heart disease and the effect of a low glycemic diet. Metabolism 47:1245-1251.
Frost G, Leeds AA, Doré CJ, Madeiros S, Brading S, Dornhorst A. 1999. Glycaemic index as a determinant of serum HDL-cholesterol concentration. Lancet 353:1045-1048.
Gamble JL. 1946. Physiological information gained from studies on the life raft ration. Harvey Lect 42:247-273.
Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ. 1987. Factors affecting interpretation of postprandial glucose and insulin areas. Diabetes Care 10:759-763.
Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ. 1999. Protein and diabetes. In: Franz MJ, Bantle JP, eds. American Diabetes Association Guide to Medical Nutrition Therapy for Diabetes. Alexandria, VA: American Diabetes Association. Pp. 107-125.
Gannon MC, Niewoehner CB, Nuttall FQ. 1985. Effect of insulin administration on cardiac glycogen synthase and synthase phosphatase activity in rats fed diets high in protein, fat or carbohydrate. J Nutr 115:243-251.
Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ, Westphal SA, Seaquist ER. 1993. The effect of fat and carbohydrate on plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and triglycerides in normal male subjects. J Am Coll Nutr 12:36-41.
Gibbons A. 1998. Solving the brain's energy crisis. Science 280:1345-1347.
Gibney M, Sigman-Grant M, Stanton JL, Keast DR. 1995. Consumption of sugars. Am J Clin Nutr 62:178S-194S.
DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES: SUGARS AND STARCHES 329
Gibson SA. 1993. Consumption and sources of sugars in the diets of British schoolchildren: Are high-sugar diets nutritionally inferior? J Hum Nutr Diet 6:355-371.
Gibson SA. 1996a. Are diets high in non-milk extrinsic sugars conducive to obesity? An analysis from the Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults. J Hum Nutr Diet 9:283-292.
Gibson SA. 1996b. Are high-fat, high-sugar foods and diets conducive to obesity? Int J Food Sci Nutr 47:405-415.
Gibson SA. 1997. Non-milk extrinsic sugars in the diets of pre-school children: Association with intakes of micronutrients, energy, fat and NSP. Br J Nutr 78:367-378.
Giovannucci E, Willett WC. 1994. Dietary factors and risk of colon cancer. Ann Med 26:443-452.
Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Wolk A, Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC. 1998. Calcium and fructose intake in relation to risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Res 58:442-447.
Gleeson M, Maughan RJ, Greenhaff PL. 1986. Comparison of the effects of pre-exercise feeding of glucose, glycerol and placebo on endurance and fuel homeostasis in man. Eur J Appl Physiol 55:645-653.
Glinsmann WH, Irausquin H, Park YK. 1986. Evaluation of health aspects of sugars contained in carbohydrate sweeteners. Report of Sugars Task Force. J Nutr 116:S1-S216.
Goldberg GR, Prentice AM, Coward WA, Davies HL, Murgatroyd PR, Wensing C, Black AE, Harding M, Sawyer M. 1993. Longitudinal assessment of energy expenditure in pregnancy by the doubly labeled water method. Am J Clin Nutr 57:494-505.
Gottstein U, Held K. 1979. Effects of aging on cerebral circulation and metabolism in man. Acta Neurologica Scand 60:54-55.
Groop LC, Eriksson JG. 1992. The etiology and pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Ann Med 24:483-489.
Gulliford MC, Bicknell EJ, Scarpello JH. 1989. Differential effect of protein and fat ingestion on blood glucose responses to high- and low-glycemic-index carbohydrates in noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 50:773-777.
Guss JL, Kissileff HR, Pi-Sunyer FX. 1994. Effects of glucose and fructose solutions on food intake and gastric emptying in nonobese women. Am J Physiol 267:R1537-R1544.
Guthrie JF, Morton JF. 2000. Food sources of added sweeteners in the diets of Americans. J Am Diet Assoc 100:43-48, 51.
Haffner SM, Stern MP, Hazuda HP, Mitchell BD, Patterson JK. 1988b. Increased insulin concentrations in nondiabetic offspring of diabetic parents. N Engl J Med 319:1297-1301.
Haffner SM, Stern MP, Mitchell BD, Hazuda HP, Patterson JK. 1990. Incidence of type II diabetes in Mexican Americans predicted by fasting insulin and glucose levels, obesity, and body-fat distribution. Diabetes 39:283-288.
Hallfrisch J. 1990. Metabolic effects of dietary fructose. FASEB J4:2652-2660.
Hallfrisch J, Reiser S, Prather ES. 1983. Blood lipid distribution of hyperinsulinemic men consuming three levels of fructose. Am J Clin Nutr 37:740-748.
Hanson PG, Johnson RE, Zaharko DS. 1965. Correlation between ketone body and free fatty acid concentrations in the plasma during early starvation in man. Metabolism 14:1037-1040.
Hargreaves M, Costill DL, Fink WJ, King DS, Fielding RA. 1987. Effect of pre-exercise carbohydrate feedings on endurance cycling performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 19:33-36.
Harnack L, Stang J, Story M. 1999. Soft drink consumption among US children and adolescents: Nutritional consequences. J Am Diet Assoc 99:436-441.
Hatazawa J, Brooks RA, Di Chiro G, Bacharach SL. 1987. Glucose utilization rate versus brain size in humans. Neurology 37:583-588.
Hay WW. 1994. Placental supply of energy and protein substrates to the fetus. Acta Paediatr Suppl 405:13-19.
Hayford JT, Danney MM, Wiebe D, Roberts S, Thompson RG. 1979. Triglyceride integrated concentrations: Effect of variation of source and amount of dietary carbohydrate. Am J Clin Nutr 32:1670-1678.
Heinbecker P. 1928. Studies on the metabolism of Eskimos. J Biol Chem 80:461-475.
Hellerstein MK. 1999. De novo lipogenesis in humans: Metabolic and regulatory aspects. Eur J Clin Nutr 53:S53-S65.
Holbrook WP, Arnadottir IB, Takazoe E, Birkhed D, Frostell G. 1995. Longitudinal study of caries, cariogenic bacteria and diet in children just before and after starting school. Eur J Oral Sci 103:42-45.
Hollenbeck CB, Coulston AM, Reaven GM. 1986. Glycemic effects of carbohydrates: A different perspective. Diabetes Care 9:641-647.
Holt SH, Brand Miller J. 1995. Increased insulin responses to ingested foods are associated with lessened satiety. Appetite 24:43-54.
Holt SHA, Brand Miller JC, Petocz P. 1997. An insulin index of foods: The insulin demand generated by 1000-kJ portions of common foods. Am J Clin Nutr 66:1264-1276.
Homko CJ, Sivan E, Reece EA, Boden G. 1999. Fuel metabolism during pregnancy. Semin Reprod Endocrinol 17:119-125.
Hoover HC, Grant JP, Gorschboth C, Ketcham AS. 1975. Nitrogen-sparing intravenous fluids in postoperative patients. N Engl J Med 293:172-175.
Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz G, Liu S, Solomon CG, Willett WC. 2001. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med 345:790-797.
Hultman E, Harris RC, Spriet LL. 1999. Diet in work and exercise performance. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins. Pp. 761-782.
Indar-Brown K, Norenberg C, Madar Z. 1992. Glycemic and insulinemic responses after ingestion of ethnic foods by NIDDM and healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 55:89-95.
IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1991. Nutrition During Lactation. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Janney NW. 1915. The metabolic relationship of the proteins to glucose. J Biol Chem 20:321-350.
Järvi AE, Karlström BE, Granfeldt YE, Björk IME, Vessby BOH, Asp N-GL. 1995. The influence of food structure on postprandial metabolism in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 61:837-842.
Järvi AE, Karlström BE, Granfeldt YE, Björck IE, Asp N-GL, Vessby BOH. 1999. Improved glycemic control and lipid profile and normalized fibrinolytic activity on a low-glycemic index diet in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 22:10-18.
DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES: SUGARS AND STARCHES 331
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, Barker H, Fielden H, Baldwin JM, Bowling AC, Newman HC, Jenkins AL, Goff DV. 1981. Glycemic index of foods: A physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 34:362-366.
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Kalmusky J, Giudici S, Giordano C, Wong GS, Bird JN, Patten R, Hall M, Buckley G, Little JA. 1985. Low glycemic index carbohydrate foods in the management of hyperlipidemia. Am J Clin Nutr 42:604-617.
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Collier GR, Ocana A, Rao AV, Buckley G, Lam Y, Mayer A, Thompson LU. 1987a. Metabolic effects of a low-glycemic-index diet. Am J CUn Nutr 46:968-975.
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Kalmusky J, Guidici S, Girodano C, Patten R, Wong GS, Bird J, Hall M, Buckley G, Csima A, Little JA. 1987b. Low-glycemic index diet in hyperlipidemia: Use of traditional starchy foods. Am J Clin Nutr 46:66-71.
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Buckley G, Lam KY, Giudici S, Kalmusky J, Jenkins AL, Patten RL, Bird J, Wong GS, Josse RG. 1988a. Low-glycemic-index starchy food in the diabetic diet. Am J Clin Nutr 48:248-254.
Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Jenkins AL. 1988b. Starchy foods and glycemic index. Diabetes Care 11:149-159.
Jenkins DJA, Jenkins AL, Wolever TM, Vuksan V, Brighenti F, Testolin G. 1990. Fiber and physiological and potentially therapeutic effects of slowing carbohydrate absorption. Adv Exp Med Biol 270:129-134.
Johnson RK. 2000. What are people really eating and why does it matter? Nutr Today 35:40-46.
Kahn SE, Prigeon RL, Schwartz RS, Fujimoto WY, Knopp RH, Brunzell JD, Porte D. 2001. Obesity, body fat distribution, insulin sensitivity and islet ß-cell function as explanations for metabolic diversity. J Nutr 131:354S-360S.
Kalhan SC, Kilig I. 1999. Carbohydrate as nutrient in the infant and child: Range of acceptable intake. Eur J Clin Nutr 53:S94-S100.
Kalhan SC, D'Angelo LJ, Savin SM, Adam PAJ. 1979. Glucose production in pregnant women at term gestation. Sources of glucose for human fetus. J Clin Invest 63:388-394.
Kalhan SC, Oliven A, King KC, Lucero C. 1986. Role of glucose in the regulation of endogenous glucose production in the human newborn. Pediatr Res 20:49-52.
Kalhan S, Rossi K, Gruca L, Burkett E, O'Brien A. 1997. Glucose turnover and gluconeogenesis in human pregnancy. J Clin Invest 100:1775-1781.
Kalsbeek H, Verrips GH. 1994. Consumption of sweet snacks and caries experience of primary school children. Caries Res 28:477-483.
Kant AK. 2000. Consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods by adult Americans: Nutritional and health implications. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Am J Clin Nutr 72:929-936.
Kaufmann NA, Poznanski R, Blondheim SH, Stein Y. 1966. Effect of fructose, glucose, sucrose and starch on serum lipids in carbohydrate induced hyper-triglyceridemia and in normal subjects. Israel J Med Sci 2:715-726.
Kazer RR. 1995. Insulin resistance, insulin-like growth factor I and breast cancer: A hypothesis. Int J Cancer 62:403-406.
Kennedy C, Sokoloff L. 1957. An adaptation of the nitrous oxide method to the study of the cerebral circulation in children: Normal values for cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate in childhood. J Clin Invest 36:1130-1137.
Kety SS. 1957. The general metabolism of the brain in vivo. In: Richter D, ed. Metabolism of the Nervous System. London: Pergamon Press. Pp. 221-237.
Kiens B, Richter EA. 1996. Types of carbohydrate in an ordinary diet affect insulin action and muscle substrates in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 63:47-53.
332 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES
King KC, Tsemg K-Y, Kalhan SC. 1982. Regulation of glucose production in newborn infants of diabetic mothers. Pediatr Res 16:608-612.
Knopp RH, Saudek CD, Arky RA, O'Sullivan JB. 1973. Two phases of adipose tissue metabolism in pregnancy: Maternal adaptations for fetal growth. Endocrinology 92:984-988.
Kopp-Hoolihan LE, van Loan MD, Wong WW, King JC. 1999. Longitudinal assessment of energy balance in well-nourished, pregnant women. Am J Clin Nutr 69:697-704.
Krebs-Smith SM, Graubard BI, Kahle LL, Subar AF, Cleveland LE, Ballard-Barbash R. 2000. Low energy reporters vs. others: A comparison of reported food intakes. Eur J Cltn Nutr 54:281-287.
Krezowski PA, Nuttall FQ, Gannon MC, Bartosh NH. 1986. The effect of protein ingestion on the metabolic response to oral glucose in normal individuals. Am J Cltn Nutr 44:847-856.
Kushi LK, Lew RA, Stare FJ, Ellison CR, el Lozy M, Bourke G, Daly L, Graham I, Hickey N, Mulcahy R, Kevaney J. 1985. Diet and 20-year mortality from coronary heart disease. The Ireland-Boston Diet-Heart Study. N Engl J Med 312:811-888.
Laine DC, Thomas W, Levitt MD, Bantle JP. 1987. Comparison of predictive capabilities of diabetic exchange lists and glycemic index of foods. Diabetes Care 10:387-394.
Lammi-Keefe CJ, Ferris AM, Jensen RG. 1990. Changes in human milk at 0600, 1000, 1400, 1800, and 2200 h. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 11:83-88.
Landau BR, Wahren J, Chandramouli V, Schumann WC, Ekberg K, Kalhan SC. 1996. Contributions of gluconeogenesis to glucose production in the fasted state. J Clin Invest 98:378-385.
Leenders KL, Perani D, Lammertsma AA, Heather JD, Buckingham P, Healy MJR, Gibbs JM, Wise RJS, Hatazawa J, Herold S, Beaney RP, Brooks DJ, Spinks T, Rhodes C, Frackowiak RSJ, Jones T. 1990. Cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen utilization. Normal values and effect of age. Brain 113:27-47.
Levin RJ. 1999. Carbohydrates. In: Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 9th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins. Pp. 49-65.
Lewis CJ, Park YK, Dexter PB, Yetley EA. 1992. Nutrient intakes and body weights of persons consuming high and moderate levels of added sugars. J Am Diet Assoc 92:708-713.
Liljeberg HGM, Akerberg AKE, Björck IME. 1999. Effect of the glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates of cereal-based breakfast meals on glucose tolerance at lunch in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 69:647-655.
Lingstrom P, van Houte J, Kashket S. 2000. Food starches and dental caries. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 11:366-380.
Liu K, Stamler J, Trevisan M, Moss D. 1982. Dietary lipids, sugar, fiber, and mortality from coronary heart disease. Bivariate analysis of international data. Arteriosclerosis 2:221-227.
Liu S, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, Franz M, Sampson L, Hennekens CH, Manson JE. 2000. A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women. Am J Clin Nutr 71:1455-1461.
DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES: SUGARS AND STARCHES 333
Liu S, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Holmes MD, Hu FB, Hankinson SE, Willett WC. 2001. Dietary glycemic load assessed by food-frequency questionnaire in relation to plasma high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting plasma triacylglycerols in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 73:560-566.
Ludwig DS, Majzoub JA, Al-Zahrani A, Dallal GE, Blanco I, Roberts SB. 1999. High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity. Pediatrics 103:E26.
Ludwig DS, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL. 2001. Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: A prospective, observational analysis. Lancet 357:505-508.
Luscombe ND, Noakes M, Clifton PM. 1999. Diets high and low in glycemic index versus high monounsaturated fat diets: Effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM. Eur J Clin Nutr 53:473-478.
Mackrell DJ, Sokal JE. 1969. Antagonism between the effects of insulin and glucagon on the isolated liver. Diabetes 18:724-732.
Macquart-Moulin G, Riboli E, Cornée J, Charnay B, Berthezène P, Day N. 1986. Case-control study on colorectal cancer and diet in Marseilles. Int J Cancer 38:183-191.
Macquart-Moulin G, Riboli E, Cornée J, Kaaks R, Berthezène P. 1987. Colorectal polyps and diet: A case-control study in Marseilles. Int J Cancer 40:179-188.
Mann JI, Truswell AS. 1972. Effects of isocaloric exchange of dietary sucrose and starch on fasting serum lipids, postprandial insulin secretion and alimentary lipaemia in human subjects. Br J Nutr 27:395-405.
Mann JI, Watermeyer GS, Manning EB, Randles J, Truswell AS. 1973. Effects on serum lipids of different dietary fats associated with a high sucrose diet. Clin Sci 44:601-604.
Marckmann P, Raben A, Astrup A. 2000. Ad libitum intake of low-fat diets rich in either starchy foods or sucrose: Effects on blood lipids, factor VII coagulant activity, and fibrinogen. Metabolism 49:731-735.
Martin BC, Warram JH, Krolewski AS, Bergman RN, Soeldner JS, Kahn CR. 1992. Role of glucose and insulin resistance in development of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Results of a 25-year follow-up study. Lancet 340:925-929.
Mascarenhas AK. 1998. Oral hygiene as a risk indicator of enamel and dentin caries. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 26:331-339.
Mattes RD. 1996. Dietary compensation by humans for supplemental energy provided as ethanol or carbohydrate in fluids. PhysiolBehav 59:179-187.
Maxwell JD, McKiddie MT, Ferguson A, Buchanan KD. 1970. Plasma insulin response to oral carbohydrate in patients with glucose and lactose malabsorption. Gut 11:962-965.
McDonagh MS, Whiting PF, Wilson PM, Sutton AJ, Chestnutt I, Cooper J, Misso K, Bradley M, Treasure E, Kleijnen J. 2000. Systemic review of water fluoridation. Br Med J 321:855-859.
McGee DL, Reed DM, Yano K, Kagan A, Tillotson J. 1984. Ten-year incidence of coronary heart disease in the Honolulu Heart Program. Relationship to nutrient intake. Am J Epidemiol 119:667-676.
Mehta S, Kalsi HK, Nain CK, Menkes JH. 1977. Energy metabolism of brain in human protein-calorie malnutrition. Pediatr Res 11:290-293.
Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Jacobs DR, Slavin J, Sellers TA, Folsom AR. 2000. Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident of type 2 diabetes in older women. Am J Chn Nutr 71:921-930.
Miller AB, Howe GR, Jain M, Craib KJP, Harrison L. 1983. Food items and food groups as risk factors in a case-control study of diet and colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer 32:155-161.
Miller SL, Wolfe RR. 1999. Physical exercise as a modulator of adaptation to low and high carbohydrate and low and high fat intakes. Eur J Clin Nutr 53:S112-S119.
Miller WC, Lindeman AK, Wallace J, Niederpruem M. 1990. Diet composition, energy intake, and exercise in relation to body fat in men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 52:426-430.
Miller WC, Niederpruem MG, Wallace JP, Lindman AK. 1994. Dietary fat, sugar, and fiber predict body fat content. J Am Diet Assoc 94:612-615.
Morris KL, Zemel MB. 1999. Glycemic index, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. Nutr Rev 57:273-276.
Neville MC, Keller RP, Seacat J, Casey CE, Allen JC, Archer P. 1984. Studies on human lactation. I. Within-feed and between-breast variation in selected components of human milk. Am J Clin Nutr 40:635-646.
Newburg DS, Neubauer SH. 1995. Carbohydrates in milks: Analysis, quantities, and significance. In: Jensen RG, ed. Handbook of Milk Composition. New York: Academic Press. Pp. 273-349.
Nicklas TA, Myers L, Farris RP, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. 1996. Nutritional quality of a high carbohydrate diet as consumed by children: The Bogalusa Heart Study. J Nutr 126:1382-1388.
Nommsen LA, Lovelady CA, Heinig MJ, Lönnerdal B, Dewey KG. 1991. Determinants of energy, protein, lipid, and lactose concentrations in human milk during the first 12 mo of lactation: The DARLING Study. Am J Clin Nutr 53:457-465.
Nordli DR, Koenigsberger D, Schroeder J, deVivo DC. 1992. Ketogenic diets. In: Resor SR, Kutt H, eds. The Medical Treatment of Epilepsy. New York: Marcel Dekker. Pp. 455-472.
Nuttall FQ, Gannon MC. 1981. Sucrose and disease. Diabetes Care 4:305-310.
Nuttall FQ, Mooradian AD, Gannon MC, Billington C, Krezowski P. 1984. Effect of protein ingestion on the glucose and insulin response to a standardized oral glucose load. Diabetes Care 7:465-470.
Nuttall FQ, Gannon MC, Burmeister LA, Lane JT, Pyzdrowski KL. 1992. The metabolic response to various doses of fructose in type II diabetic subjects. Metabolism 41:510-517.
Okano G, Takeda H, Morita I, Katoh M, Mu Z, Miyake S. 1988. Effect of pre-exercise fructose ingestion on endurance performance in fed men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 20:105-109.
Owen OE, Morgan AP, Kemp HG, Sullivan JM, Herrera MG, Cahill GF. 1967. Brain metabolism during fasting. J Clin Invest 46:1589-1595.
Owen OE, Smalley KJ, D'Alessio DA, Mozzoli MA, Dawson EK. 1998. Protein, fat, and carbohydrate requirements during starvation: Anaplerosis and cataplerosis. Am J Clin Nutr 68:12-34.
Papas AS, Joshi A, Palmer CA, Giunta JL, Dwyer JT. 1995. Relationship of diet to root caries. Am J Clin Nutr 61:423S-429S.
Park YK, Yetley EA. 1993. Intakes and food sources of fructose in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 58:737S-747S.
Parks EJ, Hellerstein MK. 2000. Carbohydrate-induced hypertriacylglycerolemia: Historical perspective and review of biological mechanisms. Am J Clin Nutr 71:412-433.
DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES: SUGARS AND STARCHES 335
Patel D, Kalhan S. 1992. Glycerol metabolism and triglyceride-fatty acid cycling in the human newborn: Effect of maternal diabetes and intrauterine growth retardation. Pediatr Res 31:52-58.
Patel MS, Johnson CA, Rajan R, Owen OE. 1975. The metabolism of ketone bodies in developing human brain: Development of ketone-body-utilizing enzymes and ketone bodies as precursors for lipid synthesis. JNeurochem 25:905-908.
Phelps RL, Metzger BE, Freinkel N. 1981. Carbohydrate metabolism in pregnancy. XVII. Diurnal profiles of plasma glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, and individual amino acids in late normal pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 140:730-736.
Raguso CA, Pereira P, Young VR. 1999. A tracer investigation of obligatory oxidative amino acid losses in healthy, young adults. Am J Clin Nutr 70:474-483.
Rath R, Mas~ek J, Kujalova V, Slabochova Z. 1974. Effect of a high sugar intake on some metabolic and regulatory indicators in young men. Nahrung 18:343-353.
Reaven GM. 1999. Insulin resistance: A chicken that has come to roost. Ann N Y Acad Sci 892:45-57.
Reinmuth OM, Scheinberg P, Bourne B. 1965. Total cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Arch Neurol 12:49-66.
Reiser S, Hallfrisch J. 1987. Metabolic Effects of Dietary Fructose. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Reiser S, Hallfrisch J, Michaelis OE, Lazar FL, Martin RE, Prather ES. 1979a. Iso-caloric exchange of dietary starch and sucrose in humans. I. Effects on levels of fasting blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr 32:1659-1669.
Reiser S, Handler HB, Gardner LB, Hallfrisch JG, Michaelis OE, Prather ES. 1979b. Isocaloric exchange of dietary starch and sucrose in humans. II. Effect on fasting blood insulin, glucose, and glucagon and on insulin and glucose response to a sucrose load. Am J Clin Nutr 32:2206-2216.
Reiser S, Powell AS, Scholfield DJ, Panda P, Ellwood KC, Canary JJ. 1989. Blood lipids, lipoproteins, apoproteins, and uric acid in men fed diets containing fructose or high-amylose cornstarch. Am J Clin Nutr 49:832-839.
Renner R, Elcombe AM. 1964. Factors affecting the utilization of "carbohydrate-free" diets by the chick. II. Level of glycerol. J Nutr 84:327-330.
Ritz P, Krempf M, Cloarec D, Champ M, Charbonnel B. 1991. Comparative continuous-indirect-calorimetry study of two carbohydrates with different glycemic indices. Am J Clin Nutr 54:855-859.
Robert J-J, Cummins JC, Wolfe RR, Durkot M, Matthews DE, Zhao XH, Bier DM, Young VR. 1982. Quantitative aspects of glucose production and metabolism in healthy elderly subjects. Diabetes 31:203-211.
Roberts SB. 2000a. A review of age-related changes in energy regulation and suggested mechanisms. Mech Ageing Dev 116:157-167.
Roberts SB. 2000b. High-glycemic index foods, hunger, and obesity: Is there a connection? Nutr Rev 58:163-169.
Roche HM. 1999. Dietary carbohydrates and triacylglycerol metabolism. Proc Nutr Soc 58:201-207.
Rodin J. 1991. Effects of pure sugar vs. mixed starch fructose loads on food intake. Appetite 17:213-219.
Rossetti L, Giaccari A, DeFronzo RA. 1990. Glucose toxicity. Diabetes Care 13:610-630.
Rudolf MCJ, Sherwin RS. 1983. Maternal ketosis and its effects on the fetus. Clin Endocrinol Metab 12:413-428.
Ryan EA, O'Sullivan MJ, Skyler JS. 1985. Insulin action during pregnancy. Studies with the euglycemic clamp technique. Diabetes 34:380-389.
Salmerón J, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, Spiegelman D, Jenkins DJ, Stampfer MJ, Wing AL, Willett WC. 1997a. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care 20:545-550.
Salmerón J, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Wing AL, Willett WC. 1997b. Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women. J Am Med Assoc 277:472-477.
Sapir DG, Owen OE, Cheng JT, Ginsberg R, Boden G, Walker WG. 1972. The effect of carbohydrates on ammonium and ketoacid excretion during starvation. J Clin Invest 51:2093-2102.
Saris WH, Astrup A, Prentice AM, Zunft HJ, Formiguera X, Verboeket-van de Venne WP, Raben A, Poppitt SD, Seppelt B, Johnston S, Vasilaras TH, Keogh GF. 2000. Randomized controlled trial of changes in dietary carbohydrate/fat ratio and simple vs. complex carbohydrates on body weight and blood lipids: The CARMEN study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24:1310-1318.
Sawaya AL, Fuss PJ, Dallal GE, Tsay R, McCrory MA, Young V, Roberts SB. 2001. Meal palatability, substrate oxidation and blood glucose in young and older men. Physiol Behav 72:5-12.
Scheinberg P, Stead EA. 1949. The cerebral blood flow in male subjects as measured by the nitrous oxide technique. Normal values for blood flow, oxygen utilization, glucose utilization, and peripheral resistance, with observations on the effect of tiliting and anxiety. J Clin Invest 28:1163-1171.
Settergren G, Lindblad BS, Persson B. 1976. Cerebral blood flow and exchange of oxygen, glucose, ketone bodies, lactate, pyruvate and amino acids in infants. Acta Paediatr Scand 65:343-353.
Settergren G, Lindblad BS, Persson B. 1980. Cerebral blood flow and exchange of oxygen, glucose, ketone bodies, lactate, pyruvate and amino acids in anesthetized children. Acta Paediatr Scand 69:457-465.
Shannon WR. 1922. Neuropathologic manifestations in infants and children as a result of anaphylactic reaction to foods contained in their diet. Am J Dis Child 24:89-94.
Shaw JH. 1987. Causes and control of dental caries. N Engl J Med 317:996-1004.
Slattery ML, Benson J, Berry TD, Duncan D, Edwards SL, Caan BJ, Potter JD. 1997. Dietary sugar and colon cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 6:677-685.
Smith JB, Niven BE, Mann JI. 1996. The effect of reduced extrinsic sucrose intake on plasma triglyceride levels. Eur J Clin Nutr 50:498-504.
Sokoloff L. 1973. Metabolism of ketone bodies by the brain. Annu Rev Med 24:271-280.
Sokoloff L, Fitzgerald GG, Kaufman EE. 1977. Cerebral nutrition and energy metabolism. In: Wurtman RJ, Wurtman JJ, eds. Nutrition and the Brain. New York: Raven Press. Pp. 87-139.
Sparks JW, Girard JR, Battaglia FC. 1980. An estimate of the caloric requirements of the human fetus. Biol Neonate 38:113-119.
Sparks MJ, Selig SS, Febbraio MA. 1998. Pre-exercise carbohydrate ingestion: Effect of the glycemic index on endurance exercise performance. Med Sci SportsExerc 30:844-849.
Speer F. 1954. The allergenic tension-fatigue syndrome. Pediatr Clin North Am 1:1029-1037.
Spieth LE, Harnish JD, Lenders CM, Raezer LB, Pereira MA, Hangen SJ, Ludwig DS. 2000. A low-glycemic index diet in the treatment of pediatric obesity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 154:947-951.
DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES: SUGARS AND STARCHES 337
Spitzer L, Rodin J. 1987. Effects of fructose and glucose preloads on subsequent food intake. Appetite 8:135-145.
Streja DA, Steiner G, Marliss EB, Vranic M. 1977. Turnover and recycling of glucose in man during prolonged fasting. Metabolism 26:1089-1098.
Sunehag AL, Haymond MW, Schanler RJ, Reeds PJ, Bier DM. 1999. Gluconeo-genesis in very low birth weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition. Diabetes 48:791-800.
Surwit RS, Feinglos MN, McCaskill CC, Clay SL, Babyak MA, Brownlow BS, Plaisted CS, Lin P-H. 1997. Metabolic and behavioral effects of a high-sucrose diet during weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr 65:908-915.
Swanson JE, Laine DC, Thomas W, Bantle JP. 1992. Metabolic effects of dietary fructose in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 55:851-856.
Swink TD, Vining EPG, Freeman JM. 1997. The ketogenic diet: 1997. Adv Pediatr 44:297-329.
Thomas DE, Brotherhood JR, Brand JC. 1991. Carbohydrate feeding before exercise: Effect of glycemic index. Int J Sports Med 12:180-186.
Tillotson JL, Grandits GA, Bartsch GE, Stamler J. 1997. Relation of dietary carbohydrates to blood lipids in the special intervention and usual care groups in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Am J Clin Nutr 65:314S-326S.
Troiano RP, Briefel RR, Carroll MD, Bialostosky K. 2000. Energy and fat intakes of children and adolescents in the United States: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Am J Clin Nutr 72:1343S-1353S.
Tuyns AJ, Kaaks R, Haelterman M. 1988. Colorectal cancer and the consumption of foods: A case-control study in Belgium. Nutr Cancer 11:189-204.
USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). 1996. The Food Guide Pyramid.. Home and Garden Bulletin No. 252. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
USDA/HHS (U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 2000. Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Home and Garden Bulletin No. 232. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
van Dam RM, Visscher AWJ, Feskens EJM, Verhoef P, Kromhout D. 2000. Dietary glycemic index in relation to metabolic risk factors and incidence of coronary heart disease: The Zutphen Elderly Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 54:726-731.
Vining EPG. 1999. Clinical efficacy of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsy Res 37:181-190.
Walker ARP, Cleaton-Jones PE. 1992. Sugar intake and dental caries. Br Dent J 172:7.
Warram JH, Martin BC, Krolewski AS, Soeldner JS, Kahn CR. 1990. Slow glucose removal rate and hyperinsulinemia precede the development of type II diabetes in the offspring of diabetic parents. Ann Intern Med 113:909-915.
Welsh S, Davis C, Shaw A. 1992. Development of the Food Guide Pyramid. Nutr Today 27:12-23.
Westphal SA, Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ. 1990. Metabolic response to glucose ingested with various amounts of protein. Am J Clin Nutr 52:267-272.
White JW, Wolraich M. 1995. Effect of sugar on behavior and mental performance. Am J Clin Nutr 62:242S-249S.
Wolever TMS. 1990. Relationship between dietary fiber content and composition in foods and the glycemic index. Am J Clin Nutr 51:72-75.
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA. 1986. The use of the glycemic index in predicting the blood glucose response to mixed meals. Am J Clin Nutr 43:167-172.
Wolever TMS, Nuttal FQ, Lee R, Wong GS, Josse RG, Csima A, Jenkins DJA. 1985. Prediction of the relative blood glucose response of mixed meals using the white bread glycemic index. Diabetes Care 8:418-428.
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Josse RG, Wong GS, Lee R. 1987. The glycemic index: Similarity of values derived in insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. J Am Coll Nutr 6:295-305.
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Ocana AM, Rao VA, Collier GR. 1988. Second-meal effect: Low-glycemic-index foods eaten at dinner improve subsequent breakfast glycemic response. Am J Clin Nutr 48:1041-1047.
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Vuksan V, Josse RG, Wong GS, Jenkins AL. 1990. Glycemic index of foods in individual subjects. Diabetes Care 13:126-132.
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Jenkins AL, Josse RG. 1991. The glycemic index: Methodology and clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 54:846-854.
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Vuksan V, Jenkins AL, Buckley GC, Wong GS, Josse RG. 1992a. Beneficial effect of a low glycaemic index diet in type 2 diabetes. Dabet Med 9:451-458.
Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Vuksan V, Jenkins AL, Wong GS, Josse RG. 1992b. Beneficial effect of low-glycemic index diet in overweight NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care 15:562-564.
Wolraich ML, Wilson DB, White JW. 1995. The effect of sugar on behavior or cognition in children. A meta-analysis. J Am Med Assoc 274:1617-1621.
World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. 1997. Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: American Institute for Cancer Research.
Yamaura H, Ito M, Kubota K, Matsuzawa T. 1980. Brain atrophy during aging: A quantitative study with computed tomography. J Gerontol 35:492-498.
Yudkin J, Eisa O, Kang SS, Meraji S, Bruckdorfer KR. 1986. Dietary sucrose affects plasma HDL cholesterol concentration in young men. Ann Nutr Metab 30:261-266.
Ziegler EE, Fomon SJ. 1983. Lactose enhances mineral absorption in infancy. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2:288-294.
Was this article helpful?