It is well documented that high dietary protein in rabbits induces hypercholesterolemia and arteriosclerosis (Czarnecki and Kritchevsky, 1993). However, this effect has not been consistently shown in either swine (Luhman and Beitz, 1993; Pfeuffer et al., 1988) or humans. In humans, analysis of data from the Nurses' Health Study showed an inverse relationship between protein intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (Hu et al., 1999). The association was weak but suggests that high protein intake does not increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Similar conclusions have
been reached in observational studies showing an inverse relationship between protein intake and blood pressure (Obarzanek et al., 1996) and that replacement of carbohydrate with protein resulted in lower very low density cholesterol, low density cholesterol, and triglycerides (Wolfe and Piché, 1999).
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