Breast Cancer

The data examining sugars intake and breast cancer have been inconsistent (World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer

320 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES

FIGURE 6-4 Summary of data from crossover studies examining the effects of the glycemic index (GI) of test meals or preloads on subsequent energy intake. A from Spitzer and Rodin (1987), ▲ from Rodin (1991), ■ from Guss et al. (1994), • from Holt and Brand Miller (1995), □ from Ludwig et al. (1999). All published studies that used pairs of diets differing in GI that contained physiologic amounts of energy, were isocaloric, and were approximately matched for all factors are summarized (i.e., data from 10% sugar solutions in Guss et al. [1994] and the high and medium GI meals only in Ludwig et al. [1999]). Where energy intake was assessed at more than one time point, data from the longest period were used. Reprinted, with permission, from Roberts (2000b). Copyright 2000 by the International Life Sciences Institute.

FIGURE 6-4 Summary of data from crossover studies examining the effects of the glycemic index (GI) of test meals or preloads on subsequent energy intake. A from Spitzer and Rodin (1987), ▲ from Rodin (1991), ■ from Guss et al. (1994), • from Holt and Brand Miller (1995), □ from Ludwig et al. (1999). All published studies that used pairs of diets differing in GI that contained physiologic amounts of energy, were isocaloric, and were approximately matched for all factors are summarized (i.e., data from 10% sugar solutions in Guss et al. [1994] and the high and medium GI meals only in Ludwig et al. [1999]). Where energy intake was assessed at more than one time point, data from the longest period were used. Reprinted, with permission, from Roberts (2000b). Copyright 2000 by the International Life Sciences Institute.

Research, 1997) and therefore are insufficient to determine a role of sugars in breast cancer (Burley, 1998). There are indications that insulin resistance and insulin-like growth factors may play a role in the development of breast cancer (Bruning et al., 1992; Kazer, 1995).

DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES: SUGARS AND STARCHES 321

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