Info

5,000

4,000

3,000

w 2,000

1,000

5,000

4,000

3,000

x

Weight (kg)

FIGURE 5-8 Total energy expenditure and weight in all individuals (excluding infants and pregnant and lactating women in the doubly labeled water database (Appendix I).

where TEE is in kcal/d, age is in years, weight is in kilograms, and height is in meters. In this equation, A is the constant term; B is the age coefficient; PA is the physical activity coefficient, which depends on whether the individual is estimated to be in the sedentary, low-active, active, or very active PAL categories; D is the weight coefficient; and E is the height coefficient. It should be noted that this approach is equivalent to fitting the individuals in each PAL category separately but keeping their equations parallel.

In the above equation the relative importance of height and weight is constant for different activity levels but the magnitude of their combined contribution changes for different PAL levels. Because of the mathematical interdependencies between the physical activity coefficients and the height and weight coefficients, the physical activity coefficient for the sedentary PAL category is set to 1.0.

The standard error of fit (the standard deviation of the residuals) represents how variable the measurements of the energy requirements of

ENERGY 161

TABLE 5-12 Physical Activity Level (PAL) Categories and Walking Equivalence

Walking Equivalence (mi/d at 3-4 mph) a

TABLE 5-12 Physical Activity Level (PAL) Categories and Walking Equivalence

Walking Equivalence (mi/d at 3-4 mph) a

Light-Weight

Middle-Weight

Heavy-Weight

PAL

PAL

Individual

Individual

Individual

Category

Range

PAL

(44 kg)

(70 kg)

(120 kg)

Sedentary

1.0-1.39

1.25

~ 0

~ 0

~ 0

Low active

1.4-1.59

Mean

1.5

2.9

2.2

1.5

Active

1.6-1.89

Minimum

1.6

5.8

4.4

3.0

Mean

1.75

9.9

7.3

5.3

Very active

1.9-2.49

Minimum

1.9

14.0

10.3

17.5

Mean

2.2

22.5

16.7

12.3

Maximum

2.5

31.0

23.0

17.0

a In addition to energy spent for the generally unscheduled activities that are part of a normal daily life. SOURCE: Chapter 12.

a In addition to energy spent for the generally unscheduled activities that are part of a normal daily life. SOURCE: Chapter 12.

individuals with similar characteristics might be. In order to estimate the true between-individual variability, it was necessary to partition this observed variability into biological and experimental; in the light of limited data, and following the suggestion of the 1981 FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation, it is assumed that the biological and the experimental variance are equal. Therefore, values for individual standard deviations are recommended as 70 percent of the observed standard error of fit (Table 5-14).

The data were fitted to this equation using nonlinear regression and the Levenberg-Marquardt method for searching for convergence based on minimizing the sum of residuals squared. For each fit an R-squared was calculated as the ratio of the explained sum of squared error to the total sum of squared error, and asymptotic standard errors of the coefficients were calculated.

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