Info

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES

5 mph

4 mph

3 mph 2 mph

40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Body Weight (kg)

5 mph

4 mph

3 mph 2 mph

40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Body Weight (kg)

FIGURE 12-4 Impact of body weight on energy cost of walking 1 mile at speeds of 2, 3, 4, or 5 mph in men and women.

such as running at speeds of 6 or 8 mph, corresponding to exertions at 10.2 or 13.5 METs. While the effect on TEE/miles covered does not increase substantially as fast walking (5 mph) changes to jogging (6 mph) and running (8 mph) (upper panels of Figures 12-5 and 12-6), the time required for a given impact on PAL is reduced. This illustrates that high

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY MEN

90 100 110 120 130

Body Weight (kg)

90 -,

80 -

70 -

60 -

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50 -

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40 -

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70 80 90 Body Weight (kg)

100 110 120 130

FIGURE 12-5 Distance to cover per day for men to raise physical activity level (PAL) value by 0.10 while walking or running at various speeds (upper panel) and time required to do so (lower panel). The points shown are for men with reference heights of 1.75 m or reference heights ± 1 standard deviation (i.e., 1.64 m or 1.86 m) and body mass index of 18.5, 22.5, 25, 30, or 35 kg/m2. Energy expenditures while walking or running at speeds of 2, 3, 4, 5, or 8 mph are 2.5, 3.3, 4.5, 8.0, 10.2, and 13.5 metabolic equivalents (METs), respectively (Fletcher et al., 2001). The impact on APAL was calculated as (MET - 1.0) x minutes x 1.15 ■ 0.9 (where 1.15 accounts for excess [~15%] post-exercise oxygen consumption [Bahr et al., 1987] and 0.9 accounts for a 10% dissipation of food energy consumed by the thermic effect of food) and related to predicted basal energy expenditures for 30-year-old men calculated from the predictive basal energy expenditure equations in Chapter 5; see "Estimation of Energy Expenditure in Normal and Overweight/Obese Adults."

DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES WOMEN

2 mph

3 mph

8 mph

40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Body Weight (kg)

40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Body Weight (kg)

2 mph

3 mph

8 mph

110 120

FIGURE 12-6 Distance to cover per day for women to raise physical activity level (PAL) value by 0.10 while walking or running at various speeds (upper panel) and time required to do so (lower panel). The points shown are for women with reference heights of 1.62 m or reference heights ± 1 standard deviation (i.e., 1.55 m or 1.70 m) and a body mass index of 18.5, 22.5, 25, 30, or 35 kg/m2. Energy expenditures while walking or running at speeds of 2, 3, 4, 5, or 8 mph are 2.5, 3.3, 4.5, 8.0, 10.2, and 13.5 metabolic equivalents (METs), respectively (Fletcher et al., 2001). The impact on APAL was calculated as (MET - 1.0) x minutes x 1.15 ■ 0.9 (where 1.15 accounts for excess [—15%] post-exercise oxygen consumption [Bahr et al., 1987] and 0.9 accounts for a 10 percent dissipation of food energy consumed by the thermic effect of food) and related to predicted basal energy expenditures for 30-year-old women calculated from the predictive basal energy expenditure (BEE) equations in Chapter 5; see "Estimation of Energy Expenditure in Normal and Overweight/Obese Adults."

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 895

intensity activities must be included to achieve high PAL levels if the time spent exercising is to remain within a certain range. Cross-sectional data from a doubly labeled water database indicate that the PALs are similar for normal weight and obese individuals (Tables 5-10 and 5-11). While this is true, because energy expenditure increases with increasing body weight, there is a greater total daily energy expenditure in obese subjects (Table 5-10 and 5-11).

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