Cure Your Diabetes Permanently

Reverse Diabetes Now

Reverse Diabetes Now is created by Matt Traverso a well-known medical researcher and diabetes expert. In fact, the author has spent years researching and studying to create this revolutionary treatment for diabetes. Within this book, readers will learn a step-by-step customized formula that helps to normalize their blood sugar levels and stop type-2 diabetes permanently. The best thing about this e-book is that it is very simple to apply. All recommendations that this treatment offers can be implemented by users at their own home and own pace. Treating a chronic disease like diabetes requires patience, dedication, and attention towards each and every loose end so you can get the real results successfully. Therefore, you must follow the instructions given by Matt Traverso in this program. Author has also promised to pay back each and every penny you pay to try this treatment method in case it does not work for you. Read more here...

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Immunoassay Of Endogenous Plasma Insulin In

For years investigators have sought an assay for insulin which would combine virtually absolute specificity with a high degree of sensitivity, sufficiently exquisite for measurement of the minute insulin concentrations usually present in the circulation. Methods in use recently depend on the ability of insulin to exert an effect on the metabolism of glucose in vivo or in excised muscle or adipose tissue. Thus, the insulin concentration in plasma has been estimated a) from the degree of hypoglycemia produced in hypophysec-tomized, adrenalectomized, alloxan-diabetic rats (1) b) from the augmentation of glucose uptake by isolated rat hemidiaphragm (2) or c) from the increased oxidation of glucose- 1-C14 by the rat epididymal fat pad (3). Since there have been reports indicating the presence, in plasma, of inhibitors of insulin action (4) and of noninsulin substances capable of inducing an insulinlike effect (5, 6), these procedures, while yielding interesting information regarding the...

Immunoassay Of Endogenous Plasma Insulin In Man

Centrations observed in diabetic subjects during the glucose tolerance test are not inconsistent with the less extensive data of Bornstein and Lawrence (1) and Baird and Bornstein (39). Very recently Seltzer and Smith (41), employing the rat diaphragm assay of Vallance-Owen and Hurlock (33), have reported insulin concentrations one hour after glucose, in tolbutamide-sensitive adult diabetics, almost in the normal range, but significantly lower values were observed in juvenile diabetics and adult tolbutamide-insensitive diabetics. To resolve the present finding of a higher than normal integrated insulin output in diabetics during the glucose tolerance test with sustained hyperglycemia in these patients, it must be concluded that the tissues of the maturity-onset diabetic do not respond to his insulin as well as the tissues of the nondiabetic subject respond to his insulin. However, from these observations it cannot be concluded that the early diabetic has the same maximal potential...

Why and how did I get diabetes

Diabetes occurs for a number of reasons, but the ultimate cause of the high blood sugar that characterizes the disorder is either deficiency of the hormone insulin or a combination of insulin deficiency and resistance of the body tissues to its actions. In response to food intake, insulin is released by specialized cells in the pancreas and is necessary for adequate amounts of glucose and other nutrients from food to be absorbed into certain tissues of the body. When insulin is lacking or the body resists its actions, the level of glucose in the blood becomes excessively high and diabetes is diagnosed. The difference in the balance between the two characterizes the two major forms of diabetes type 1 and type 2 (see Question 2). Whatever the form of diabetes, its basis is to some extent hereditary and to some extent environmental. The hereditary contribution is more or less constant throughout recent human evolution. It is the environmental component that has changed markedly over the...

Tips on telling others that you have diabetes

Think of sharing this information in the same way as you would share where you grew up, how many kids you have, what you do for fun and, oh yeah, you have diabetes. Explain what a low blood sugar episode looks like, describe the symptoms, and what they can do to help. People like to be needed and to be asked for help. Diabetes is a disease that can affect the whole family from food choices to eating out to helping with low blood sugar. Discussions In the book, When You're a Parent with Diabetes, Kathryn Gregorio Palmer (2006) says simply, Honest statements work best when telling younger children. Read books about diabetes, role play with stuffed animals and with older children, and let them participate in your care, such as, by inserting a test strip into the blood glucose machine and guessing what your number will be.4 Diabetes is easy to hide and many women will hold off on sharing the information with a romantic partner for fear of rejection....

Delivery of eye care for patients with diabetes

Patients should know that they have diabetes mellitus and that the condition requires care. General population screening for diabetes mellitus with existing methods is considered neither appropriate nor beneficial, although use of such methods to reach subpopulations with a very high prevalence of diabetes mellitus might be both appropriate and feasible for some Member States. Patients should receive adequate care for diabetes mellitus. The only means of preventing diabetic retinopathy is regulating blood sugar, blood pressure and other risk factors that can be controlled by patients, under the guidance of their care provider. Often, however, physicians do not care for diabetes patients in the manner indicated by the results of randomized controlled trials. Patients should undergo periodic eye examinations. Professional organizations advocate annual eye examinations for patients with diabetes and prompt treatment when indicated. Nevertheless, many patients with diabetes are not...

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by a genetic predisposition to the disorder, decreased tissue sensitivity to insulin (insulin resistance), and impaired function of pancreatic P-cells, which control the timely release of insulin (Anderson, 1999). Obesity, physical inactivity, and advancing age are primary risk factors for insulin resistance and development of type 2 diabetes (Barrett-Connor, 1989 Colditz et al., 1990 Helmrich et al., 1991 Manson et al., 1991). Dietary factors have also been suggested as playing a major role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is entirely due to an almost complete deficiency of insulin. The deficiency is the result of the immune system erroneously attacking and destroying the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. For the proper functioning of our bodies, it is necessary for insulin to be present at all times in the bloodstream and tissues, not only after we have eaten. Insulin is essential to maintain the structure of our tissues and prevent them from being broken down in an uncontrolled manner. Without any insulin present, our tissues literally melt away into simple compounds that leave our bodies when we urinate. Accordingly, people with type 1 diabetes have high levels of sugar and breakdown products of fat and protein in the bloodstream and urine and develop the typical symptoms described in Question 4. Type 2 diabetes is due to a combination of our body tissues becoming resistant to the action of insulin (for the reasons described previously in Question 1) and the inability of the...

The interaction of insulin resistance and Bcell function

Having presented the major aspects of insulin secretion and IR, some examples of DM and its related disorders according to their main determinant are now discussed predominantly insulin deficiency, predominantly IR, or resulting from relative insulin deficiency in the context of IR. Diabetes with predominantly insulin deficiency Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes is the form of the disease caused primarily by ( -cell destruction. This condition is characterized by severe insulin deficiency and dependence on exogenous insulin to prevent ketosis and to preserve life it was called insulin-dependent DM. The natural history of this disease indicates that there are preketotic, non-insulin-dependent phases both before and after the initial diagnosis. Although the onset is predominantly in childhood, the disease may occur at any age. It is possible that nonautoimmune and autoimmune destruction of ( -cells could coexist, but the current classification considers two subtypes. In type 1a there is...

The glycaemic index of foods and its effect on insulin response and glycaemia

The glycaemic response to a food, which in turn affects the insulin response, depends on the rate of gastric emptying, as well as on the rate of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates from the small intestine (Jenkins et al., 1987). Traditionally, carbohydrates were classified as 'simple' and 'complex' based on their degree of polymerization. Sugars (which are mono- and disaccharides) were therefore classified as simple, whereas starches (poly-saccharides) were classified as complex. However, carbohydrates might be better classified on the basis of their physiological effects, for example their ability to increase blood glucose. The glycaemic response depends both on the type of sugar (e.g. glucose, fructose, galactose) and the physical form of the carbohydrate (e.g. particle size, degree of polymerization) (Augustin et al., 2002). The GI is defined as the area under the glucose response curve after consumption of 50 g available carbohydrate from a test food divided by the area...

Evaluation and improvement of eye care for patients with diabetes mellitus

The performance of systems for eye care for patients with diabetes, even in developed countres, leaves much to be desired. Application of a systems approach to the current systems indicates that alternatives should be explored to improve performance in every area of eye care for patients with diabetes in countres throughout the word.

Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity

Water soluble compounds extracted from C. cassia potentiate insulin activity, as measured by glucose oxidation in the rat epididymal fat cell assay. The most active compound, methylhydroxy chalcone polymer (MHCP), increased glucose metabolism approximately 20-fold and was an effective mimetic of insulin according to an in vitro study. When combined with insulin, the responses were greater than additive, indicating synergism between the two compounds (Jarvill-Taylor et al 2001). According to Anderson, MHCP is actually a water-soluble polyphenols type-A polymer that increases insulin sensitivity by activating the key enzymes that stimulate insulin receptors, while inhibiting the enzymes that deactivate them. More specifically, extracts of cinnamon activate insulin receptor kinase and inhibit dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor, leading to maximal phosphorylation of the insulin receptor.

Can diabetes be cured

In general, we do not consider that diabetes can be cured once it has been diagnosed. People with type 2 diabetes can reverse the detectable abnormalities of diabetes by lifestyle adjustment without the use of medications (discussed in Question 28). However, the tendency to manifest high blood sugar again is always present if the patient is under significant metabolic stress, such as that caused by medications, severe illness, injury, regaining lost weight, cessation of exercise, aging, etc. Therefore we consider that diabetes can be under excellent control or in remission, but we do not usually use the word cured. Even people with type 1 diabetes who have undergone successful pancreas or islet transplantation and no longer require insulin therapy cannot be considered cured. There is a significant possibility that their diabetes will one day come back for a variety of reasons, including rejection of the transplant or a renewed attack on the transplanted islet tissue by the patient's...

Does diabetes affect all racial groups equally

No, there are significant differences in the hereditary tendency to acquire diabetes (Figure 2). In general Caucasians (non-Hispanic whites) have a lower tendency to develop type 2 diabetes than other ethnic groups. The situation with regard to type 1 diabetes is the opposite, with the highest prevalence currently being in the regions in and near Finland, Sardinia, and Kuwait. Lifestyle does not appear to be more important than the hereditary tendency in determining the chance of a person to develop type 1 diabetes. However, in the case of type 2 diabetes it is an important factor. Thus, certain ethnic groups may have a very high tendency to develop type 2 diabetes under one set of environmental circumstances, but they may have a very low tendency under different environmental conditions. A case in point is the Pima tribe of Native Americans living in Arizona. Half of the Pima have type 2 diabetes, while their genetically related cousins living in the Chiapas region of Mexico pursuing...

Check for signs of diabetes

If a woman has some of the following warning signs, she may have diabetes . Women with diabetes do not always have all of these signs . But the more signs a woman has, the more likely it is that she has diabetes . She had diabetes in a past pregnancy. When a woman has diabetes, her body cannot use the sugar in her blood. There is a blood test for diabetes . Ask your local health department if they can give the test. The best time to do this test is at about 6 months (24 weeks) of pregnancy. A simple test for diabetes Ask a woman to urinate into a container like a pot or a cup, and leave the container outside . If ants climb into the container, there is probably sugar in the woman's urine a sign of diabetes . How to help a woman with diabetes Diabetes can make a woman very sick and childbirth more dangerous . Her baby may be very big, have birth defects, or it may become very ill and die after the birth . Usually diabetes in pregnancy will improve if the woman eats a good diet and...

Are my brothers and sisters and my children at risk of diabetes

If you have type 1 diabetes, your first-degree relatives (i.e. mother, father, brother, sister, and your children) are about ten times more likely than the general population to get type 1 diabetes. The frequency of type 1 diabetes in the general population is about half a percent (i.e., one in two hundred), so the risk in your first-degree relatives is about 10 X 1 2, or 5 . Fortunately, this is not particularly Rate of new cases of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among youth aged < 20 years, by race ethnicity, 2002-2003 Figure 2 Difference in frequency of occurrence of diabetes by race and ethnicity. Source Courtesy of SEARCH for diabetes in youth study. high. Also, it is related to age. About 90 of cases of type 1 diabetes occur before age 35. Therefore, the parents of a person with type 1 diabetes are at considerably less, and ever decreasing, risk compared to his or her siblings and children. The risk of getting type 1 diabetes for an identical twin of a person with type 1 diabetes...

Type 1 Diabetes Worldwide Prevalence

Table 1 Extremes of incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus in different ethnic groups aAge standardized incidence (per 100,000 per year) of type 1 diabetes in children < 14 years of age. Data from Karvonen M, Viik-Kajander M, Moltchanova E et al (2000) Incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes worldwide. Diabetes Care 23 1516-1526. aAge standardized incidence (per 100,000 per year) of type 1 diabetes in children < 14 years of age. Data from Karvonen M, Viik-Kajander M, Moltchanova E et al (2000) Incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes worldwide. Diabetes Care 23 1516-1526.

Type 2 Diabetes Worldwide Prevalence

Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common noncom-municable diseases in the world with an estimated 147.2 million people suffering from this disorder by 2010 this figure is expected to reach 212.9 million. Furthermore, it has been predicted that by the year 2010 over half the people with T2D will be living in Asia. This trend is likely to be due to increasing urbanization and industrialization. According to WHO estimates the figure is likely to double by the year 2025. The prevalence of T2D varies widely from the highest in Pima Indians (almost half of the population affected) to the lowest in Rural Africa (1 ). As with T1D, the incidence of diabetes in different countries is likely to reflect the different genetic architecture as well as the differing environment. A good example is afforded by the population of Nauru. In full-blooded Nauruans over the age of 60 years the prevalence of T2D is 83 , whereas in those with genetic admixture as adduced by HLA typing the prevalence is 17...

Fibrocalculous Pancreatic Diabetes

In tropical countries there is a form of nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis characterized by pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency and associated with pancreatic calcification. This disease, tropical calcific pancreatitis, affects young individuals who are malnourished and present with abdominal pain, extreme emaciation characteristic of protein-energy malnutrition, glucose intolerance, and at a later stage diabetes. The diabetic stage of the illness is referred to as fibrocalcific pancreatic diabetes (FCPD). Several reports of FCPD have been reported from the tropical countries and many cases have been reported from the Indian subcontinent. The pathogenesis of the disease is still unclear and is attributed to various possible causes -malnutrition, cassava toxicity, oxidant stress due to micronutrient deficiency, genetic and environmental factors. Recently, a study showed the N34S variant of the SPINK1 trypsin inhibitor gene as a susceptibility gene for FCPD in the Indian...

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

This form of diabetes is defined by insulin deficiency due to destruction of the fi cells of the pancreas. It was formerly designated ''insulin-dependent diabetes,'' but efforts are being made to eliminate this name because many patients with other types of Table 3 Classification of diabetes mellitus3 I. Type 1 diabetes (formerly designated insulin-dependent diabetes) II. Type 2 diabetes (formerly designated non-insulin-dependent diabetes) III. Secondary diabetes A. Genetic defects of 0 cell function (e.g., maturity onset diabetes of youth) B. Genetic defects of insulin action pathway IV. Gestational diabetes Classification proposed by the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and the Classification of Diabetes Mellitus under the sponsorship of the American Diabetes Association (Diabetes Care 27 S5-S10, 2004). diabetes also require insulin for adequate control. The predominant cause is believed to be an autoimmune attack against the insulin-producing 0 cells within the islets of...

Secondary Diabetes Mellitus Other Specific Types

This broad category includes multiple disorders that are associated with either extensive pancreatic destruction or significant insulin resistance. Secondary diabetes as a consequence of decreased insulin production can occur following pancreatectomy, chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, or hemochro-matosis. In the absence of pancreatic damage, secondary diabetes can result from extreme insulin resistance induced by glucocorticoids (Cushing's syndrome) growth hormone (acromegaly) adrener-gic hormones (pheochromocytoma) other medical conditions, such as uremia, hepatic cirrhosis, or polycystic ovary syndrome or medications (diuretics or exogenous glucocorticoids). Included in this category of secondary diabetes are patients who appear to have type 2 diabetes but in whom monogenic molecular defects in either the glucose-sensing or insulin action pathways have been defined. The best established molecular defects are mutations in the gene coding for the enzyme glucokinase, which has a...

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

This disorder, which is defined as hyperglycemia first detected during pregnancy, occurs in 2-5 of pregnant women. Often, one cannot determine whether glucose intolerance antedated the pregnancy or whether hyperglycemia was provoked by the hormonal milieu associated with pregnancy. Hyperglycemia remits postpartum in 90 of women with gestational diabetes, but these women are at increased risk for subsequent development of diabetes, which is usually type 2. Although most cases of this form of diabetes are detected by blood glucose screening performed as a routine procedure early in the third trimester, the current recommendation is that universal screening is probably unwarranted. A woman younger than age 25 years, of normal body weight, without a family history of diabetes or a personal history of poor pregnancy outcome, and from an ethnic group with low rates of diabetes is at sufficiently low risk of gestational diabetes that glucose testing can be omitted. In contrast, women with...

Oral Antidiabetic Agents

Oral antidiabetic agents are not insulin insulin is delivered only by injection or infusion. The variety of agents in use has escalated dramatically in recent years, so it is worth knowing how the various classes act and how they may interact with diet. Sulfonylureas (e.g., glyburide, glimepiride, and glipizide) commonly act by stimulation of pancreatic insulin secretion. They therefore can cause hypogly-cemia if taken in excess or without normal food intake. The other most popular oral agent is metformin, which does not stimulate insulin secretion and therefore should not cause hypoglycemia by itself. Metformin can cause bloating and diarrhea, but it can also be mildly weight reducing in conjunction with diet. The drugs called thiazolidinediones (TZDs), pio-glitazone and rosiglitazone, improve insulin sensitivity but do not by themselves cause hypoglycemia. TZDs can, however, cause fluid retention and weight gain, so they are sometimes counterproductive in someone trying to lose...

Whole Grains Diabetes

Why ask for that sandwich on whole wheat bread People who eat whole grains have a lower risk of diabetes, say researchers at the University of Minnesota and elsewhere. Lawrence Kushi and colleagues gave diet questionnaires to nearly 36,000 healthy Iowa women aged 55 to 69 when the study began in 1986. After six years, 1,141 of the women had been diagnosed with diabetes. Those who consumed the most whole grains (average 3 servings a day) had a 21 percent lower risk of diabetes than those who consumed the least (average once a week). Those who consumed the most fiber (average 10 grams a day) from breads, cereals, and other grains had a 29 percent lower risk than those who consumed the least (average 3 grams a day). (Fruit and vegetable fiber wasn't linked to diabetes.) And those who consumed the most magnesium, a mineral found in whole grains, had a 24 percent lower risk than those who consumed the least. Being overweight is clearly an overwhelming risk factor for the development of...

Dietary Fiber Obesity and the Etiology of Diabetes

In 1975, Trowell suggested that the etiology of diabetes might be related to a dietary fiber deficiency. This is supported by several key pieces of evidence. Vegetarians who consume a high-fiber lacto-ovo vegetarian diet appear to have a lower risk of mortality from diabetes-related causes compared to nonvegetarians. Consumption of whole grain cereals is associated with a lower risk of diabetes. Importantly, the same dietary pattern appears to lower the risk of obesity, itself an independent risk factor in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Obesity is emerging as a problem of epidemic proportions in affluent and developing countries. Consumption of whole grain cereal products lowers the risk of diabetes. A report showed that in 91 249 women questioned about dietary habits in 1991, greater cereal fiber intake was significantly related to lowered risk of type 2 diabetes. In this study, glycemic index (but not glycemic load) was also a significant risk factor, and this interacted with a...

Is there such a thing as borderline diabetes What is it

The term borderline diabetes has now been replaced by the term prediabetes. Both terms indicate that a person has abnormalities in his or her plasma glucose levels that fall short of standard accepted definitions for frank diabetes. Table 1 shows the normal ranges for both fasting plasma glucose and for plasma glucose after a Table 1 Definition of Diabetes & Prediabetes Table 1 Definition of Diabetes & Prediabetes Normal Blood Sugar Prediabetes Diabetes glucose load by mouth. The reason that a standardized 75 gram (a little under 3 ounces) glucose load is used is to allow a direct comparison between different individuals under the same conditions. The table also shows the glucose levels above which diabetes is diagnosed. The range between the upper end of normal and diabetes itself is the prediabetic range. For fasting glucose, the range is 100 to 125 mg dl and for glucose values 2 hours after a standard 75 gram glucose drink by mouth, it is 140 to 199 mg dl. The former is...

Insulin Sensitivity and Type 2 Diabetes

Insulin has three major effects on glucose metabolism it decreases hepatic glucose output, it increases glucose utilization in muscle and adipose tissue, and it enhances glycogen production in the liver and muscle. Insulin sensitivity measures the ability to do these effectively. Individuals vary genetically in their insulin sensitivity, some being much more efficient than others (Reaven, 1999). Obesity is related to decreased insulin sensitivity (Kahn et al., 2001), which can also be influenced by fat intake (see Chapter 11) and exercise. Two prospective cohort studies showed no risk of diabetes from consuming increased amounts of sugars (Colditz et al., 1992 Meyer et al., 2000). Furthermore, a negative association was observed between increased sucrose intake and risk of diabetes (Meyer et al., 2000). Intervention studies that have evaluated the effect of sugar intakes on insulin concentration and insulin resistance portray mixed results. Dunnigan and coworkers (1970)...

Box 1 The metabolic syndrome changes associated with insulin resistance

Relationship of metabolic syndrome with cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and depression The metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This association is not surprising because the definition of the syndrome comprises established risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. For cardiovascular disease, the relative hazard ratios range from 2 to 5 1 . The risk of diabetes is substantial also. The cumulative incidence of diabetes in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (and obesity) who participated in the diabetes prevention studies was approximately 30 after 3 years of follow-up 4 . A large body of evidence supports an association between type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and, recently, metabolic syndrome and the occurrence of depression. Individuals who have diabetes are twice as likely to develop depression as individuals who do not have diabetes. Interestingly, one study indicated an increased...

Why do some women get diabetes when they are pregnant Is this dangerous for them or their baby

Pregnancy is a situation in which insulin resistance (see Question 2) is a normal feature. This is because it is beneficial for the nutrients absorbed from a pregnant woman's meals to be channeled first to the growing fetus. The development of maternal insulin resistance in the second half of pregnancy assures that this will occur. At least part of the reason for the development of maternal insulin resistance is that the placenta produces substances that lead to insulin resistance and as the placenta grows, the insulin resistance increases. This is called physiologic (i.e., normal) insulin resistance. Indeed, a healthy pregnant woman may be more insulin resistant than the average patient with type 2 diabetes However, the vast majority (> 95 ) of otherwise healthy pregnant women do not get diabetes in this situation because the pancreas is able to make enough insulin to overcome the insulin resistance and keep the glucose levels normal. A small minority of women cannot do so and...

Education about eye health among patients with diabetes should be patientcentred

Public awareness about diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy is lacking in all societies. It is recommended that health education about these conditions be intensified, and education material and campaigns be oriented to address issues from the patient perspective and not solely that of the provider. Providers and organizations should therefore reassess their educational campaigns and change them into marketing campaigns. Health education must involve local populations and health care workers, customize the messages to fit the needs and expectations of the target audience and use various means of communication.

How does my weight affect my risk of type 2 diabetes

Weight and risk of type 2 diabetes are clearly linked. Figure 3 shows the risk of development of type 2 diabetes, as it relates to body weight. For clinical purposes, weight is related to height by a formula known as body mass index or BMI. In our society, a BMI of 18 to almost 25 is considered to be healthy and from 25 to almost 30 is considered overweight. From 30 to 35 is considered to be obese and from 35 to 40 is severely obese. A BMI that is greater than 40 is considered morbidly obese, indicating that a person with this degree of obesity is at very serious risk of both immediate and long-term health problems. To calculate your own BMI, divide your weight in pounds by the square of your height in inches (i.e., your height multiplied by itself) and then multiply the answer Figure 3 Relationship between weight risk of type 2 diabetes. Figure 3 Relationship between weight risk of type 2 diabetes. Source-. Data from Chan JM et al. Diabetes Care. 1994 17 961-969 Colditz G et al. Ann...

Does regular exercise help to prevent type 2 diabetes

Yes, regular exercise of at least moderate intensity provides some protection against the onset of type 2 diabetes. Exercise improves insulin resistance and thereby makes insulin more effective at removing glucose from the blood. In patients with prediabetes (see Question 9), exercise can prevent the progression of elevated glucose values toward the frankly diabetic range, or even restore them to normal. Exercise also consumes calories from those stored in the exercising muscle as starch (glycogen) and the need to replenish these stores draws glucose out of the bloodstream and thereby reduces the circulating levels. Exercise also helps to maintain a healthy body weight and avoid the weight gain that can lead to diabetes (see Question 11), Regular exercise of at least moderate intensity provides some protection against the onset of type 2 diabetes. although it is not as certain that exercise is as helpful in promoting weight reduction. Weight reduction is much more dependent on...

Balancing Blood Sugar Levels With Exercise

Mari Ruddy, a triathlete and founder of the Red Rider Recognition Program and Team WILD (Women Inspiring Life with Diabetes), says, It's not really about blood sugar management, it's about insulin management, which ideally results in good blood sugar management. As a child, Mari watched her athlete father struggle with managing his type 1 diabetes with very little knowledge or support from the world. He was regularly taken to the hospital with extreme low blood sugar issues. These incidents almost always coincided with exercise, whether planned or spontaneous. From her eyes as a child, it seemed that no matter what her father did to be proactive, things went wrong and she feared for her father's life. As a result, when Mari was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at age 16, she was afraid to push her body to the limit for fear of suffering deathly consequences. This led to poorly controlled diabetes until I was 35, when I finally found an endocrinologist and a coach who worked together to...

Are there any medications I can take to help prevent diabetes

Yes, there are a number of medications that will help to reduce the likelihood of a person developing type 2 diabetes, but not type 1 diabetes. These are shown in Table 2. None are labeled by the Food and Drug Administration for this indication. Our use of them is mainly confined to choosing a drug that will tend to slow progression to type 2 diabetes when the drug is needed for another condition. For example, when a patient at risk for diabetes needs treatment for high blood pressure, one would consider using a drug that has been shown to slow progression to diabetes in Table 2 Medications That May Help to Prevent Diabetes Table 2 Medications That May Help to Prevent Diabetes Type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes those at high risk, as opposed to one that might actually accelerate it. Early use of drugs that are approved to treat type 2 diabetes in people at high risk of development of type 2 diabetes (mainly those with prediabetes for definition see Question 9) has also been shown to...

Exercise And Type 2 Diabetes

Exercise is very important in managing type 2 diabetes. Combining diet, exercise, and medicine (when prescribed) will help control your weight and blood sugar level. In her book, The Diabetic Athlete, Sheri Colberg-Ochs says, Exercise can be a vital component in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes when used in conjunction with diet, oral medications, and insulin therapies (p. 79).4 Kelly Love Johnson was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in her 30s. She says I began running to control my blood sugar levels and I am still running 25 years later because it makes me feel strong. When I was diagnosed, I had a doctor who gave me a positive first impression of living with diabetes. I'm thankful because he gave me a prescription to live a healthy life. Running became a tool to manage my health. When my blood sugar levels were high, I knew there was something (other than the dreaded shot) I could do to help myself feel better. I have diabetes and I am a runner.

Is there a particular type of diet that will reduce my chance of type 2 diabetes

The most important aspect of any diet to prevent type 2 diabetes is its calorie (i.e., energy) content. If calorie intake exceeds calorie usage, then the excess calories will, in the absence of other modifying factors, be directed toward the body's energy storage compartment, which is, of course, the fat tissue. Therefore, a diet that matches calorie consumption with output is the key to prevention of overweight and obesity and therefore diabetes. If one is already overweight, then the diet should provide fewer calories than are required, so that energy will be drawn from the body fat stores and gradual weight loss will occur. Even The most important aspect of any diet to prevent type 2 diabetes is its calorie (i.e., energy) content. modest weight loss can be very beneficial. The benefits can be shown very early, almost as soon as calorie intake drops below that required to maintain body weight and before significant weight loss actually occurs. The consumption side of this balance...

Frequent meals help maintain high energy levels by regulating blood sugar and insulin levels

When you eat carbohydrates, they're digested and absorbed into the bloodstream in the form of glucose (blood sugar). This triggers the pancreas to release the hormone insulin. The amount of insulin released will correspond to the amount and type of carbohydrates consumed. When small amounts of carbohydrates and insulin-stimulating foods are consumed, there's a small output of insulin. When large amounts of carbohydrates and insulin-stimulating foods are consumed, there is a large rise in insulin. When carbohydrates are consumed alone, there's a faster rise in insulin than when they're consumed in combination with protein. When simple, refined carbohydrates are consumed, there's also a greater rise in insulin. One of insulin's jobs is to transport the glucose from the bloodstream into the cells where it can be used for energy or stored as glycogen for later use. If you over-consume carbohydrates or if you consume the wrong types of carbohydrates, there will be a sharp peak in blood...

Frequent meals are Anabolic They help promote muscle growth by regulating insulin levels and providing a steady flow of

The high insulin levels that follow the consumption of refined carbohydrates are definitely undesirable, but a moderate and steady output of insulin is necessary for muscle growth and glycogen storage. Insulin is a powerful anabolic hormone because one of its major roles is to shuttle glucose and amino acids into the muscle cells where they can be used for recovery and muscle growth. By eating a small to moderately sized meal containing protein every 2 1 2 to 3 hours, you provide a steady flow of amino acids into your bloodstream. When you eat complex carbohydrates with your protein every three hours, there is a moderate, but not excessive release of insulin, which delivers the amino acids to hungry muscle cells. A steady flow of protein into your system is absolutely critical for muscle growth and maintenance, and the only way to do it is with a meal every three hours.

Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Diabetes

Forty-nine articles of RCTs were reviewed to evaluate the effect of weight loss on fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin. Studies were conducted in individuals with normal blood glucose levels (fasting plasma glucose < 115 mg dL < 6.4 mmol L ), in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (fasting plasma glucose of < 140 mg dL 7.8 mmol L or 2 hours postprandial plasma glucose of > 140 to < 200 mg dL 7.8-11.1 mmol L ), or in individuals with diabetes (fasting plasma glucose of > 140 mg dL or 2 hours postprandial plasma blood glucose > 200 mg dL).* The methods of weight loss included diet, physical activity, or both behavior therapy and phar-macotherapy. The dietary interventions included low calorie and very low calorie, and those that promoted changes in diet composition, such as amount and type of dietary fat. Physical activity varied from controlled individualized exercise programs to informal group sessions coupled with behavior therapy and dietary changes. The...

Glycaemic Control And Insulinsensitising Effect

Animal studies have indicated a potential for hypoglycaemic effects when used intravenously. Eleutherens A-G exert marked hypoglycaemic effects in normal and alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic mice (Hikino et al 1986) and eleutherosides show an insulin-like action in diabetic rats (Dardymov et al 1978). However, these effects have not been borne out in human studies (Farnsworth et al 1985) and may not relate to oral dosages of Siberian ginseng. A small, double-blind, randomised, multiple-crossover study using 12 healthy participants actually showed an increase in postprandial plasma glucose at 90 and 120 minutes when 3 g Siberian ginseng was given orally 40 minutes before a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (Sievenpiper et al 2004). More recently, oral administration of an aqueous extract of Siberian ginseng was shown to improve insulin sensitivity and delay the development of insulin resistance in rats (Liu et al 2005). As a result further trials in people with impaired glucose tolerance...

Antidiabetic Activities of Fenugreek Trigonella foenumgraecum Seeds

Fenugreek galactomannan in diabetes mellitus 470 Effect of fenugreek galactomannan on biochemicals 473 Effect of fenugreek galactomannan on histopathological findings of the pancreas 474 Effect of alcoholic extracts of fenugreek seeds on diabetes mellitus 474 Adverse Effects and Reactions (Allergies and Toxicity) 476 Summary Points 477 References 478

Does stress affect my risk of getting diabetes

The perception of stress differs greatly among individuals. What one person may perceive as stressful, another may not. For this reason, stress is quite hard to measure in real-life situations. Artificial measures of accepted stress, such as electric shocks or deprivation of sleep, are very hard to apply to day-to-day life. However, people who report that they are more stressed, regardless of the actual nature of the stress itself, are more likely to suffer from diabetes. Furthermore, it has recently become apparent that measurable physical and psychological stress, such as that caused by sleep deprivation and social stress, is more likely to be associated with the presence of diabetes. This may in part explain the difference in the frequency of diabetes found in people of similar genetic background and measurable physical characteristics (body weight, amount of exercise, etc.) in different regions and societies. Exactly how perceived stress, whether physical, social, or...

The Facts on Diabetes

Most people know diabetes as the body's inability to process sugars and starches properly. Your body digests a meal and converts all the carbs into glucose blood sugar. It then becomes the job of your pancreas to detect this sudden infusion of glucose and, in response, produce the hormone insulin. The insulin is needed to allow your body's various organs brain, muscles, liver, and so on to extract the glucose from your bloodstream and either use it at once or store it for future use. The body's need for sugar is constant without it in sufficient quantities you will become dizzy, faint, go into a coma, and before long, die. Imagine that each cell in your body has a lock on it, and insulin is the only key that fits. If the cells remain locked, the sugars can't enter, and they remain circulating uselessly in your bloodstream, where they do you no good and cause considerable harm. But what most people don't realize is that diabetes isn't just about how we process sugars it's also the...

Risk factors of youth type 2 diabetes mellitus

The risk factors for youth T2DM are discussed under the following four broad categories (1) genetics, (2) environment, (3) ethnicity, and (4) insulin resistance phenotype. Genetics family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus A strong family history of T2DM is present in most pediatric patients regardless of ethnic background 2,32,33 . Markers of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction are present in adult members of high-risk populations one to two decades before the diagnosis of the disease 56,61,62 and predict the progression to T2DM 63 . In adults, insulin secretion adjusted for the degree of insulin sensitivity is a highly heritable trait, more familial than either insulin sensitivity or insulin secretion alone 64 . Our studies demonstrate that family history of T2DM is associated with approximately 25 lower insulin sensitivity in prepubertal healthy African-American children compared with their peers without a family history of T2DM 65 . Similarly, white children who do not...

What other factors increase my risk ofgetting diabetes

Besides excess weight, hereditary risk, and lack of exercise, another factor that can increase the risk of developing diabetes is the use of certain medications. Among these medications, the type associated most strongly with increased risk are the steroids (also called glucocorticoids), whose members include prednisone, methylprednisolone, hydrocortisone, and especially those used for the treatment of HIV AIDS, can lead to diabetes. dexamethasone. The steroids belong to a class of naturally occurring stress hormones known as counter-regulatory hormones, which prepare the body to combat stress. They tend to raise blood sugar. Other stress hormones include the so-called catecholamines such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which also raise the blood sugar. Synthetic versions of these compounds, which include some drugs used in weight loss medications, cold and allergy medications, asthma medications, and stimulants, can also cause a rise in blood sugar....

Is there anything I can do to reduce my childrens risk of getting diabetes

There is presently little that can reliably be done to reduce a person's risk of type 1 diabetes, as discussed in Question 19. However, type 2 diabetes has undergone a dramatic increase in children and adolescents in recent years, and it is clear that this is driven, in the most part, by childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity as well as lack of regular exercise. Therefore, establishment of a healthy pattern of eating in childhood, without excess calorie intake, and encouragement of regular exercise can be the most effective means of preventing the development of diabetes. It is important not only to provide children with these elements, but to ensure that they understand how to make healthy choices for themselves and that they realize the lifelong benefits that maintenance of healthy body weight and regular exercise can bring. In this way, they are more likely to establish and attach importance to a healthy lifestyle in adulthood and thus reduce their likelihood of developing...

Fructose and Diabetes

Historically, in the nutritional management of diabetes mellitus, the ingestion of fructose was recommended as a sweetener for diabetics because it causes smaller increases in blood glucose following ingestion compared to similar amounts of glucose, sucrose, or starches. In fact, fructose, in small quantities, increases the hepatic uptake of glucose and promotes glycogen storage, probably by stimulating the activity of hepatic glucokinase (EC 2.7.1.2). Also, in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the addition of a small amount of fructose to an oral glucose tolerance test improves the glycemic response, indicating improved glycemic control. It must be emphasized, however, that the consumption of large quantities of fructose is not recommended, particularly for diabetics who, as a group, are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, because of

Can type 1 diabetes also be prevented

At the present time, we do not think that type 1 diabetes can effectively be prevented. Part of the problem is that we do not know the exact environmental trig-ger(s), although there is provocative evidence for a number of factors, such as early exposure to cow's milk, certain viral strains, and lack of stimulation of the immune system at an early age by natural exposure to infective agents. The evidence is insufficient to make specific recommendations for avoidance of, or immunization against, specific potential triggering agents. A number of clinical trials of agents that Table 3 Herbs, Minerals, Etc. That May Help to Prevent Diabetes modify the immune system attack on the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas (see Question 2) are under way. In general, these agents cause a number of side effects. Trials are focused on patients with newly diagnosed diabetes, to determine whether very early diabetes can be reversed, before their use in people without symptoms who are at an...

Glycemic Index and the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes

Changes in diet and physical activity levels, both alone and in combination, reduce the progression of impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes. Two large US prospective population studies have demonstrated a doubling of the relative risk of developing type 2 diabetes for both men and women when the habitual diet is characterized by a high glycaemic index and high fat content. A similar protective effect against diabetes has been reported

Diabetes Type 1 And Type

Orally, gymnema leaf is used to treat both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and hyperglycaemia. There are two clinical trials that suggest that gymnema may be useful in reducing blood glucose levels in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In one study the ability of the GS4 extract (400 mg day) to supplement the use of conventional oral hypoglycaemic agents (glibenclamide or tolbutamide) was studied in 22 patients with type 2 diabetes over 18-20 months. Treatment resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose (174 7 vs 124 5 mg dl_), HbA1c Gymnema sylvestre 675 vs 2.46 0.05 jg hexose mg protein) and raised insulin levels, whereas no changes were observed in the control group. This allowed for a decrease in conventional drug dosage and in five cases, blood glucose homeostasis was maintained with GS4 alone, suggesting that beta-cell function may have been restored (Baskaran et al 1990). In a second study, 27 type 2 diabetes patients were treated with 400 mg of an aqueous extract of...

Proposed Mechanism by which Dietary Carbohydrates Glycemic Index Influence Insulin Resistance

Adipocyte metabolism is central to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and dietary carbohydrates influence adipocyte function. The previous simplistic view that insulin resistance resulted from the down-regulation of the insulin receptors in response to hyperinsulinemia is being replaced by the hypothesis that high circulating NEFA levels both impair insulin action and reduce pancreatic fi cell secretion. It is plausible that low glycemic index carbohydrates reduce insulin resistance by their ability to reduce adipocyte NEFA release. There is evidence of a loss of suppression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), an enzyme that breaks down triglyceride to free fatty acids and glycerol, to small physiological amounts of insulin and, to a lesser extent, insulin insensitivity of lipoprotein lipase. HSL is normally very sensitive to small increases in insulin levels and is totally suppressed at much lower concentrations than those required for glucose uptake. In insulin-resistant...

Several members of my close family have diabetes Will attempts at prevention still work for me

Please refer to Question 19 regarding type 1 diabetes. Regarding type 2 diabetes, your success in preventing diabetes depends upon a combination of how successful you are at attaining the necessary goals and how susceptible your family is. Inherited susceptibility can range from modest to very high. The risk also depends very much on whether both sides of a person's family have a hereditary pattern of diabetes. If both the mother and the father's sides have a high frequency of diabetes, then their offspring will have a marked tendency to develop type 2 diabetes. The general degree of risk is described in Question 7. In spite of the importance of heredity, it is clear than environment and lifestyle play a major role. This is clearly the case because hereditary tendencies to disease change little over the course of a few generations, while environment and lifestyle can change very rapidly. The recent then their offspring will have a marked tendency to develop type 2 diabetes. explosive...

What are the most common symptoms of diabetes

The common and early symptoms of diabetes result from the effect of the high blood sugar entering the urine and drawing fluid from the body's tissues along with it. This leads to excess urine production with frequent urination. The loss of body fluid leads to thirst, in order to replace the fluid loss. As long as the person with diabetes is able to keep pace with his or her thirst by regular fluid intake, he or she will remain relatively well. However, without free access to fluid, which can occur for a variety of reasons, one will become dehydrated, which leads to dizziness upon standing upright drowsiness, confusion, and ultimately fainting and unconsciousness. Due to the wasting of calories as glucose in the urine, patients will complain of hunger and will usually lose weight if high blood sugar is very marked. However, it is important to note that only a minority of people with diabetes will experience these symptoms. Frequently, the degree of high blood sugar is more moderate,...

Global Prevalence Of Diabetes Mellitus And Its Complications

2 ' Current burden Diabetes mellitus is among the leading causes of death, disability and and trends were 171 million people worldwde with diabetes mellitus in 2000 and predicted that 366 million people will have diabetes mellitus by 2030 (4). The increase will be due mainly to increases in low- and middle-income countries (Figure 1). The International Diabetes Federation has estimated that another 314 million persons have impaired glucose tolerance, and that number will increase to 472 million by 2030 (5). In the United States of America, for example, as much as 6.3 of the population had diabetes mellitus in 2002, and the prevalence and incidence are increasing (6). The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have estimated that 13 million persons in the United States have diagnosed diabetes mellitus and an additional 5.2 million have the disease but it has not yet been diagnosed (7). The prevalences in other countries are comparable, even in those with newly...

Diabetes Complications

People with diabetes are at increased risk for serious long-term complications. Hyperglycemia, as measured by fasting plasma glucose concentration or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), causes structural and functional changes in the retina, nerves, kidneys, and blood vessels. This damage can lead to blindness, numbness, reduced circulation, amputations, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. Type 1 diabetes is more likely to lead to kidney failure. About 40 percent of people with type 1 diabetes develop severe kidney disease and kidney failure by the age of fifty. Nevertheless, between 1993 and 1997, more than 100,000 people in the United States were treated for kidney failure caused by type 2 diabetes. African Americans experience higher rates of diabetes-related complications such as eye disease, kidney failure, and amputations. They also experience greater disability from these complications. The frequency of diabetic retinopathy (disease of the small blood vessels in the retina...

Diabetes Heart Disease and Stroke

Many people with diabetes are not aware that they are at particularly high risk for heart disease and stroke, which can result from the poor blood flow that is a symptom of diabetes. In addition, people with type 2 diabetes have higher rates of hypertension and obesity, which are additional risk factors. Diabetics are two to four times more likely to have a heart attack than nondiabetics, and at least 65 percent of people with diabetes die from heart attack or stroke. While deaths from heart disease have been declining overall, deaths from heart disease among women with diabetes have increased, and deaths from heart disease among men with diabetes have not declined nearly as rapidly as they have among the general male population. The National Diabetes Education Program has launched a campaign to bring the problem to public attention. Patients are advised to work with medical personnel to control their glucose level, blood pressure, and cholesterol level and, of course, to avoid...

How does my doctor confirm the diagnosis of diabetes

Your doctor will perform one of the standard measurements for the diagnosis of diabetes approved by the accepted authoritative body in whichever part of the world you live. In the United States, this is generally set by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and is accepted by most practitioners, insurers, and health providers as valid. The most current ADA criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes are shown in Table 1 (see Question 9). Your doctor may or may not ask you to fast prior to measuring the blood glucose or he or she may perform a standard 2-hour test known as the oral glucose tolerance test. Unless they are clearly and indisputably abnormal, or accompanied by typical symptoms of diabetes (discussed in Question 4), the results should be confirmed on a different day, since the diagnosis of diabetes carries many implications and necessitates lifelong monitoring and treatment. Very soon, the test that measures the average blood glucose over the past 3 months (the Hemoglobin Alc...

Balancing Work Life And Diabetes

Managing our personal and working lives is always a challenge. Throw diabetes into the mix, and suddenly, there are more decisions to think about each day. Sometimes, I feel like I'm spinning through the house and can almost feel the silky cape flapping behind me as I race from the laundry to the dishes, homework, papers, grades, and crying baby. Suddenly, I realized that I tested my blood sugar 15 minutes ago and oops I forgot to look at the results. Or, I realize I gave my bolus or injection and, in the middle of the craziness of this life, I forgot to eat. My job for the last 10 years has been a stay-at-home work-from-home mom, which meant I was at home and could eat when I wanted (as long as there was no screaming child). Now, as I am venturing back into the working world, I find myself having to come up with more creative ways to stay on some sort of schedule. This creativity has included eating a ZonePerfect bar for lunch in the 10 minutes of free time that I have between the...

United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study

These studies are notable for two additional findings. First, there is no threshold below which diabetic retinopathy does not occur when glycosylated haemoglobin is elevated rather, there is a linear relationship between achieved glycosylated haemoglobin level and the risk for visual complications of diabetes. Secondly, persons receiving intensive control had a significant rate of hypoglycaemic reactions, which might argue against such aggressive control in every situation. The choice of a 'target' glycosylated haemoglobin level is therefore arbitrary, involving consideration of the benefits and costs for each patient and thus for each society. The findings of the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (1977 1999) were similar to those of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial for persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (36,37). In addition, it highlighted the independent role of systemic hypertension (or its control) in potentiating the development and worsening the...

And Improvement Of Diabetes Treatment

Diabetes, affecting almost 3 of the world's population, is one of the major global health problems. In particular, there is a high incidence among the elderly population. It has been shown that the root of P. ginseng and other ginseng species has antihyperglycemic activity in vitro (23,24) and in vivo (2528). More than 90 of patients with diabetes have type 2 diabetes, which is related to aging and diet. Although type 2 diabetes is more common and has serious complications, even reducing life expectancy by 8-10 years (29), most in vivo animal studies using ginseng have been conducted using type 1 rather than type 2 diabetes models. In this study, we focus on the effects of ginseng on type 2 diabetes. The root of P. ginseng has been used to improve glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity (30) and clinically to treat type 2 diabetes (2,31). It has been observed that blood glucose level falls significantly in genetically obese diabetic mice after treatment with a single 90 mg kg...

Air Travel And Diabetes

I remember a weekend trip to New York City for a wedding and the morning we were supposed to fly home, a snowstorm hit and our flight was canceled. I was at the very end of my bottle of insulin and had to find a pharmacy to buy another bottle. I didn't have a prescription and I think it was a Sunday, so I was unable to call my doctor's office at home, so I had to pay full price for the insulin. I was frustrated at myself, at the weather, the pharmacy, and the fact that I had diabetes at all. It was the end of a great weekend and a rude reminder of my responsibilities. Looking back, I wish I could say that I've learned my lesson since that day, See your doctor before you go. Get a letter describing your diabetes management and a copy of your prescriptions. Carry or wear medical identification (a cute diabetes bracelet) and carry contact information for your physician. Because prescription laws may be very different in other countries, write for a list of International Diabetes...

Vitamin B6 for Prevention of the Complications of Diabetes Mellitus

A number of studies have suggested that vitamin B6 maybe effective inprevent-ing the adverse effects of poor glycemic control that lead to the development of the complications of diabetes mellitus (Jain and Lim, 2001). Many of these effects are mediated by nonenzymic glycation of proteins. Target proteins include the following and Shibata, 1991). In men with non-insulin-dependent diabetes, supplements of 150 mg per day led to a significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin and improved oxygen transport capacity, although there was no change in glycemic control (Solomon and Cohen, 1989).

Could I have had diabetes for a long time and not known it

Yes, indeed, you could have had diabetes for a considerable period of time, months or even years, and been unaware of it. However, it is unlikely that you could have had severe diabetes with very high blood sugars for a long time without having to seek medical attention, It is important that asymptomatic diabetes is detected and treated, because it can lead to serious health consequences, which may be irreversible when detected as you would have experienced complications. However, milder degrees of diabetes are often without obvious symptoms, although in retrospect patients will realize that all was not well when they start to feel the benefits of treatment. Studies have shown that, on average, type 2 diabetes has been present for several years by the time it is diagnosed. It is important that asymptomatic diabetes is detected and treated, because it can lead to serious health consequences, which may be irreversible when detected. About one of every three people has detectable...

High blood sugar and insulin can increase fat storage

To lose body fat more efficiently, your goal is to maintain steady blood sugar levels. Here's why The over-secretion of insulin activates fat storage enzymes and promotes the movement of triglycerides (fat) in the bloodstream into fat cells for storage. High insulin levels also inhibit enzymes that promote the breakdown of existing stored body fat. You can manage your blood sugar and insulin levels by choosing fewer simple carbohydrates, more complex carbohydrates, eating fiber and having your carbohydrates with lean proteins approximately every three hours. Insulin is not necessarily the bad guy as it is sometimes portrayed, but it can be a double-edged sword if not managed through proper carbohydrate choices. Insulin is an anabolic hormone that's absolutely essential for getting amino acids into the muscles for growth and getting carbohydrates into the muscles where they're needed for energy. The problem is when there's too much insulin and when resistance to insulin is produced by...

Have a strongfamily history of diabetes How often should I be checked for it

The frequency with which you should be checked for diabetes depends upon your degree of risk, your age, and lifestyle factors. Even if you have a strong family history of type 1 diabetes, your risk of developing it is still only about 5 and is much lower after the age of 35. Furthermore, type 1 diabetes usually presents with obvious symptoms, such as those described in Question 21, and is unlikely to be missed. Since there is presently little that can be done to prevent type 1 diabetes, screening is usually not performed. If you have a strong family history of type 2 diabetes, the frequency with which you should be screened also depends on age and lifestyle factors. If you are young (younger than 30), physically active, and lean, then you are not at high risk and regular screening is not necessary. As you get older, especially if you get more sedentary and gain weight, as most of us do, then regular screening is advisable. Since screening for diabetes with a fasting or random blood...

Blood Sugar Regulation

The ability of oats to delay glucose absorption, and therefore reduce the postprandial glycaemic response, provides a theoretical basis for their use as part of an overall treatment protocol in diabetes and hypoglycaemic conditions. A RCT of 12 patients with type 2 diabetes demonstrated that 30 g oat bran flour, high in beta-glucan, had a low glycaemic response and decreased the postprandial glycaemic response of an oral glucose load in a series of 2-hour meal glucose tolerance tests (Tapola et al 2005).

Had diabetes during my last pregnancy Am I at risk of diabetes in the future

Yes, you are at high risk both of having type 2 diabetes in the future and of having diabetes again with your next pregnancy. The reason for this is that women destined to get type 2 diabetes in middle age or beyond tend to be the same women who will develop diabetes in pregnancy. Therefore, the presence of diabetes in pregnancy is an indicator of future risk for type 2 diabetes. Because type 2 diabetes is a disorder of aging, the diabetes in pregnancy tends to be more severe and requires more intensive treatment with each successive

Insulin Analogues in Children and Teens with Type 1 Diabetes Advantages and Caveats

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a chronic, metabolic disorder that most commonly presents during childhood and is characterized by absolute insulin deficiency. T1D is caused by selective immune-mediated autoreactive T-cell destruction of beta cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans 1 . Insulin deficiency leads to chronic hyperglycemia and other disturbances of intermediary metabolism. As a result, individuals who have diabetes are at risk of developing progressive long-term microvascular (eg, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) and macrovascular (eg, cerebral, coronary, and peripheral vascular disease) complications 2 . The seminal trial in T1D, the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, proved in adults and adolescents that the onset and progression of the microvascular complications can be prevented or delayed by tight control of blood glucose levels 2-4 . Although advanced complications are rare in youth, the demonstration of glycemic memory in follow-up studies of...

Can diabetes sometimes be temporary and go away again

Yes, this can and does occur, in the case of both types of diabetes. However, in the case of type 1 diabetes, the disappearance is very predictably temporary and the diabetes will almost inevitably return within months or a year or two. The reasons for it are complex and relate to the fact that type 1 diabetes is often diagnosed under conditions of physical stress. When the diabetes is treated and the stress to the body has resolved, there may be sufficient remaining insulin-producing capability in the pancreas to keep the blood sugar normal under most circumstances. Eventually, however, the pancreas fails and permanent diabetes supervenes. In the case of type 2 diabetes, although the hereditary factors causing it cannot be reversed, the environmental and lifestyle factors can be changed. The latter are the cause of the explosive rise in the number of people affected with diabetes in recent years. Questions 1, 11, 12, 16, and 20 discuss some of these causative factors. Although we do...

Does diabetes put me at risk of any other diseases or illnesses

Aside from the direct consequences of high blood sugar itself, which are discussed in Question 29, people with diabetes are at risk of suffering from other associated diseases. In the case of type 1 diabetes, the diseases either result from the high blood sugar or from the root cause of the diabetes, which is a predisposition to destroy the hormone-producing tissues (called autoimmunity). Thus, a person with type 1 diabetes is more likely to suffer from adrenal gland damage (Addison's disease), thyroid gland damage (Graves' or, much more commonly, Hashimoto's disease), and several other disorders. Fortunately, except in the case of thyroid disease, which affects about one in three people with type 1 diabetes, the likelihood of developing one of these other disorders is not high, but can be so in certain families. Most people with type 1 diabetes are screened annually for thyroid disease. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the other diseases appear to be independent, but related. In other...

Metabolic syndrome and newonset diabetes

The prevalence of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and frank diabetes has doubled in the USA over the past decade. With more than 60 of adults and 30 of children classified as overweight or obese, the USA has become the fattest nation on earth. Approximately half of all overweight individuals have insulin resistance and 25 of the population of the USA has multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular risk factors tend to cluster, and insulin resistance or diabetes, obesity, and hypertension are common in the same patient. Ever since the pioneering observation of Colin Dollery's team 59,60 more than 20 years ago, a variety of studies have documented that long-term diuretic therapy, particularly when combined with a beta-blocker, diminishes glucose tolerance and increases the risk of new-onset diabetes. Conversely, as has been revealed in more recent trials, treatment with antihypertensive drugs, such as blockers of the RAS or calcium antagonists, appears to decrease...

Insulin Resistance and Hyperinsulinemia

'Insulin resistance' refers to the phenomenon of insensitivity of the cells of the body to insulin's actions. Different tissues may have different insulin sensitivities. For example, adipose tissue may be more sensitive to insulin than muscle tissue, thus favoring the deposition of fatty acids in adipose tissue and diminished fatty acid oxidation in muscle. Insulin resistance is usually associated with hyper-insulinemia. Hyperinsulinemia is an independent marker that predicts the development of atherosclerosis. A causal relationship between hypertension and hyperinsulinemia has not been well established. Hypertension associated with hyperinsulinemia could be due to increased renal sodium retention, increased intracellular free calcium, increased sympathetic nervous system activity, or increased intraabdominal pressure due to increased visceral fat deposition. The mechanisms of insulin resistance with increasing obesity are not clear, but increased production of cytokines such as tumor...

Large Scale Community Coronary Heart Disease and Diabetes Prevention Trials

Conducting large-scale, communitywide trials to address the prevention of obesity is a very expensive and difficult process consequently, evidence of this nature is very limited. However, a number of large CVD and diabetes prevention trials have included weight as an intermediary outcome, which can also provide useful information about effective strategies to address obesity, and have demonstrated that it may be possible to prevent weight gain if not reduce weight at a population level. Strong and consistent evidence of the success of large-scale weight gain prevention initiatives has been obtained from diabetes prevention trials that have addressed the progression to diabetes in people identified as glucose intolerant. Four large-scale trials have produced significant reductions in the rate of diabetes by focusing on exercise and diet, which resulted in small weight losses of approximately 3 or 4 kg on average. The largest trial conducted in the United States found that advice to...

What is diabetic nephropathy

Diabetic nephropathy is the term used to describe kidney damage that occurs in diabetes, usually of longstanding. The damage to the kidney in diabetes can result from the high blood sugar itself, which leads to an expansion of certain types of material in the filtering mechanism of the kidney. This expansion damages the delicate cells responsible for filtering waste materials through the kidney. Eventually, there are abnormal pressures and changes in the important electrical balance in this complex structure. These changes lead to leakage of proteins that are usually either retained or reabsorbed by the kidney. The blood pressure can rise due to overload of fluid and constriction of small blood vessels. The rise in blood pressure further damages the kidney if not treated. If there is an excessive leak of protein, the body becomes protein deficient, which can lead to generalized puffiness and swelling. Eventually, the kidneys can fail and their functions must be replaced by the...

Diabetes And Diabetic Nephropathy

Replacing animal protein with soy protein has been found to improve various disease markers in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and people with obesity. In a RCT of 104 patients with type 2 diabetes, 12 months of a soy-based meal replacement was found to significantly improve weight loss, HbAlc and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and significantly reduce the use of sulfonylureas and metformin compared to the use of individual diet plans (Li et al 2005). Another randomised trial involving 90 obese (non-diabetic) subjects suggests that 6 months on a low-fat, high-soy-protein diet can help to reduce fat while preserving muscle mass and improving glycaemic control and the lipid profile (Deibert et al 2004). studies of diabetic nephropathy. In a controlled crossover trial, 8 weeks of substituting soy protein for animal protein significantly reduced glomerular filtration rates in 12 young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (Stephenson et al 2005). In another crossover...

Why is the risk of blood vessel diseases increased so much in diabetes

There are several reasons why the risk of vascular diseases, such as heart attack, stroke, and diseases of the vessels in the limbs (peripheral vascular disease), is increased in both types of diabetes. The weight gain and lack of exercise common in people with type 2 diabetes lead to other conditions such as abnormal cholesterol levels and high blood pressure, which are potent causes of vascular disease. If all of these risk factors are not treated effectively, the probability of vascular disease remains high. High blood sugar over months and years leads to a chemical reaction of the sugar in the blood vessels, damaging them structurally. Perhaps most importantly, we now know that diabetes and obesity can be described as irritants to the body tissues, meaning that the body becomes generally inflamed. We know that this is so because we can measure high levels of compounds that indicate inflammation in the blood of many people with diabetes. It turns out that this inflammation, when...

Diabetes Diabetes Management and Diabetes Self Management

With perhaps no disease is the individual's role so broad as in diabetes. Care of diabetes rests not only on healthy diet but also on sufficient physical activity managing stress and negative mood accommodating intercurrent illnesses monitoring weight and blood sugar medication management and adjustment in response to fluctuations in blood sugar maintaining activities and interests of a healthy, satisfying life and coordinating all of these through interacting with the health care system. All the while, the individual with diabetes must prepare for the vicissitudes of the disease, especially the fact that even with good metabolic control, complications can occur and, over time, become increasingly likely. Diabetes is intrinsically progressive. Thus, added to the burdens of managing the disease itself are, often, the burdens of managing complications such as blindness, amputations, and sexual dysfunction as well as the other diseases to which diabetes often contributes such as kidney...

Can my diabetes affect my sex life If so how and what can I do about it

Diabetes can have a profound effect upon a person's sexual drive, functioning, and satisfaction. This is especially apparent in men, although there is some evidence that some women with diabetes can also experience adverse effects on their sexual responses. The reason for the significant effects on male sexual function arises from the complexity of the penile erection mechanism. This requires satisfactory nerve, blood vessel, and hormone function to be achieved and sustained. Diabetic nerve damage (see Question 32) can be of two main types. One form is damage to the system that serves conscious movement and sensation and the other is damage to the system that serves unconscious or automatic responses, such as bowel contraction and the heart beat. The erectile mechanism is served by the latter, while the sensation of pleasure in sexual performance is served by the former. Since the nerves to the genital area are relatively lengthy, they are prone to the damage described in Question 32....

Diabetes in Pregnancy

For women with diabetes, nutritional counseling should include adequate dietary intake, frequent glucose monitoring, insulin management to meet the growth needs of the fetus, maintaining optimal blood glucose levels, and preventing ketosis and depletion of the mother's nutrient stores. The demands of pregnancy may impose a need for insulin in pregnant women whose condition was controlled through diet alone in the nonpregnant state. Because of hormonal changes during the first and second half of pregnancy, changes to the diet and the insulin dosage may be necessary. Gestational diabetes occurs only during pregnancy and usually resolves after pregnancy. It occurs in 5-10 of pregnancies and most commonly arises after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational diabetes can be treated largely through nutritional care and moderate exercise to achieve weight control. Nutritional recommendations are to limit protein intake to 15 of total calories, consume 55 of total calories as carbohydrate, and...

Hear a lot about footwear and foot care for diabetes Why is this so important

Proper care and protection of the feet are extremely important for people with diabetes. This is due to the fact that the feet are frequently affected by diabetic nerve damage with a resultant loss of protective sensation. Protective sensation is the perception of potential injury, such as awareness of sharp, rough, or excessively hot or cold objects or friction, such as rubbing against the inside of shoes. When this is impaired, it is possible for the person with diabetes to sustain wounds, abrasions, burns, or freezing of which he or she may be unaware. Other types of injuries such as bites and blisters can similarly occur unnoticed. Even fractures to the bones of the foot can occur painlessly when more severe forms of diabetic nerve damage are present. The most serious consequence of unperceived injury is infection. Because the blood supply to the feet may also be impaired, the healing and immune response to both the injury and the infection can be compromised, so that a...

Postprandial Plasma Glucose And Insulin Responses To Different Types Of Breads

Carbohydrate-rich diets lead to continuous pancreatic stimulation and repeated postprandial insulin secretion. This type of diet has been hypothesized to lead to insulin resistance, cell dysfunction, and, ultimately, type 2 diabetes (Zammit et al, 2001). Many studies have shown that diets with lower glycemic indices and higher fiber content decrease the development risk of type 2 diabetes and heart diseases, contribute to a higher quality of life for diabetics, and have some preventive and restorative effects against insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (Amano et al, 2004 Leeds, 2002 Liu et al, 2000). Furthermore, several studies have investigated the short-term effects of different types of breads on glucose metabolism. In a study in which 2-h postprandial effects of white bread, wheat bran bread, and whole grain bread were compared (Mesci et al, 2008), no difference was found among the three types of breads with respect to glycemic effects (Figures 39.1 and 39.2). Hlebowicz et...

Plasma Glucose and Insulin Responses

The 'glycemic index' approach has been used to classify foods according to their ability to raise the level of glucose in the blood. Foods are tested in equivalent carbohydrate portions according to standardized methodology. On a scale where glucose 1GG, the glycemic index of refined sucrose ( 65) is similar to that of white bread ( 7G). Table 3 shows the glycemic index of a range of common foods. Refined sucrose elicits an insulin response commensurate with its glycemic response, i.e., it does not stimulate inappropriately high insulin secretion. See also Carbohydrates Chemistry and Classification Regulation of Metabolism Requirements and Dietary Importance. Dental Disease. Diabetes Mellitus Classification and Chemical Pathology Dietary Management. Fructose. Glucose Chemistry and Dietary Sources Metabolism and Maintenance of Blood Glucose Level. Glycemic Index.

Role of Insulin in Enhancing Growth with Parenteral Nutrition

Exogenous insulin is most commonly used to control early hyperglycemia in very preterm infants. However, informal surveys suggest that there are a number of centers that use insulin in preterm neonates receiving parenteral nutrition for the purpose of enhancing growth. Insulin has been shown to successfully lower glucose levels and to increase weight gain without undue risk of hypoglycemia 23-25 . It is presumed that improved weight gain is secondary to both increased glucose utilization and improved protein balance in infants receiving parenteral nutrition. However, little is known about the effects of intravenous insulin infusions and relative hyperinsulinemia on the quality of weight gain and on counterregulatory hormone concentrations and the possible effects of these concentrations. Administration of intravenous amino acids has been shown to decrease glucose concentrations in ELBW infants, presumably by enhancing endogenous insulin secretion. In the above study by Thureen et al....

Other Health Outcomes Bone Status Cancer and Diabetes

Finally, a number of studies have examined associations between weight cycling and diabetes and have yielded little evidence of a relation. According to findings from the Nurses Health Study, no association was found between weight fluctuation and diabetes incidence. In another study, glucose tolerance and weight fluctuations were directly monitored in obese patients, and no deterioration was observed to be directly associated with weight cycling. Interestingly, the Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group found that the diabetes reduction achieved over 4 years with a lifestyle intervention was not diminished with the gradual regaining of more than half of the weight lost. This observation is an indication that a period of weight reduction may exert a net benefit for diabetes, even if weight is subsequently regained.

Impact Of Wheat Sprouts On Glucose And Insulin Metabolism

In an animal model, the intake of pregerminated brown rice was shown to produce lower postprandial glucose and insulin levels compared to white rice, and the authors ascribed this effect to the higher dietary fiber content of the pregerminated rice (Seki et al, 2005). The impact of dietary fiber on glucose and insulin metabolism is relatively well investigated. Intake of soluble fiber increases the viscosity of stomach and small intestine contents, thereby hindering carbohydrate digestion and absorption (Leclere et al, 1994). However, in population studies, intake of insoluble fiber, but not viscous fiber, has been associated with a decreased risk for type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular disease (Jenkins et al, 2000 Salmeron, Manson, et al. 1997). The mode of action of insoluble fiber in this connection remains unclear. As possible mechanisms of the positive effects of dietary fiber on hepatic glucose production, fermentation processes in the colon leading to the production of...

Asthenia And Familial Hypertension And Diabetes

It is interesting, in my opinion, to see how these patterns of distribution of sectors can also be observed in other patients who, for example, have familial hypertension and diabetes but who are not affected by these disorders themselves (Figs 7.9, 7.10). For the comparison shown in Figure 7.9 I considered a group of subjects without hypertension but who had at least one close relative with high blood pressure. An exclusion criterion in this group was that no subject should be diabetic or have familial diabetes. For the comparison shown in Figure 7.10 I considered a group of subjects without diabetes but who had at least one member in their family who was being treated for hyperglycemia. In this group an exclusion criterion was that no subject should be treated for high blood pressure or have familial hypertension. Fig. 7.10 Cluster of points with low ESR in 22 patients with family history of diabetes but who themselves have normal glucose levels on the left cluster of tender points...

Improvement of insulin resistance

Buckwheat contains D-chiro-inositol (Figure 13.3), which can lower the concentration of blood glucose in streptozotocin-diabetic rats (Kawa, Taylor, et al., 2003) and type 2 diabetic mice (KK-Ay) (Yao et al., 2008). D-chiro-Inositol can be incorporated into mammalian cells as the free form and exists in cells as inositol phosphates and inositol phospholipids. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and these symptoms are considered to be due to the deficiency of D-chiro-inositol containing phosphoglycan (see Figure 13.3), which mediates the action of insulin. The administration of D-chiro-inositol increases the action of insulin in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, improving the function of ovaries and decreasing the blood pressure and the concentrations of androgen and triacylglycerol in blood (Cheang et al., 2004 Nestler et al., 1999). These data suggest that products containing buckwheat flour may be used to treat diabetes and...

Working Girl Diabetes at Work and School

Years ago, before I had children, I was a busy working girl as a department store manager at Saks Fifth Avenue. I was drawn to the job because of the glamour and the expensive clothes and ended up working in retail for almost 10 years. After several years with Saks Fifth Avenue, I started to get restless and wanted to have more money. Saks wasn't offering a high enough salary, so I quit and went to work for Banana Republic. Working as a department store manager at Saks, I was on my feet for most of the day, carrying boxes and stacks of clothes or moving display equipment. I liked the physical part of the work, but I also liked that at Saks, I could retreat to my dark office in the storage room and test my blood sugar or have a snack when I was low. Whereas at Banana Republic, I quickly discovered that I was expected to always be on the floor. On a Sunday morning, during my training period at Banana Republic, I met with my new coworkers to redesign the layout of the store for the...

What can happen if my diabetes is not properly treated and controlled

Uncontrolled diabetes, which generally refers to glucose levels that are higher rather than lower than the target range, can lead to immediate short-term and longer-term consequences. The short-term consequences result from the very high blood glucose itself, which is described in Question 4. If severe enough or untreated for long enough, markedly high blood glucose levels can result in coma and ultimately death, due to the severe abnormalities of blood chemistry that occur. It is important to note that only a very small minority of patients with either form of diabetes will die in this way. Therefore, although immediate decompensation of diabetes is a serious and life-threatening condition, with a high death rate if detected and treated too late, the majority of people with diabetes should be more concerned about the damaging effects of diabetes that are not well controlled, yet not sufficiently poorly controlled to focus their attention. The longer-term consequences of less than...

Eating too many simple carbohydrates causes blood sugar peaks and valleys

Here's the most important thing you need to know about simple carbohydrates Due to their simple molecular structure, they're digested very quickly and they cause a rapid rise in blood sugar. Your body responds to blood sugar peaks by releasing large amounts of insulin (the hormone responsible for getting the glucose out of the bloodstream and into the cells where it can be used for energy). When there's a large blood sugar spike, your body tends to overreact and produce too much insulin. The insulin quickly clears the glucose from the bloodstream, leading to a sharp drop in blood sugar known as hypoglycemia. Low blood sugar is accompanied by cravings, hunger, weakness, mood swings and decreased energy. The hunger and cravings tend to cause the sugar consumption to perpetuate itself, resulting in a vicious cycle of ups and downs in energy throughout the day.

Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young MODY

MODY are a group of monogenic disorders inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. MODY is characterized by early onset (usually before the age of 25 years) of T2D ft cell dysfunction and there being a family history (at least two generations) of early onset diabetes. The defect is in insulin secretion due to mutations in the glucokinase and ft cell transcription factor genes (Table 2). Hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNF) 1a, 1ft, and 4a, insulin promoter factor (IPF1), and neurogenic differentiation (NEUROD1) play an important role in the normal development and function of the ft cells of the pancreas. In the UK mutations in HNF1a is the commonest cause of MODY accounting for 63 of cases, followed by mutations in the glucokinase gene (20 of cases). The clinical presentation and progression of diabetes is Table 2 Maturity onset diabetes of the young Table 2 Maturity onset diabetes of the young different among patients with mutations of gluco-kinase, HNF1a, and HNF1ft. Subjects with...

Lactic Acid and Insulin

Insulin may stimulate cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Among its effects, insulin stimulates hypoxic cells to produce greater amounts of lactic acid. One way to regulate insulin production is through dietary modifications. When food is digested, its carbohydrate content is converted to glucose, and elevated plasma concentrations of glucose stimulate the secretion of insulin. Foods that are slowly converted to glucose raise insulin levels less dramatically than foods that contain glucose or are easily converted to glucose. The ability of foods to increase insulin concentrations is referred to as their glycemic index. Thus, insulin secretion can be kept to a minimum by eating foods that have a low glycemic index, such as vegetables and protein and, to a lesser extent, whole grains and beans. The glycemic index has been used extensively by diabetic patients to control their insulin requirements. Some natural compounds have also been reported to inhibit the cancer-promoting effects of...

Diabetes In The Bedroom

Ann Rosenquist Fee says that she has managed to keep diabetes out of the bedroom I was diagnosed just before my 3rd wedding anniversary. This summer, we'll celebrate our 25th. In those 17years, diabetes has been less disruptive to my sex life than the I don't wear an insulin pump, so as long as I can tell the difference between the flush sweat rapid pulse of lust and the flush sweat rapid pulse of hypoglycemia (I usually can and in case not, I've got glucose tablets in a drawer right next to the lube), diabetes stays out of my bed. Having sex for the first time can be an exciting, embarrassing, and overwhelming event. For young women with diabetes, the fact that we have to think about our blood sugar and or medical supplies getting in the way can create additional feelings of self-consciousness. Diabetes may keep some women from rushing into having sex, whereas diabetes may act as a catalyst for others. For the rest, like Ann, diabetes won't make a difference under the sheets at all....

Lactic Acid Insulin and Angiogenesis

We end this chapter with a brief discussion of the relationship between lactic acid, insulin, and angiogenesis in wound healing and cancer. As mentioned earlier, vascular cells proliferate and migrate toward an angiogenic stimulus, usually toward a low-oxygen (hypoxic) environment. In wound healing, hypoxia occurs from a lack of blood circulation in the traumatized area. In tumors, hypoxic conditions occur both through inflammation, which reduces blood flow, and the chaotic development of blood vessels within tumors. One growth factor that is intimately involved in glycolysis is insulin. Insulin stimulates not only glycolysis but also proliferation of many cancer cell lines.54'58-60 It glucose (blood sugar) enzymes may facilitate angiogenesis by increasing lactic acid production in hypoxic tumor cells and by stimulating the proliferation of vascular cells. For example, insulin injection can increase angiogenesis in mice.61 High insulin levels are common in cancerous tissue and in the...

Treatment for Diabetes

Treatment for diabetes involves following a regimen of diet, exercise, self-monitoring of blood glucose, and taking medication or insulin injections. Although type 1 diabetes is primarily managed with daily insulin injections, type 2 diabetes can be controlled with diet and exercise. However, when diet and exercise fail, medication is added to stimulate the production of insulin, reduce insulin resistance, decrease the liver's output of glucose, or slow absorption of carbohydrate from the gastrointestinal tract. When medication fails, insulin is required. Following the diagnosis of diabetes, a diabetic patient undergoes medical nutrition therapy. In other words, a registered dietician performs a nutritional assessment to evaluate the diabetic patient's food intake, metabolic status, lifestyle, and readiness to make changes, along with providing dietary instruction and goal setting. The assessment is individualized and takes into account cultural, lifestyle, and financial...

Can I feel my high and low blood sugars reliably

Although many people with diabetes confidently state that they can reliably detect both their high and low blood sugars without actual measurement, studies have shown that these beliefs are not usually accurate. It is generally easier to be aware of hypoglycemia (low sugars) than high blood sugars. This is because the margin of safety between blood sugars in the lower part of the normal range and dangerously low blood sugars is quite narrow only about 25 mg dl and the body has a vigorous and rapid response system, designed to ensure that a source of energy is rapidly found and consumed. Nevertheless, especially after longstanding diabetes or a period of very tight glucose control, symptoms of low blood sugar are often not detected by patients. If they are detected, they are perceived with insufficient time to take preventive action. Typical early symptoms of hypoglycemia are shakiness, sweatiness, hunger, abdominal discomfort, palpitations (i.e., a fluttering sensation in the chest),...

My doctor says I have hypoglycemia Isnt that the opposite of diabetes

Yes, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) is the opposite of the hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) that characterizes diabetes. Certain treatments for diabetes and several conditions unrelated to diabetes can cause hypo-glycemia. The most common form of hypoglycemia occurs in otherwise healthy young individuals, more commonly in women than men, and is quite benign, although it can be associated with distressing symptoms. Fortunately, it is usually treatable by adjustment of the composition and timing of meals. Sometimes, hypoglycemia can be caused by serious conditions and your doctor will be able to determine whether you are one of the small percentage of people who needs further investigation and specialist referral. It is important to note that hypoglycemia can be an early feature of diabetes. This type of hypoglycemia occurs in people with prediabetes (see Question 9) who are resistant to the action of insulin and yet are still capable of mounting a vigorous insulin release from the...

Diabetes Carbohydrate Modified Diets and Carbohydrate Counting

Diabetes is a condition that alters the way the body handles carbohydrates. In terms of diet modifications, diabetics can control blood sugar levels by appropriately managing the carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in their meals. The amount of carbohydrates, not necessarily the source, is the primary issue. Blood glucose levels after a meal can be related to the process of food preparation, the amount of food eaten, fat intake, sugar absorption, and the combination of foods in the meal or snack. One method of monitoring carbohydrate levels carbohydrate counting assigns a certain number of carbohydrate grams or exchanges to specific foods. Calculations are used to determine insulin need, resulting in better control of blood glucose levels with a larger variety of foods. Overall, diabetic diets can include moderate amounts of sugar, as long as they are carefully monitored. see also Diabetes Mellitus Fats Nutrients Protein Weight Loss Diets. American Diabetes Association. < http...

Balancing Motherhood And Diabetes

As mothers with diabetes, sometimes, worrying about blood sugars or making sure what we eat, takes a back seat to the demands of our family. When the baby is crying, there's homework that needs to be done, there are laundries and chores, and it seems like there will never be enough time to do everything that needs to be done then our blood sugar spikes, sometimes it feels like it's us against the world. There have been many days when I want to scream or cry in frustration, and diabetes is just one of the things that make my life harder. Those are the days that my grandmother's words ring in my head This too shall pass. I take a deep breath and hold on (or yell or figure out a way to go for a run or a walk), and it almost always gets better. Rachel Garlinghouse has two young daughters, Ella and Emery and she says I know that if I do not put my health first, everyone in my family will suffer. Diabetes or not, how I treat myself is likely how my daughters will learn to treat themselves....

Dyslipidemia Diabetes Mellitus and the Metabolic Syndrome

Given that cholesterol gallstone disease is a metabolic problem, it should correlate with lipid abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and adiposity. Although most gallstones in the Western world consist of cholesterol, there is no definite association with hypercholesterolemia.1 Rather, a low HDL cholesterol carries an increased risk of developing stones, as does hypertriglyceridemia. The association between diabetes mellitus and gallstones is confounded by age, obesity, and a family history of gallstones.1 The link between diabetes, obesity, and gallstones most likely comes through the metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome characterizes a specific body phenotype (abdominal obesity), insulin resistance (type 2 diabetes mellitus), and dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia), all risks for cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance predisposes to cholesterol gallstone disease,28,29 suggesting that hepatic insulin resistance must somehow affect cholesterol and bile salt metabolism.

What is the difference between diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus

The word diabetes is an interesting one. Its origin is in the Greek language where it is derived from the word for a siphon or, more simply, a pipe or hose. This word was used to describe the disorder in ancient times (and diabetes was recognized in great antiquity) because those suffering from it produced such plentiful amounts of urine that they were reminiscent of a water pipe. The reason for the plentiful amounts of urine lies in the fact that when the sugar glucose reaches excessively high levels in our bloodstream, it is filtered into the kidney and enters the urine in large quantities. Due to its chemical and physical properties, when large amounts of glucose are filtered by our kidneys into the urine, it cannot be fully reabsorbed and retains a large amount of water with it, thus creating very large volumes of urine. The second part of the name, mellitus, is derived from the word meaning sweet, as in mellifluous music. Mellitus was added when it was discovered that the urine...

Delicious Diabetic Recipes

Delicious Diabetic Recipes

This brilliant guide will teach you how to cook all those delicious recipes for people who have diabetes.

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