How to Detoxify Your Body Naturally

Natural Detox Made Easy

Natural Detox Made Easy

Are you looking for a full total body detox? If so, then you might want to try a 10 day detox or  some refer to it as the 2-week detox. A 10-day detox is a full body detox that usually means taking several different steps to reach your total body transformation. It might involve a change in diet, exercise and more.

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5 Day Detox Detox With Drew

Detox With Drew is a unique diet program that helps users to detox cleanse using a proven strategy. It has been developed by Drew Canole who is a certified Nutritionist. This diet program includes vegetable juice recipes that are highly effective in detoxifying the body of harmful chemicals and toxins. It is a 5 day detox system that claims to assist users in getting lean and healthy body. With the right vegetable juice recipe, you will be able to do a Detox cleanse of your entire body and that is basically what the 5-day Detox cleansing system is all about. Under 5- days, you will be able to experience the amazing power behind Drew Canole 5 day Detox guide and you will see why this 5 day Detox workbook is the best there is with no rival.

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Clonidine Shortens Detoxification

Detoxification of opioid addicts with clonidine has been used to facilitate the transition from chronic opioid administration to naltrexone (a long-acting opioid ANTAGONIST) or to drug-free status. Naltrexone possesses opioid-blocking action at all opioid-receptor sites in the body and brain, rather than having an affinity for a specific type of opioid receptor. It is a useful medication for those patients willing to take it to prevent relapse. When recovering addicts take naltrexone, they make opi-oid effects unavailable to themselves. The affinity of naltrexone for the receptors is such that they are unable to feel the effects of heroin, methadone, or other exogenous opioids. While the original cloni-dine treatment protocol of Gold and his colleagues (1978a, b) facilitated the initiation of naltrexone by avoiding the extra ten-day wait required after the last methadone, an accelerated detoxification protocol has been developed using naltrexone and clonidine simultaneously. Since...

Phase Ii Detoxification Enzymes A Nqo1 Induction by Isothiocyanates

The ability of synthetic and plant-derived isothiocyanates to induce cystolic quinone reductase NQO1 NADP(H) quinone reductase oxidoreductase , an FAD-containing flavoprotein, has been widely addressed. NQO1 exists as a homodimmer, comprised of two homo-monomeric subunits of molecular weight 32 kDa with two identical catalytic sites providing the necessary pathway to detoxify quinones to hydroquinones using NADH and NADPH as reductants (reviewed in Ref. 129). The two-electron-mediated reduction by NQO1 promotes the glucuronidation of hydroquinones that aid in their excretion (130). In addition, NQO1 also shows reductive activity toward quinone-imines and azo and nitrocompounds among others (reviewed in Ref. 131). With high localization within the liver of mammals NQO1 functions by competing with Phase I enzymes for quinone substrates. Indeed, the interaction of both NQO1 and CYP450 isoenzymes can potentially reduce the amount of free radicals produced during normal metabolic...

Detoxified for Health

Ealthy breast tissue is a sign of clear digestive and detoxification function. Just mentioning the word breast cyst or blocked milk duct can send chills down the spine. Thirty percent of American women have fibrocystic breast disease, a benign (noncancerous) condition characterized by round lumps that move freely within the breast tissue. These lumps are usually tender to the touch. In contrast, a cancerous growth in the breast is often not tender or freely movable when touched. The texture of the lumps can vary from soft to firm. For many women, the tenderness may increase as menstruation approaches. often the cysts fill with fluid and can enlarge premenstrually in response to the increase in hormonal levels during this time.33

Treatment Of Opioid Withdrawal Detoxification

The process of treating someone who is physically dependent so that acute withdrawal symptoms are controlled and the state of physical dependence is ended is usually referred to as detoxification. For opioid drugs, this process can be managed on an ambulatory (outpatient) basis or in a hospital or other residential (inpatient) setting. The most common approach to easing the severity of opioid withdrawal is to slowly lower the dose of opioid over a period of days or weeks. However, in the United States, if the drug has been heroin, a substitution technique is used instead. Since virtually all opioids that are abused act as AGONISTS at the mu-opioid RECEPTOR, any mu agonist could be a suitable substitute, but the only ones approved for this purpose in the United States are methadone and LAAM (L-ALPHA ACETYLMETHADOL). These medical agents are effective when taken by mouth. Methadone can completely suppress the opioid abstinence syndrome. This capacity of one opioid to prevent the...

Induction of Phase II Detoxification Enzymes

Prestera and Talalay (54) suggested that evaluating the ability to promote phase II detoxification enzymes would be one of the indexes for detecting antimutagenicity and anticancer action of substances. It was known that B a P exerted its detoxification functions through GST (55). Therefore, exploring the effects of C. tora on GST activity of mammalian cells might reveal their function in lessening the genotoxicity of B a P. In the HepG2 cell line, unroasted and 150 C-roasted C. tora promoted enzyme activation (21). These two water extracts increased the enzyme activity by 1.26 and 1.35 times, respectively. Induction of the 250 C-roasted sample on GST activity was not significant. The result suggested that promoting GST activity of water extracts from unroasted and 150 C-roasted C. tora might be another reacting mechanism of antigenotoxicity compare with suppressing EROD. Further investigation by Choi et al. (10) has demonstrated that eth-anolic extract of C. tora was able to reduce...

Biochemical Mechanisms Of Action A Detoxification Antioxidant Actions

Induction of Detoxifying Enzymes The hepatoprotection afforded by Sch B and other lignans could at least in part be attributed to the induction of hepatic cytochrome P-450-dependent (phase I) and GST (phase II) drug-metabolizing enzymes for detoxification reactions (6,7). Gom A increased the hepatic levels of microsomal cytochrome b5 and P-450, and activities of NADPH cytochrome C reductase, aminopy-rine N-demethylase, and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (11). As regards the CCl4 hepatotoxicity, Sch B and Gom A could inhibit the CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation as well as the binding of CCl4 metabolites to the liver microsomal lipids (6,70,71). The ability of Sch B Gom A to inhibit peroxidation of membrane lipids and hence maintain membrane stability of hepatocytes under oxidative stress conditions may also contribute to the hepatoprotective action against toxins that can generate reactive metabolites in the liver (72,73). When examining the effect on rats subject to intoxication by...

The Mammalian Detoxification System

Mammalian cells are continuously exposed to endogenous and exogenous toxins, either as by-products of metabolism or as environmental agents. These compounds are usually highly electrophilic and disrupt normal cellular function by reacting with nucleophilic centers located in and on proteins and DNA. In the extreme case, DNA adducts can be formed that result in the formation of a neoplastic cell and subsequently a cancerous cell can develop. To prevent these deleterious effects the mammalian system has developed specific pathways to stabilize and subsequently excrete xenobiotics. These pathways rely on the expression and activity of several groups of proteins known as Phase I and Phase II detoxification enzymes, such as cytochrome P450s EC 1. 14.14.1 , glutathione-S-transferases EC , quinone reductase EC , and UGT-glucoronosyltransferases EC 2. 4.1.17 . The coordinate regulation of the latter group is generally controlled through the same transcriptional mechanism...

Read that toxins can cause MS Is this true Can I be detoxified

One continuing concern is whether mercury in dental amalgam, the material used in dental fillings, is a health issue for MS. Although industrial mercury pollution was a major health problem in Japan and elsewhere, mercury in dental amalgam is a very different issue. There are inconsequential differences in serum and tissue levels of mercury in MS patients as compared with normals. We have found no differences in urinary excretion of mercury in MS patients. In studies of edentulous MS patients who had never had any dental repairs, we found they had higher levels of mercury simply because they consumed more fish. Thus, there is no medical justification for removal of amalgam dental fillings, and the concept of detoxification has no place in the management of MS. Increased excretion of metals after chelation with drugs does not mean toxic levels were present in the person prior to chelation. Many of the measurements reported by laboratories are unreliable. Hair analysis is preferred, but...


I focus a large percent of my patient contact time on detoxification. Detoxifying starts by stopping. You need to stop consuming processed food, man-made oils, sugar, and artificial colors. You might be thinking, Dr. Bob, everything I eat is processed and colored. My response eat food without labels. You find them in the produce department not in the prepared food department 90 percent of the aisle space in our grocery stores. Modern herbalists consider hyssop to be one of more outstanding herbs for detoxification of the colon. It was important in Abraham's time and even more important today.

Treatment For Alcohol Dependence

The first step in treating alcoholics is to remove the ethanol from the system, a process called detoxification. Since rapid termination of ethanol (or any other central nervous system depressant) can be life threatening, people who have been using high doses should be slowly weaned from the ethanol by giving a less toxic substitute depressant. Ethanol itself cannot be used because it is eliminated from the

Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders

Alcohol may have some therapeutic value in a subgroup of bipolar patients. This can perhaps be inferred from the fact that bipolar disorder following alcohol abuse usually manifests a decade later than bipolar disorder without such abuse 97 however, one cannot rule out the possibility that the protracted use of alcohol may have played a formative influence on the bipolar disorder in such cases. Given the clinical dangers of missing an otherwise treatable disorder, bipolar disorder should be given serious consideration as the primary diagnosis if marked bipolar manifestations continue one month after the period of detoxification. According to Winokur et a 97 , family history of mania can further buttress a bipolar diagnosis in such situations indeed, alcohol, stimulant abuse and mania are often unilineal in such families. The DSM-IV category of alcohol or substance-induced mood disorder is difficult to validate clinically because, in the absence of an affective diathesis,...

Applications in Substance Abuse Research

Using such techniques, investigations haven fallen broadly into two areas as relates to substance abuse, including both the acute effects of drug administration and the long-term consequences of addiction on neuronal activity (e.g., during states of drug abstinence and or treatment). Among the first to exploit such techniques for studies of human drug abusers, London and colleagues (London et al., 1990) examined the effects of intravenous cocaine (30 mg) on rCGM using 18F FDG and PET. Cocaine induced global reductions in brain metabolism that were inversely correlated with ventricular size. These investigators posited that reductions in brain metabolism may be one mechanism whereby drugs are reinforcing rewarding. In addition, Volkow and colleagues have attempted to understand the metabolic correlates of both acute (i.e., < 1 wk) and sustained (i.e., 1-4 mo) drug abstinence in chronic cocaine abusers (Volkow et al., 1991, 1993). The latter studies have indicated patterns of...

Mechanisms of Carcinogenicity

The direct metabolic activation of compounds to carcinogenic species by phase II metabolism, a process normally associated with detoxification, can also occur. Thus safrole and related compounds are converted to their sulfate esters, the ultimate carcinogenic species by the phase II enzyme, sulfotransferase.

Abstinence and Relapse

While most studies of chronic alcoholics have been conducted during the postalcohol period (e.g. during detoxification or abstinence), few studies have employed repeated MR measurements to document brain changes associated with prolonged abstinence or relapse. Several of these studies reported reversibilty of alcohol-induced ventricular enlargements (Schroth et al., 1988 Mann et al., 1989 Zipursky et al., 1989). The Zipursky study also demonstrated ventricular volume stability over time in controls, suggesting that ventricular volume normalization in abstinent alcoholics is associated with abstinence (Zipursky et al., 1989). A study of alcoholic women repeatedly scanned over a 6-week interval noted no ventricular volume changes however, baseline ventricular volumes in those women were nearly normal and abstinence-associated changes may have been too small to detect (Kroft et al., 1991). Subsequent longitudinal studies of abstinent alcoholics reported improved brain white matter,...

Alcoholism And Mood Disorders

The critical importance of the timing of the psychiatric assessment and its relationship to comorbidity is demonstrated by studies from the Alcohol Research Center in San Diego (Brown, 1988 Schuckit, 1990). Symptoms of depression in 191 alcoholics were recorded within 48 hours of admission for alcohol detoxification and again after 4 weeks of abstinence (Brown, 1988). Significant levels of depression were noted in 42 percent of alcoholics in the first assessment, but in only 6 percent in the follow-up evaluation irrespective of any specific antidepressant therapy.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Ptsd And Substance Abuse

Following extreme stresses beyond the realm of normal human experience, symptoms of anxiety including intrusive recollections of the trauma, au-tonomic hyperactivity, and nightmares have long been observed, but PTSD as a psychiatric diagnosis is much newer. Following recognition of this disorder, the link with substance abuse has been the subject of a number of studies. Rates of alcoholism in PTSD range from 40 to 80 percent, while other forms of substance abuse may range from 20 to 50 percent. This high rate of substance abuse has led to the hypothesis that the drug use may be explained by a self-medication theory. Jelinek (1984) has proposed that in the treatment of PTSD, those with substance abuse be divided into groups with abuse that preceded the trauma and those whose abuse followed the trauma. This latter group is considered as a ''self-medication group,'' and in this group treatment of the PTSD is felt to be the primary goal. Following treatment for the PTSD, it is believed...

Estimating Effective Doses

For the phenolic compounds discussed in Chapters 19 and 20, the 15-pM target concentration is modified because these compounds tend to occur in the plasma in the form of conjugates, which are generally less potent than the free, unchanged compound. Conjugates are produced during phase II metabolism (a form of detoxification). Conjugation takes place in the liver as well as in other tissues like the intestinal lining. It is the body's attempt to make a foreign compound more water-soluble and thus more easily excreted in the urine. The conjugates produced during detoxification are comprised of the parent molecule or its metabolites linked to a second, more water-soluble molecule. This second molecule is either glucuronic acid (which is related to glucose), glu-tathione, or sulfate. For the phenolic compounds discussed, glucuronide conjugates predominate in the plasma. We assume here that these conjugates are essentially half as potent as the free parent compound (see Appendix J). Since...

The Effectiveness Of Drugabuse Treatment

Initial research in this 20-year project focused on ways of measuring characteristics of treatments, clients, and behavioral outcomes (see Sells & Associates, 1975). It was found that drug use and criminal activities decreased significantly during treatment, including outpatient as well as residential programs. More important, the effects continued after treatment was ended. A sample of 6,402 clients located across the United States were selected for follow-up an average of three years after leaving DARP treatment (and 83 were located). Metha-done maintenance, therapeutic communities, and outpatient drug-free programs were associated with more favorable outcomes among opioid addicts than outpatient detoxification and intake-only comparison groups however, only clients who remained in treatment three months or longer showed significant improvements after treatment. Numerous studies of these data helped establish that treatment ''works'' and that the longer clients stay in treatment,...

Antineoplastic And Chemopreventative Effects

Several mechanisms appear to be involved. Notable among these is a depression in nitrosamine formation and a reduction in carcinogen bioactivation (Milner 2001). This is thought to involve an inhibitory effect on CYP2E1, one of the isoenzymes responsible for the activation of a number of carcinogens (Yang et al 2001). Some of the organosulfur compounds may also aid detoxification by enhancing glutathione S 2007 Elsevier Australia

Transferases For Conjugation Synthetic Reactions

Glutathione conjugation is very important as a detoxification pathway. Unstable or reactive metabolites formed from other metabolic reactions may cause toxicity by reacting with so-called house-keeping enzymes in the body. Glutathione, because of its abundance, can react with these metabolites instead and acts as a scavenger an epox-ide whose formation is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 is detoxified, except in an overdose case, by glutathione transferase. Some epoxide intermediary metabolites have been shown to be ultimate carcinogens, and detoxification by gluthione would be beneficial. Acetylation is also important for the detoxification of carcinogens containing aromatic amines. One form of N-acetyltransferase is polymorphic (people have different forms of the enzyme). The frequency of slow acetylator types shows a large variation ranging from 5 to 10 percent in Oriental and Inuit (Eskimo) subjects to as high as 50 percent in Caucasians and Africans. Drugs affected by this genetic...

Chemopreventive Potential of SM

The effect of SM on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis was investigated in male Fischer 344 rats. Results showed that the elevation of serum ALT and AST activities due to AFB1 dosing was almost completely abolished by the treatment of SM, indicating that SM could prevent AFB1-induced liver cell injury. It was further observed that SM substantially reduced glutathione S-transferase placenta form (GST-P) positive foci formation and GST-P mRNA expression caused by AFB1, which clearly suggests that SM is effective in preventing AFB1-induced hepatocarcino-genesis. Furthermore, the inhibition on AFB1 hepatocarcinogenesis was associated with a corresponding decrease in AFB1-DNA adducts formation as well as AFB1-induced oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguano-sine) in rat liver. The results also indicate that the protective effect of SM might be mediated through dual mechanisms (1) the enhancement of AFB1 detoxification pathway, especially the induction of GST-Yc2 mRNA...

Invivo Redox Effects of Antioxidants

One antioxidant that has received quite a bit of attention is beta-carotene. In a large trial on smokers (the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficiency Trial), researchers found that 30 milligrams of beta-carotene per day actually increased lung cancer rates.149-154 Reasons for this unexpected effect are still uncertain but are probably due to oxidation of beta-carotene in the free-radical-rich environment of a smoker's lungs and or the altered metabolism of beta carotene caused by changed detoxification enzymes in the smoker's lungs.155 One other factor may have been the high plasma concentration of beta-carotene produced, relative to that provided by normal dietary intake. For example, one in-vitro study reported that at concentrations created by normal dietary intake (1 to 3 pM), beta-carotene provided protection from oxidative DNA damage. However, at concentrations just above this level (4 to 10 pM, as can be produced during supplementation), the protection was lost and beta-carotene...

General Health Benefits

Through assessment of a large number of enzymes such as those involved in biotransformation like cytochrome P-450 isozymes, detoxification enzymes like glutathione-S-transferase, DT-diaphorase, a battery of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione perox-idase, glutathione reductase, and the content of glutathione itself, the chemo-preventive effect of S. platensis was shown (26). S.fusiformis administration was found to depress hepatic cytochrome P-450 and induce hepatic glutathi- one-S-transferase with no effect on extrahepatic glutathione-S-transferase. This was interpreted by the authors to mean decreased biotransformation of xenobiotics resulting in lesser amounts of reactive electrophilic metabolites and consequent protection to the animal. A simultaneous glutathione-S-transferase induction detoxifies hydrophobic electrophiles by conjugation to glutathione (27). In addition to being chemopreventive, S.fusiformis has been shown to cause regression of...

How Sweet is Sweet Enough

I have discovered that sport drinks and power bars commonly found in athletic facilities, conventional, and health food stores are stealthy candy bars. Be aware of evaporated organic cane juice crystals which is sugar in disguise. I avoid all man-made synthetic sugars. Manitol, sorbitol, and xylitol, are alcohol-based sweeteners marketed as sugar free and create additional stress to the detox system. Seek grape juice sweetened, brown rice syrup, stevia, honey or pear sweet as natural-sourced sweeteners.

Edward J Cone Revised by Amy Loerch Strymolo

HALFWAY HOUSES Although the term is of recent origin as used in connection with alcohol or drug treatment, the basic idea of the halfway house is almost two hundred years old. It designates a residential facility that provides a drug-free environment for individuals recovering from drug or alcohol problems but not yet able to live independently without jeopardizing their progress. By definition, halfway houses are not located in hospitals or PRISONS, but they vary in the extent to which they are integrated with local community life, and in size, sponsorship, sources of financial support, regulatory status (licensed or unlicensed by a state agency), treatment philosophy, and the degree of legal coercion to which residents are subject. Some specialize in alcohol abusers or drug abusers, while some serve both some focus on specific population groups like offenders, ADOLESCENTS, or WOMEN, while others are inclusive. Some will accept only those with at least a few days of abstinence others...

Brassica Vegetable Consumption And Human Health The Epidemiological Evidence

Approximately 200 studies have examined the relationship between high consumption of fruits and vegetables and their protective effect against cancer (1). Statistical analysis of 128 of 156 dietary studies revealed a reduced risk of cancers of the colon, lung, stomach, and bladder was associated with high intake of fruits and vegetables. The findings revealed that one group of the cruciferous vegetables appeared to be associated with this trend. Verhoeven et al. analyzed the data of seven cohort studies and 87 case-control studies, and found a relationship between consumption of Brassica vegetables and an inverse correlation with the consumption of broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower with lung cancer risk (6,7). Implicated in the protective effects based on in vivo and in vitro data are GSLs and ultimately their hydrolytic products, the ITCs. Lin et al. observed a correlation between polymorphisms in GSTT1, broccoli consumption, and a reduction in colorectal adenomas (58). Analysis of...

Changing Medical Policies On Drug Control

The situation changed in the early 1960s, however, and, based on recommendations of the second Brain Committee (1964), clinics for controlling and containing the heroin problem were implemented under the Dangerous Drug Act Regulations in 1968. Responsibility for the treatment of addicts generally was shifted from general practitioners (GPs) to Drug Dependency Units (DDUs). When a heroin abuser seeks treatment from a GP, however, the doctor can refuse treatment, refer the patient to a DDU, or provide declining methadone doses over six months (called long-term detoxification in the United States) or provide regular methadone maintenance (although this is rarely done by a GP). Over the period 1975 to 1983, many clinic directors shifted most patients from injectable to oral methadone maintenance. In the early 1980s, as illegal supplies of heroin became common in British cities, many clinics shifted away from oral metha-done maintenance. Instead, the treatment policy at several clinics was...

B GST Induction by Isothiocyanates

The second class of detoxification enzymes, the glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), and their functions in ITC metabolism have been of intense interest. GSTs function in detoxification of a wide range of electophilic species including aflatoxin-2,3-epoxide, tobacco carcinogens derived from benzo a -pyrene, and numerous pharmaceutical agents including acetaminophen. Distributed throughout the major organs and tissue such as the kidneys, lungs, intestine, skin, and the liver, GSTs catalyze the conjugation of glutathione (GSH), a tripeptide (g-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine) with electo-philic species, a process recognized as being the first step in the mercapturic acid pathway. Several ITCs have been demonstrated as efficient substrates for human GSTs, such as GST M1-1 and P1-1 (141,142). However, more important from a chemopreventive aspect is the ability of ITCs to induce GSTs at the transcriptional and protein level. Rodents fed ITC-enriched diets often show elevated increases in GST...

Signalling Events Associated with Phase II Enzyme Induction The Role of Map Kinases

MAPK are proline-directed serine threonine kinases that mediate phosphorylation cascades involved in both cell survival and apopto-sis. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 kinase are three cascades recognized in the mammalian cells. Each can function in phosphorylating transcription factors such as c-jun, ATF2, c-Myc, and Nrf2 inducing gene expression of a wide range of targets, including genes containing an ARE in their promoter regions. The importance of MAP kinases in phase II detoxification enzyme induction is exemplified by the fact that inhibitory studies using chemical agents and or generation of dominant negative mutants significantly reduced the expression of phase II detoxification enzymes. Yu et al. demonstrated an involvement of ERK in ITC-induced NQO1 activity. In hepa1c1c7 and HepG2 cells sulfo-raphane stimulates ERK2 activity leading to the induction of NQO1. Blocking of the signaling cascade using specific...

The Antioxidant Responsive Element A Site for Nrf2 Transcription Factor Binding

As mentioned above, common to several phase II detoxification enzymes is their transcriptional regulation by a conserved element located in the promoter region designated as antioxidant responsive element (ARE). This cis-acting regulatory element has been identified in the 5' flanking region of GST Ya and NQO1 genes in mammals and may also be present in other phase II enzymes. The ARE shows sequence similarity to activator protein (AP-1), and has been demonstrated to be a binding site for c-Jun, jun-B, jun-D, Fra1, and c-fos. More recent investigations have also identified a small basic leucine zipper protein (bZIP), designated Nrf-2, that can interact with the ARE, and is the prime candidate for mediating the induction of detoxification gene expression (Fig. 4). The important role of Nrf2 has been demonstrated by the work of Bloom et al. Using site-directed mutagenesis in the DNA-binding region of Nrf2, Bloom and colleagues demonstrated a decreases in Nrf2's ability to interact with...

Conclusions And Future Objectives

Our ever-expanding knowledge of how diet can influence the etiology of human disease is beginning to unravel how minor dietary components such as GSLs and their respective ITCs can prevent chronic diseases in humans. Epidemiological investigations coupled with the data from in vivo chemo-prevention studies show that ITCs are effective at preventing cancers especially during the initiation phase. These chemopreventive attributes appear to be associated with the induction of phase II detoxification enzymes of which in vitro studies have determined many of the signaling mechanisms involved. Members of the MAP kinases, PKC, and the association of the transcription factor Nrf2 with ARE-mediated gene expression contribute greatly to the sequence of events leading to the induction of these protective enzymes. The role of apoptosis should also be mentioned. Under circumstances when phase II detoxification enzymes are not sufficient to prevent deleterious events caused by chemical toxins, ITCs...

Functions of Glutathione

In addition to antioxidant effects, glutathione is also needed for the cellular detoxification of noxious compounds, particularly for electrophilic (positively charged) compounds. In this type of detoxification, noxious compounds are joined with glutathione molecules within the cell to form conjugates these have a low reactivity and are easily and safely transported out of the cell. Although liver cells are particularly adept at performing this and other types of detoxification, all cells, including cancer cells, perform detoxification. For example, cancer cells use this detoxification system to export several types of chemotherapy drugs, thereby inducing drug resistance. The enzyme glutathione S-transferase, which catalyzes the conjugation process, is commonly overexpressed in drug-resistant cancer cells.4 56 The antioxidant and detoxification actions of glu-tathione are illustrated in Figure 18.1. Glutathione also serves other functions not shown in the figure. High concentrations...

Possible Chemopreventative Effects

A chalcone flavonoid, xanthohumol and a flavone isomer of xanthohumol found in hops act as antiproliferative agents in vitro (Miranda et al 1999, Stevens & Page 2004). In vitro data has demonstrated that hops induces detoxification enzymes, in particular quinone reductase, which may contribute to its chemoprotective effects (Dietz et al 2005). A review concluded that this compound has the ability to protect in the initiation, promotion and progression stages of cancer (Gerhauser 2005b).

Cytochrome P450 Induction

Colupulone, a beta-bitter acid, was reported to induce the cytochrome P450 system and increase mRNA levels of cytochrome 2B and 3A in rats (Shipp et al 1994). Another study found that the flavonoids from hops inhibit the cytochrome P450 system in humans, in particular cytochromes 1A1, 1 b1, 1A2, but not 2E1 or 3A4 (Henderson et al 2000). A recent review concluded that hops inhibits phase 1 detoxification and enhances phase two by inducing quinone reductase (Gerhauser et al 2002, Stevens & Page 2004). The clinical significance of these findings is unknown.

Free radicals and antioxidants

Various normal reactions and functions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other compounds that are characterized by their high potential for causing oxidative damage to the body's DNA. proteins, membranes, and other components. Several of these compounds arc called free radicals because they contain an unpaired electron-Free radicals have a strong propensity to donate their unpaired electron to another compound or to abstract an electron from elsewhere to complement their own unpaired one. Their high and unspecilic reactivity gives them the power to modify most biological macromolecules and disrupt their structure. These relentless attacks are thought to be a major cause for progressive functional decline with aging (e.g. macular degeneration) anil major chronic diseases of adulthood, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis. Nonetheless, some ROS are of ital importance for signaling and immune defense, and their elimination would probably be harmful....

Gavril W Pasternak

NALTREXONE IN TREATMENT OF DRUG DEPENDENCE Naltrexone (brand names TrexanR, ReviaR U.S. , NalorexR France, U.K. ) is a synthetic antagonist of opiate (morphine-like) drugs, which blocks their actions without itself having any opiate effects. Naltrexone differs from most other pure opiate antagonists in having a relatively long duration of action (at least 24 hours) and being effective when taken by mouth. These characteristics have led to its clinical use as a long-term or maintenance treatment for OPIATE and Opioid dependence after detoxification. Naltrexone is also being studied experimentally as a possible treatment for cigarette smoking and eating disorders, and was approved in 1995 for treatment of alcoholism.

Chronic Administration

F., Alcohol-related seizures and the kindling effect of repeated detoxifications the influence of cocaine. Alcohol Alcohol. 31 135-143, 1996. Kouri, E. M., Lukas, S. E. and Mendelson, J. H., P300 assessment of opiate and cocaine users effects of detoxification and buprenorphine treatment. Biol. Psychiatry 40 617-628, 1996.

Optimal Health for Women

Females live on a fine line of hormonal balance. Any overload or deficiency can create a cascade of symptoms. A leading cause of female issues is estrogen overload. The liver is the clearing house for hormone function. Child bearing creates additional stress on the operating function. Women who focus on whole food diets, exercise, and detoxification live healthier lives.

Extreme Menstrual Flow

Ladies, before deciding to have a hysterectomy, my suggestion is to first focus on a detoxification program and lifestyle pattern change. Take the word Danish, cookie, soda, glass of wine, etc. out of your vocabulary. Avoid items that are processed. They create additional work on your filter system. You need to increase your consumption of whole food B vitamins, drink more water, take flax, and eat beets.

Metabolic Function and Essentiality

Some of the most important and characteristic functions of NAD manifest in the principal cellular catabolic pathways, responsible for liberation of energy during the oxidation of energy-producing fuels. NADP, however, functions mainly in the reductive reactions of lipid biosynthesis, and the reduced form of this coenzyme is generated via the pentose phosphate cycle. NAD is essential for the synthesis and repair of DNA. NAD has, in addition, a role in supplying ADP ribose moieties to lysine, arginine, and asparagine residues in proteins such as histones, DNA lyase II, and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and to polypeptides such as the bacterial diphtheria and cholera toxins. In the nucleus, poly (ADP ribose) synthetase is activated by binding to DNA breakage points and is involved in DNA repair. It is also concerned with condensation and expansion of chromatin during the cell cycle and in DNA replication. Niacin status affects the level of ADP ribolysation of proteins. A high level of...

Chemoprotection And Antimutagenic Effects

An in vitro study on human bronchial cells found that rosemary extract and its constituents, carnosol and carnosic acid, may have chemoprotective activity through decreasing carcinogen activation via inhibition of the enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP1A1) and increasing carcinogen detoxification by induction of phase II enzymes (Offord et al 1995). Carnosol has been found to also restrict the invasive ability of mouse melanoma cells in vitro by reducing MMP-9 expression and activity (Huang et al 2005).

Changes In The State Statutes

Before the court cases and the federal statutes, simple public intoxication constituted a criminal offense throughout the United States. Following the dramatic legal developments in the courts and in Congress, state and local laws rapidly began to change. Initially in the District of Columbia and in Maryland, and subsequently throughout other parts of the country, the criminal statutes prohibiting simple public intoxication were repealed and replaced with new laws establishing detoxification programs for intoxicated persons and rehabilitation programs for chronic alcoholics. By the early 1990s, more than 67 percent of the states had revised their laws to reflect this change in approach.

Approaches To Developing Medications For Drug Abuse

Researchers can use the knowledge gained from animal and human studies of the effects of drugs on the brain as they develop medications for alcohol and drug dependence. Most likely, one medication will be needed to help detoxify the drug-dependent individual and a second medication to help sustain abstinence from drug use. This two-phase medication regimen is used for opiate and alcohol treatment, and it may ultimately be the approach used for countering dependency on other drugs, such as cocaine, sedatives, and nicotine. In theory, a pharmacological treatment agent or medication would block or reduce either the acute, rewarding effect of the drug or the discomfort of withdrawal. In practice, few treatment drugs have been found to be very effective in sustaining abstinence from drugs or alcohol.

If you drink here are some tips for doing it sensibly without seriously compromising your results

Instead of I'm on a diet or I'm in training, you can make a game out of it and come up with some funny stories about why you're not drinking or why you're only having a drink or two. For example, I have a genetically inherited liver disorder. I really wish I could drink with you guys but I just can't take any chances. Or, My doctor said I lack the proper enzymes to detoxify alcohol, so toxic by-products build up in my liver and internal organs if I drink. Instead of being in a tense peer pressure situation, you could actually have fun with this.

Extracts Milk Thistle

Milk thistle regenerates injured liver cells (SKY). Silymarin, at 100 mg kg in rabbit diets, is reported to induce p450. Such data weakly suggest that milk thistle might detoxify (or inactivate) drugs detoxified by p450. Silymarin, the antihepatotoxic lignan, is hypolipidenic, lowering fatty deposits in the livers of experimental animals, and has been used successfully for Hepatosis B virus (PNC). Pre-treatment with silymarin and silybin gives 100 protection against mushroom poisoning in experimental animals. Posttreatment When silybin was given ivn to humans within 48 hours of ingesting death cap mushroom, it effectively prevented fatalities (PNC). Equally good results were reported in Santa Cruz, California, in January 2007. LD50 silibinin 1065 mg kg ivn mus HH3. LDlo silymarin > 20,000 mg kg orl mus (MAB) LDlo silymarin > 1000 mg kg orl dog (MAB) LDlo Extracts > 16,000 mg kg orl mus HH3. McCarty (2005) discussed the potential of milk thistle polyphenols for reversing...

Use of Natural Compounds to Increase Drug Accumulation or Reduce Drug Resistance

Altered metabolism and drug detoxification. Cancer cells can gain resistance by increasing their ability to detoxify drugs. A common example is increased resistance due to enhanced activity of the glutathione S-transferase drug detoxification system recall that this enzyme catalyzes the formation of drug-glutathione conjugates (see Figure 18.1). Once formed, these water-soluble conjugates can be expelled from the cell.a Increased glutathione concentrations and or glutathione S-transferase activity have been associated with resistance to many drugs. Multiple means are available by which the conjugates can be expelled from the cell the primary mechanism in most appears to be via the glutathione-xenobiotic (GSH-X) pump. Increasing evidence indicates this pump is closely related to, if not identical with, the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) mentioned above. If they are indeed identical, this implies that MRP is able to expel both conjugated and unconjugated compounds. Although each of...

Effect Of Cereal Fermentation On Health Properties

Traditionally, sourdough is used in baking applications to acidify and leaven bread dough. The various traditional sourdough fermentations were prevalently replaced by the use of baker's yeast in the twentieth century (Ganzle et al, 2007). As observed by Ganzle et al, the current renaissance of sourdough applications in bread making is motivated by the beneficial effect of sourdough on the flavor, texture, shelf life, and nutritional properties of bread and other baked goods. According to Batifoulier et al. (2005), due to the reduction in bread consumption and of whole cereal flours, a significant percentage of the European population is marginally deficient for dietary riboflavin and other B vitamins. Due to the heterogeneity of the ecological determinants (e.g., flour composition, temperature, pH and redox potential, dough yield, number of refreshments, and baker's yeast addition), mature commercial sourdoughs differ in microbial species complexity and metabolic activity (Ganzle et...

Other Phytochemicals of Interest

Phytochemicals extracted from licorice (Glycyr-rhiza glabra L.) include glycyrrhetic acid, glycyr-rhizic acid (the sweet principle of licorice), and an active saponin glycyrrhizin (a 3-O-diglucuronide of glycyrrhetic acid). In rats, dietary supplementation with 3 licorice elevated liver glutathione transfer-ase activity, suggesting a potential detoxification and anticancer effect of these phytochemicals because glutathione transferase catalyses the formation of glutathione conjugates of toxic substances for elimination from the body. Antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, and antiinflammatory effects have also been reported for these compounds. Indeed, glycyrrhizin has been reported to inhibit HIV replication in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells taken from HIV-seropositive patients.

Lorenzo Cohen Andrew Baum

The ALCOHOL (ethanol) section of the SCID begins with some overview questions about the subject's drinking history (e.g., ''has there ever been a period when you had five or more drinks on one occasion '' ''has anyone ever objected to your drinking ''). The subject's answers to these initial questions allow the interviewer to sequence the assessment questions to match the subject's drinking history as follows If a history of dependence seems likely (e.g., the subject reports a history of detoxification from alcohol or attendence at AA), the interviewer begins with the assessment of the individual DSM-IV dependence criteria. (If criteria are met for dependence, the assessment of abuse is skipped since a DSM-IV diagnosis of dependence pre-empts a diagnosis of abuse if criteria are not met for dependence, then the interviewer continues with the assessment of abuse). If the history is not suggestive of dependence but is indicative of excessive drinking or problematic use, the interviewer...

Conclusions And Questions To Address In Future Studies

Phytate might influence oxidative stress by mechanisms independent of its hydroxyl radical inhibiting characteristics. It may alter cell signaling pathways as proposed by Shamsuddin 1,22,23 , or it may influence the activity and expression of key enzymes in the antioxidant defense system. Singh and Singh 24 have reported that phytate given by oral gavage to lactating mice for 21 days led to increases in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase, (GST), the protein levels of cytochromes b5 and P-450, as well as the content of acid-soluble sulfhydryl groups in the livers of both the dams and their suckling pups. The GST family includes the non-selenium glutathione peroxidase, an important component of the cell's antioxidant defense machinery, and an enzyme that is upregulated in response to antioxidant nutrient deficiency 25 . Thus, phytate may also contribute to antioxidant defense by increasing the activity of key enzymes that detoxify ROS. Future research should also explore multiple...

Transport and cellular uptake

Blood circulation Iodide is taken up by follicular cells across the basolateral membrane via the sodiunviodide symporter (SLC5A5) against the electrochemical gradient. Thiocyanate. perehlorate. and some other large anions compete with iodide for uptake via the sodium iodide symporter. Thiocyanate is consumed with pungent foods of the mustard and cabbage (brassica) family, such as ruiabaga. and is generated during the detoxification of cyanide l from foods such as almonds and cassava).

Behavioral Therapy And Alcoholisim Treatment

One of the major changes in alcoholism treatment is the current and future availability of medications that can improve treatment outcome. Medications that interfere with craving can reduce the likelihood that a recovering alcoholic will suffer a relapse. Two such medications are currently available naltrexone in the United States and acamprosate in Europe. A third medication, nalmefene, is currently under study. Naltrexone. Naltrexone is the first medication approved to help maintain sobriety after detoxification from alcohol since the approval of disulfiram (Antabuse ) in 1949. Originally developed for use in treating heroin addicts by reducing their cravings for this drug, naltrexone was observed to reduce alcohol use by heroin addicts. Further research confirmed this observation naltrexone used in combination with verbal therapy prevented relapse more than standard verbal therapy alone. Acamprosate. Acamprosate was developed in Europe. Clinical trials are now underway in the...

Dietary Selenium Absorption and Mechanisms of Incorporation of Selenium into Selenoproteins

Selenide represents the 'crossroads' of selenium metabolism, from which it may either be committed to specific selenoprotein synthesis or be removed from the body by urinary excretion pathways that involve its detoxification by methylation to methyl selenides, of which the largest fraction is usually trimethyl selenonium. If used for selenoprotein synthesis, selenide combines with a chaperone protein, and the first metabolic step is its conversion to selenophosphate by the ATP-requiring enzyme

Historical Overview Of Treatments

Historically, many of the medications used to treat heroin withdrawal in the general public have been largely ineffective in some cases, the cure has been worse than the disease. Among the numerous ineffective treatments have been Thorazine, Barbiturates, and electroshock therapy. In one method, belladonna and laxatives were used, because of the incorrect supposition that narcotics needed to be rinsed from the bodily tissues in which they were stored. At one institution that used this treatment, six of 130 addicts died during such opiate detoxification. Commenting on these methods, two of the researchers at Lexington noted The knockout feature of these treatments . . . doubtless had the effect of holding until cured many patients who would have discontinued a withdrawal treatment before being cured, and the psychological effect of doing something for patients practically all the time has a tendency, by allaying apprehension, to hold them even though what is done is harmful'' (Kolb...

Pharmacological Treatment Approaches

The most common and first-line treatment approach is to try to get the addict to stop using heroin by detoxification. Detoxification refers to using medications to treat withdrawal symptoms. The heroin withdrawal symptoms are similar to the symptoms of a severe flu. Although these withdrawal symptoms are rarely medically dangerous for those in good health, they are extremely uncomfortable, and, in many addicts, they make the alternative, using heroin, more attractive than detoxification. Severe withdrawal is associated with signs of sympathetic nervous system arousal as well as increased pulse, blood pressure, and body temperature. Addicts experience sweating, hair standing on their arms (i.e., gooseflesh hence the expression ''cold turkey''), muscle twitches (from which the expression ''kicking the habit'' comes), diarrhea, vomiting, insomnia, runny nose, hot and cold flashes, and muscle aches. A host of psychological symptoms accompany the withdrawal distress. After addicts have...

The Integration Of Pharmacological And Psychosocial Treatments

Detoxification is a first step toward recovery because it makes the addict available to further psychosocial and medical treatments. There is evidence that mild physiological abnormalities due to withdrawal of opiates linger for as long as three months after detoxification. This long-term abstinence syndrome'' is thought to contribute to the craving for opiates that occurs after detoxification. Naltrexone maintenance is most effective in addicts who have jobs and stable social supports for example, in anesthesiologists who have become addicted to hospital medications. Because naltrexone itself is not reinforcing and many heroin addicts have a host of psychosocial problems, many clinics have reported that naltrexone maintenance alone was minimally effective in the treatment of long-term addicts.

Efficacy Of 12step Based Treatment

This section contains the following articles An Overview Acupuncture Approaches based on Behavioral Principles Aversion Therapy Behavior Modification Cognitive Therapy Contingency Management Family Therapy Group Therapy Hypnosis Long-Term versus Brief Minnesota Model Nonmedical Detoxification Outpatient versus Inpatient Pharmacotherapy, An Overview Psychological Approaches Self-Help and Anonymous Groups Therapeutic Communities Traditional Dynamic Psychotherapy and Twelve Steps, The.

Treatment Alternatives

Eration of several factors, including drugs that are being used, level of psychiatric distress, potential medical complications, family or other support, and availability of child care. Intensity of treatment is not necessarily a function of setting since some outpatient treatment programs provide more intense treatment than do inpatient ones. Inpatient Programs. Usually, inpatient settings are of three types (1) detoxification units within medical hospitals, (2) dual-diagnosis programs within psychiatric hospitals, and (3) rehabilitation programs. The first two settings are best utilized when there is a risk of serious medical problems (e.g., seizures) or psychiatric difficulties (e.g., suicidal ideation). Medical units generally employ pharma-cologic detoxification protocols that are based on the type of drugs abused and the patient's concomitant medical condition. The length of stay is usually less than two weeks. Although many patients mistakenly believe that after detoxification...

Dealing With Alcohol And Other Drug Withdrawal

Since the pioneering Canadian and Australian development of 'social setting' detoxification services to assist people safely through alcohol withdrawal, a variety of other non-medical approaches have been developed. Really, detoxification services should be seen as being on a continuum ranging from supervision by an informed 'lay person' a relative, a recovered problem drinker or user or non-medical professionals all the way to 24 hour nursing and medical care in a specialist hospital unit. Even in the latter case substantial variations exist regarding the amount of medication used during withdrawal or even whether any medication is used at all. Detoxification services designed to minimize discomfort and the possibility of actual harm occurring during withdrawal may be 'non-medical' in several senses by, variously, using nonmedical settings (e.g. hostels, the client's home), The Ontario model of non-medical detoxification was created following the results of a study reported in 1970....

Operant Models Contingency Management

Early work indicating the usefulness of contingencies was completed largely at Johns Hopkins University. Working in a methadone-maintenance program, investigators at Johns Hopkins found that money and the opportunity to raise dose levels all served to decrease drug abuse. Work at the University of California in detoxification treatment programs also indicated that payment for drug abstinence was an effective adjunct to short-term detoxification treatments, where methadone is used for only about three weeks, to help drug abusers in their transition from heroin use to a drug-free state. Both of these experimental programs focused on rewards for desired behavior, rather than punishments for drug use. Contingencies also have been used to help clients conform to other treatment demands, including attending counseling sessions (Stitzer & Kirby, 1991). Even though early work focused on providing positive reinforcers for desired behavior, the adaptations of this work in most clinics around...

BitternessA Life Zapper

Perpetual feelings of bitterness can destroy a person in record time. Liver function is not only affected by what you eat and breathe, it also responds to emotions. Bitterness over any matter stops the liver from completing its job description for detoxification. It literally re-tools itself to create the nutrients to handle and deal with your emotional stress.

Vietnam Followup Study In the

Summer of 1971, the U.S. military forces in Vietnam were being rapidly reduced. To deplete the forces there quickly, many men were being sent home before the usual tour of twelve months was complete. A urine-screening program was established in July to detect the recent use of illicit drugs by men scheduled to depart Vietnam for the United States. Those detected as positive were kept for Detoxification for about seven days, retested, and sent home only if they had a negative test. The urine screening was initiated in response to great concern that many members of the military had become addicted to Heroin in Vietnam. The fear was that they might continue their addiction in the United States. Because the great majority of those returning were due for discharge on return, the Military would have no further control over them. They might present overwhelming problems to the legal system and to veterans' hospitals.

Chemoprotective Properties of Rosemary

Many chemoprotective agents act through induction of Phase II detoxifying enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST), NAD(P)H qui-none reductase (QR), or UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) (44,45). In rats fed rosemary as 0.25-1.0 of their diet, the activities of liver GST and QR enzymes were induced 3-4-fold (46). Similarly, rats fed various (water or dichloromethane) extracts of rosemary at 0.5 of their diet for 2 weeks resulted in stimulation of GST, QR, and UGT enzyme activities (20,21). Surprisingly, in contrast to the results reported with ethanolic extracts in human cells (described below), the water extract of rosemary also induced the Phase I, cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes. This difference in effect on CYP450 enzymes may be due to the composition of the water (rich in rosmarinic acid) and ethanolic (rich in carnosol and carnosic acid) extracts. Alternatively, it may be due to a species difference between rat and human CYP450 metabolism or to the generation of secondary...

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

The above-mentioned glucosinolates, which are generally present in the highest concentrations in seeds (Cartea & Velasco, 2008), may have a key role in cancer prevention, mainly in the initiation or promotion phases and in cell apoptosis. Results have shown that products of the enzymatic breakdown of glucosinolates can regulate cancer development through the induction of detoxification enzymes and or inhibition of activation enzymes. Detoxification enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST) or NADPH reductase can conjugate with carcinogens, transforming them into a water-soluble inactive form that can later be excreted through urine. At the same time, enzymes like cytochrome P450s that activate carcinogens in animal and human cells can become inhibited due to glucosinolates and their degradation products (Fahey etal., 2001 Cartea & Velasco, 2008). The literature also describes antibacterial, insecticidal, nematocidal, and antifungal activities of glucosinolates and...

Selenoproteins Classification and Functions

Contains more selenium (up to 10 atoms per molecule) than any other mammalian selenoprotein, and it can form equimolar selenium-mercury complexes, thereby probably helping to detoxify mercury. It is the major selenoprotein found in plasma and may also act as a selenium transport protein and selenium reserve. Selenoprotein W is found in muscle, and its decline may help explain the molecular basis of white muscle disease in selenium-deficient sheep.

Novel Medical Treatments


Coherent and coordinate activation of sets of genes involved in multiple cellular activities depends on NR, which are ligand-activated transcription factors.154 Lipid-sensing NR govern lipid homeostasis in the hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal systems. Hepatic and biliary lipid metabolism are involved in lipid secretion by the hepatocytes, and are controlled by the oxysterol receptor LXR (the intracellular sensor of cholesterol155) and the bile acid receptor FXR (the intracellular sensor of bile acids156,157). The subtle cellular mechanisms governing lipid homeostasis imply that cells synthesize oxysterols under conditions of cholesterol overload, and oxysterols in turn bind and activate LXR, which acts to reduce systemic cholesterol burden.156-158 In the enterohepatic system FXR is highly expressed and regulates the expression of genes involved in the maintenance of cholesterol, bile acid, and triglyceride homeostasis.159 Liver FXR might become a pharmacologic target for the...

Nutrition and Sutoxins

803 Reckeweg also saw a danger in the fact that these reaction phases that served the purpose of detoxification and elimination of the sutoxins were hindered by highly effective remedies and that the waste products were forced back as retoxins to the area of their origin, a process equivalent to retoxic impregnation. Reckeweg (1975), p. 99.

Arginine Citrulline Ornithine and Proline Figure

Arginine is a nitrogen-rich amino acid because it contains three nitrogen atoms and is the precursor for nitric oxide (NO). The conversion to NO is catalyzed by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and results in coproduction of the amino acid citrulline. Depending on its site of release, NO exerts several functions including stimulation of the pituitary gland, vasodilation, neurotransmission, and immune modulation. Arginine is also a precursor for urea synthesis in the urea cycle, which has an important function in the detoxification of ammonia and excretion of waste nitrogen from the body. A full urea cycle is only present in the liver, but the arginase enzyme that converts argi-nine to urea and ornithine is to a limited extent also found in other tissues and cells, such as brain, kidney, small intestine, and red blood cells. Ornithine is utilized for the formation of proline, polyamines (putrescine, spermine, and spermidine), glutamic acid, and glutamine. Arginine is involved in...

Drug Properties Absorption Distribution And Elimination Phases

Small Intestine Glutamine Ammonia

The ''absorption'' and ''distribution'' phases are followed by an ''elimination'' phase. The liver is the major detoxification centre in the body where the drugs are metabolized as blood circulates through this organ. The metabolites are then excreted into the urine through the kidneys. At the same time, drugs deposited in fat tissues are also slowly released into the blood stream and metabolized.

Prostate Cancer Inflammation and Antioxidants

Cells are often exposed to a high load of oxidants and free radicals. Oxidative stress can occur as a result of increased metabolic rate, increased oxygen tension, compromise of normal cellular antioxidants and many others endogenous and exogenous factors (Figure 1). Cell motility is a complex biological process, involved in development, inflammation, homeostasis, and pathological processes such as the invasion and metastatic spread of cancer (Collins et al. 2006). Cancer metabolism is a factor that might be exploited as a potential therapeutic target for drug discovery also on how a cancer cell differs in its metabolism to that of a rapidly proliferating normal cell (Vander Heiden et al. 2009). By small interfering RNA-based functional screening of over 200 metabolic enzymes, transporters, and regulators to identify those selectively required for prostate cancer cell survival. Ros and co-workers showed that treatment with a chemical antioxidant rescued the viability of PFKFB4 (one of...

Homoeopathy as the Mother of Medicine

Reckeweg regarded homoeopathy not as a complementary method, but as the basis of all drug therapy for him it was the mother of medicine814, a fact which did not prevent him from considering other remedies to be also useful for detoxification. Biological remedies were for him in tune with nature and supported the organism's own healing forces. They characteristically aimed at effecting regressive vicariation, in other words, at moving the symptoms towards a more favourable phase, always with regard to the physiological excretions. It seems only logical therefore that Reckeweg favoured the methods of naturopathy as well. He was particularly enthusiastic about clay therapies.815 According to homotoxicology - and we have met the same ideas in naturopathy and in Felke's concept - secretions such as sweat, mucosa, pus and pruritus must not be suppressed as this would hinder the excretion of pathogens and encourage renewed toxification.816

Fever and Inflammation

720 The term ferment used to denominate the cell's metabolic function. According to Reckeweg, homotoxon secretions serve to keep the skin supple, for instance. The mucous membranes are kept moist by the secretion of mucosa, i.e. of homotoxonic substances in all excretions homotoxons, i.e. detoxified waste products, are eliminated. Reckeweg (1959), p. 4. Referring to the pathologist Robert Rossle (1876-1956), who saw inflammations as a digestion in the tissue, Reckeweg spoke of the digestion of homotoxins in the tissue.721 He thought that the connective tissue was primarily a big storage place for numerous exogenous and endogenous toxins that came from the cells or were funnelled by the blood through the connective tissue to the cells. The connective tissue is always the interim organ that has an important storage and detoxification function.724 If too much waste gathers in the connective tissue the physiological function is no longer sufficient for its transportation and self-help...

Stevensjohnson syndrome

Stevens Syndrome Disease

The exact mechanism producing SJS and TEN is unclear. Patients with SJS and TEN induced by anticonvulsants or sulfonamides may have an alteration in the detoxification of reactive drug metabolites. CD8 cells predominate in the lesions of blistering reactions, suggesting a cell-mediated cytotoxic reaction against epidermal cells (32). Tumor necrosis factor-a, perforin, granzyme B (GrB), and Fas Ligand (FasL) have been shown to be increased in the early stage of disease, further supporting a cytotoxic mechanism (33).

Chemoprevention By Isothiocyanate The In Vivo Evidence

Aflatoxin Cancer Mechanism

One of the major characteristics of chemical carcinogens is their ability to act as DNA alkylating agents inducing DNA aberrations that have the potential to lead to genetic mutations. Several well-characterized carcinogens, such as benzo a pyrenes, nitrosamines, and aflatoxin B1, can form DNA adducts with exposed bases in double-stranded DNA (Fig. 2). The overall consequence of this is the possible impairment of DNA replication and the induction of genetic mutation. This can be especially significant if these occur in tumor suppressor genes such as p53. A possible mechanism to prevent these deleterious effects is to use dietary agents that can alter the metabolism of carcinogens and thus reduce or prevent DNA damage. Of the many dietary compounds studied, low-dose exposure to ITCs has been proven to be highly effective in preventing DNA damage and the development of cancers in animal models (reviewed in Refs. 2,7 and summarized in Table 2). Recent experiments have focused on the...

A continuous and unavoidable threat

Accidental, but unavoidable, production of ROS occurs during the passage of electrons along the mito-chondrial electron transport chain. Leakage of electrons from the chain leads to the single-electron reduction of oxygen, with the consequent formation of superoxide. This can be regarded as a normal, but undesirable, by-product of aerobic metabolism. Around 1-3 of electrons entering the respiratory chain are estimated to end up in superoxide, and this results in a large daily ROS load in vivo. If anything increases oxygen use, such as exercise, then more ROS will be formed, and oxidant stress may increase owing to a pro-oxidant shift. Significant amounts of ROS are also produced during the metabolism of drugs and pollutants by the mixed-function cyto-chrome P-450 oxidase (phase I) detoxifying system and as a consequence of the transformation of xanthine dehydrogenase to its truncated oxidase form, which occurs as a result of ischemia. This causes a flood of superoxide to be formed...

Myroslava Romach Karen Parker

Myth Addiction ends when detoxification removes all of the abused substance from the addict's body. Myth Addiction ends when the pain following detoxification (the withdrawal syndrome) is gone. Myth When a patient relapses (returns to addiction) after detoxification, then the detoxification of this patient must have failed as a treatment. Fact As a chronic disorder, addiction needs ongoing treatment, not just a one-time detoxification. One does not expect a single injection of insulin to cure a diabetic, or any single administration of medicine to relieve a patient forever of arthritis, asthma, or high blood pressure. Each treatment is successful if it improves the condition at the time each needs to be repeated, often throughout the rest of the patient's life. Myth Once an addict is detoxified, as long as he or she does not take the abused substance (or a different abused substance) again, any medical, social, and occupational difficulties that had been associated with the addiction...

Biochemistry and Metabolic Functions


The other reaction is the transmethy-lation of homocysteine by 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate to methionine, catalyzed by the enzyme methionine synthase (N5-methyltetrahydrofolate homocysteine methyltransferase) which requires methylcobalamin as coenzyme and is located in the cytosol. It is through their essential roles in this important metabolic reaction that cobalamin and folate interact and are linked with respect to their importance in nutrition. In addition, there are major similarities in the effects of their deficiencies in humans. These will be discussed below. Considering this 'metabolic crossroad' for the two vitamins, it may be pointed out that without adequate supplies of both nutrients, the synthesis of methionine and its derivative S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) is disrupted, with consequent profound effects on normal cellular function. Methionine is a key and essential amino acid and normal supply depends critically on recycling through the remethy-lation...

Terpenes Monoterpenes

Based on a phase I trial in which an 18-gram limonene dose was given to humans, the oral clearance for production of perillic acid, the active metabolite of limo-nene, was 110 L hr.168 Plasma concentrations of perillic acid after repeated limonene administrations were about half as high, however, which suggests that treatment induces detoxification enzymes. The oral clearance after repeated administrations was about 220 L hr, which we use for our calculations.

Potential Importance of Phytoestrogens to Human Health Molecular Mechanisms of Action

Consumption of Brussels sprouts (300g day of cooked sprouts) for 1 week has been shown to increase rectal glutathione S-transferase -a and -k isoenzyme levels. Enhanced levels of these detoxification enzymes may partly explain the epidemiological association between a high intake of glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables and a decreased risk of colorectal cancer. It is likely that genetic polymorphisms and associated functional variations in biotransformation enzymes, particularly in glu-tathione S-transferases, will alter the cancer preven-tative effects of cruciferous vegetables. Isothiocyanates can prevent the formation of chemical carcinogen-induced tumors of the liver, lung, mammary gland, stomach, and oesophagus in animal models. The anticarcinogenic effects of isothiocya-nates may be mediated by a combination of mechanisms, including inhibition of carcinogen activation by cytochromes P450 This could be achieved by both direct inhibition of enzyme catalytic activity and...

Evidence for the association between Mfvmfrvs and prostate cancer 41 The Interferon IFN pathway

Img162 Imagetwist Com

AZ, who also showed low frequency (1 10-3 to 1 10-4) of colony formation from solid tumours 200, 201 . These experiments were, however only partly convincing or reproducible (for example, in S. Salmon's work) and further ethical questions and concern were raised by experiments of C. Sautham and A. Brunschwig who injected harvested cancer cells into the same cancer patients, again discovering that only large numbers (i.e., 106) were capable of tumor iniriation 42 . Only at the end of the 80's and with the advent of authomated highspeed Flurescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) 202 , the group of John Dick in Toronto was capable of convincingly and reproducibly demonstrating the existence of Leukemic Stem Cells (LSCs). This was accomplished by xenotransplantation assays, in which LSCs from AML were transplanted into Severe Combined Immunodeficient (SCID) mice, often crossed with Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mice, in which also the natural immune response (NK cells) is defective 203 204 . In...

Event Related Potentials

Localization P300 Two Odd Ball Task

Topographic map of the P300 event-related potential in a group of cocaine- and heroin-dependent subjects on admission (intoxicated state) and following a 12-d detoxification period. The P300 was generated with an auditory oddball task involving frequency discriminations between a target (1000 Hz) and a non-target (400 Hz) tone at 60 dB sound pressure level. (See color plate 2 appearing after p. 6.) Admission Day Post-Detoxification Fig. 9. Topographic map of the P300 event-related potential in a group of cocaine- and heroin-dependent subjects on admission (intoxicated state) and following a 12-d detoxification period. The P300 was generated with an auditory oddball task involving frequency discriminations between a target (1000 Hz) and a non-target (400 Hz) tone at 60 dB sound pressure level. (See color plate 2 appearing after p. 6.)

Amphetamines and Related Drugs

Amphetamines are more toxic than cocaine and, when abused, cause worse problems. The body has a great capacity to metabolize and eliminate cocaine the liver can detoxify a lethal dose of cocaine every thirty minutes. It cannot handle amphetamines as efficiently. At the same time, people can establish stable relationships with amphetamines more easily than they can with cocaine, probably because the intensely pleasureful but very short effect of cocaine is more seductive and invites repetitive dosing.

Metabolism sulfoconjugated forms of AFM1 AFQ1 and AFP1 for review Guengerich et al 1998

Epoxide formation can be considered as a bioactivation process due to the very high reactivity of this molecule with liver macromolecules. Other metabolic pathways may be considered as detoxification leading to compounds without any toxicity (AFQ1, AFP1, AFB2a) or that keep residual toxicity (AFM1 and aflatoxicol).

The Metabolism Of Dietary Isothiocyanates In Vivo

Gsts Reaction

The first step in the metabolism of dietary or synthetic ITCs involves their conjugation with the nucleophilic sulfhydryl group of glutathione in the mercapturic acid pathway (Fig. 3) (96). After GSH conjugation the resultant ITC conjugates pass through a series of catabolic steps mediated by the enzymes g-glutamyltranspepsidase, cysteinylglycinase, aminopeptidase, and N-acetyltransferase to the final mercapturic acid metabolite excreted in urine, the N-acetylcysteine-S or, alternatively, conjugates. Several in vivo studies in A J mice and rats have identified N-acetylcysteine conjugates of AITC, BITC, sulforaphane, and PEITC in urine, after feeding with either synthetic or plant-derived ITCs (these data are summarized in Table 3). Common to all these studies is the rapid rate at which ITCs are detoxified and excreted in the urine typically between 30 and 80 of the total ingested ITCs is excreted within 24 hr. Disposition and pharmacokinetic studies using 14C PEITC and 14CPHITC in...

Current And Future Directions

Three science-based treatment research protocols will start in 2000, including two behavioral therapies developed to enhance treatment outcomes, and one that will test a new medication for use in opiate detoxification. Several other protocols are currently being developed. All treatment components to be tested have been shown to be effective in controlled research environments.

Alcoholic Liver Disease

In the abdominal cavity, and the syndrome of hepatic encephalopathy, which is due to inadequate hepatic detoxification of substances in the visceral blood that is shunted around the liver. The risk of developing alcoholic cirrhosis is dependent upon the amount of alcohol exposure independent of the presence or absence of malnutrition. For example, a study of well-nourished German male executives found that the incidence of alcoholic cirrhosis was directly related to the daily amount and duration of alcohol consumption, such that daily ingestion of 160 g alcohol, equivalent to that found in a pint of whisky, over a 15-year period predicted a 50 risk of cirrhosis on liver biopsy. Other worldwide demographic data indicate that mortality rates from cirrhosis of the liver can be related to national per capita alcohol intake. These studies have defined the threshold risk for eventual development of alcoholic cirrhosis as 6 drinks per day for men, and about half that for women.

Dietary Compounds With The Ability To Induce Production Of Endogenous Antioxidants

An important antioxidant defense mechanism involves detoxification enzymes such as members of the glutathione S-transferase family, g-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, and NAD(P) H quinone reductase (quinone reductase) (Talalay 2000). These enzymes are generally referred to as phase 2 enzymes because they catalyze conversion of xenobiotics, mutagenic Dietary plants rich in compounds that induce phase 2 detoxification enzymes include the vegetables broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, kale, cauliflower, carrots, onions, tomatoes, spinach and garlic. The evidence for phase 2 enzyme inductions at ordinary intake levels of plant foods in humans is, however, limited, and the importance of this defense mechanism in the overall protection against oxidative damage is still uncertain.

Recommended Treatment Policies

Achieving cocaine abstinence with a behavioral approach. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 763-769. Hubbard, R. L. (1997). Evaluation and treatment outcome. In J. H. Lowinson et al. (Eds.), Substance abuse A comprehensive textbook (3rd ed.). Baltimore Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Kaufman, E., & Redoux, J. (1988). Guidelines for the successful psychotherapy of substance abusers. American Journal of Drug Alcohol Abuse, 14, 199-209. KLEBER, H. D. (1994). Detoxification from opioid drugs. In M. Galanter & H. D. Kleber (Eds.), The American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment. Washington, DC American Psychiatric Press. quired medication for severe pain and was dropped from the study) were successfully detoxified. It is noteworthy that Dr. Wen's initial observations occurred prior to the discovery, in 1975, of endogenous opioid substances in the brain (also called endorphins). Also, acupuncture did not initially require medical...

Homoeopathy and Homotoxicology

Reckeweg considered homoeopathic preparations to be suitable for combating toxins as they stimulated the Greater Defence System.735 Based on his observations he had established the Greater Defence System as a foundation for the various detoxification processes. This system he subdivided into five subsystems which he linked up with each other to express their close interaction. The detoxification processes underlying the disease are enhanced by the

Fall in Blood Alcohol Concentration BAC

The natural history of alcohol dependence to the point of requesting or clearly requiring detoxification services is usually fifteen to twenty years. The average age of persons admitted to detoxification units is around 42 years. (That is not to say that persons as young as 20 or as old as 80 do not require detoxification services.) The withdrawal syndrome seen in persons requiring detoxification ranges from a mild degree of discomfort to a potentially life-threatening disorder. The severity of the withdrawal syndrome is dependent on both the dose and duration of alcohol exposure. This is clearly demonstrated in animal studies (rats) where a severe withdrawal syndrome can be demonstrated following high-level exposure to alcohol in a vapor chamber in as short a time period as a week. Administration of alcohol into the stomach is associated with a longer time period for acquisition of physical dependence. In humans also, the severity of withdrawal depends on the amount of alcohol...

Spurlock Morgan 1970 American screenwriter and independent film director

Became so fatty his doctor warned him it was turning to pate, risking permanent damage. His girlfriend Alex Jamieson, a strict vegan and vegetarian chef, commented that in addition to the weight gain, he started having these uncharacteristic mood swings and, of course, the effect on our sex life was awful (Anon. 2004). She then placed him on a strict vegan detoxification plan which focused on vegetables, fruit, soy products, and vitamin supplements while eliminating all dairy, meat, caffeine, and refined carbohydrates such as white bread, rice, and sugar. After eight weeks on the detox diet, Spurlock lost 20 pounds, and his liver, blood pressure, and cholesterol returned to normal (Burstin 2004 31). SLG Jessica Rissman See also Detoxification Fast Food Sinclair

Neutral Cues Cocaine Cues

Although several studies of the chronic effects of cocaine abuse include both current and abstinent users, the effect of abstinence has been directly addressed. Using 18F FDG PET, Volkow et al. demonstrated reduced frontal (particularly left hemispheric) glucose metabolism in chronic cocaine-abusing men during late withdrawal that persisted for 3-4 mo following detoxification (Volkow et al., 1992a). Strickland et al. measured cerebral perfusion with both 133Xe and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT in crack-abusing HIV-negative subjects who were drug free for at least 6 mo prior to examination. They found multifocal cerebral perfusion defects, as well as numerous neuropsychological abnormalities, such as deficits in attention, concentration, learning, memory and language (Strickland et al., 1993). The role of dopamine and the dopamine transporter (DAT) in subserving the behavioral and reinforcing effects of cocaine has received increasing attention. As a result, numerous emission tomographic studies...


The liver not only processes nutrients but must detoxify all the harmful substances the villi were unable to prevent from being absorbed into the bloodstream. Other situations that can tax the liver considerably include overeating and eating foods that are refined. Refined foods are missing the nutrients they need to be properly metabolized. If the liver can no longer filter and cleanse the blood, or properly metabolize nutrients, or take care of its own health, it is because liver cells are damaged or begin to die. Liver damage is not easily detected by conventional testing and its condition may not be known until dysfunction becomes apparent through illness. Symptoms may range from headache, diarrhea, constipation, food sensitivities, flatulence, sleeplessness, and aching joints to cirrhosis and hepatitis. digestion process will have on health. A predominance of beneficial bacteria will protect the lining of the intestinal tract from damage and irritation or infection that can be...


In animals, carotenoids have many functions. In addition to providing direct photoprotection via absorption of blue light, carotenoids act as powerful fat-soluble antioxidants linked to oxidation prevention, as well as playing a role in cellular communication, including stimulation of gap-junction communication, which is important for cancer prevention by regulating cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Carotenoids may also be involved in detoxification of carcinogens, DNA repair and immunosurveillance. These properties are believed to contribute to their antioxidant, immune-enhancing, anticarcinogenic and photoprotective activity.

Toxic Effects

Chronic drinking also causes damage to a number of major organs. Permanent alterations in brain function have already been discussed. By far, one of the most important causes of death in alcoholics (other than by accidents) is liver damage. The liver is the organ that metabolizes ingested and body toxins it is essential for natural detoxification. Alcohol damage to the liver ranges from acute fatty liver to hepatitis, necrosis, and cirrhosis. Single doses of ethanol can deposit droplets of lipids, or fat, in the liver cells (called hepatocytes). With an accumulation of such lipid, the liver's ability to metabolize other body toxins is reduced. Even a weekend drinking binge can produce measurable increases in liver fat. It was found that liver fats doubled after only two days of drinking blood eth-anol levels ranged between twenty and eighty mg dl, suggesting that one need not be drunk in order to experience liver damage.

Marlene Aldo Benson

After chronic cocaine use, many patients' dopamine systems either fail to release sufficient dopamine or are insensitive to the dopamine that is released. This relative dopamine deficit is believed to be responsible for the dysphoria of cocaine withdrawal. It was hoped that amantadine would relieve their dysphoria and reduce relapse back to cocaine abuse by increasing the release of dopamine in the brains of cocaine-dependent patients. Amantadine has been effective in reducing depressive symptoms in patients with neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, which is due to the death of dopamine-producing cells in the brain however, no solid evidence exists that it is helpful in preventing continued cocaine use or relapse to cocaine use after detoxification.

Use birch for

The fresh leaves or buds of birch offer a powerful but pleasant tea for general detoxing, urinary complaints, cystitis, rheumatic and arthritic troubles, and gout. Some herbalists add a pinch of sodium bicarbonate to improve the tea's ability to cut high uric acid levels. Any condition of fluid retention, such as cardiac or renal edema and dropsy, will be helped by the tea. Birch is rich in potassium, so that (like dandelion) it does not deplete the body of this mineral in the way that medical diuretics do. detoxing massage


Nanoscale iron particles have large surface areas and high surface reactivity and research has shown32,33 that these particles are very effective for the transformation and detoxification of a wide variety of contaminants, such as chlorinated solvents, organochloric pesticides and polychlorinated bi-phenyls. Thus they have been used for remediation of soil and groundwater, which contains such contaminants.


In 1996, there were 194,916 provincial liquor act offenses, and 14,329 juvenile offenders were convicted in liquor act offenses. However, only 1,201 people were jailed for liquor act offenses, as most are dealt with by fines, suspended sentences, or attendance at detoxification centers.

Mg I 100 g min

The chronic effects of cocaine on cerebral hemodynamics have been studied in great detail in a number of controlled studies. The first report of abnormal baseline cerebral perfusion in chronic cocaine users was published by Volkow et al. in 1988. Using 15O H2O PET in 20 chronic cocaine-abusing men, they demonstrated multifocal, patchy regions of reduced perfusion (perfusion defects) as well as decreased rCBF in prefrontal cortex (Volkow et al., 1988a). These defects were present during detoxification and again 10 days later when patients showed no signs of withdrawal. Tumeh et al. (1990) used SPECT with 123I IMP in a group of neurologically normal, polydrug abusing, HIV-negative men. They also found multifocal cortical perfusion defects, which were more common in the frontal and temporal lobes (Tumeh et al., 1990). Follow-up studies with high-resolution 99mTc-HMPAO annular SPECT (ASPECT) in HIV-negative, cocaine- and polydrug-dependent men, many of whom tested positive for cocaine...