Guilt Free Desserts

Guilt Free Deserts

This product will teach you the ways that you can eat whatever sweets and deserts you like without gaining fat at all. It will be a complete guide with over 50 recipes that will combine all the foods that you love and delicious foods you never tried before. In addition to that, the power of this guide is that you will lose fat while you are on this diet. This is because you will be using foods that have a super-powerful metabolic effect on your body. The creator of the product is an absolute expert of the subject of eating the foods you like for fat loss, so she knows exactly how you can implement the techniques in the books for the best chances of gaining pure quality lean muscle and losing weight with simple and easy tricks that will get you ahead. What's more is that you will learn about the foods that cause weight gain, and the foods that trick your body into losing fat. All of these foods can be found anywhere and it won't cost you a lot of money or effort to make these delicious baked goods. With these simple and easy tricks that don't need any prior experience, you will look the best without giving up your favorite foods. Continue reading...

Guilt Free Deserts Summary

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Guilt Free Deserts Review

Highly Recommended

Of all books related to the topic, I love reading this e-book because of its well-planned flow of content. Even a beginner like me can easily gain huge amount of knowledge in a short period.

In addition to being effective and its great ease of use, this eBook makes worth every penny of its price.

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Chocolate Covered Tosteds n Fruit

Combine soynuts and fruit in a large bowl and set aside. Combine cocoa and arrowroot in a small bowl and set aside. Microwave Fruitsource for 25 seconds, or heat on stovetop over low heat for 1 minute. Using a wire whisk, blend the hot Fruitsource into the cocoa mixture until a chocolate syrup is formed. Add vanilla and almond extracts, and pour over fruit and soynuts. Combine thoroughly with a rubber spatula. Place rounded tablespoonfuls of mixture on prepared cookie sheet and place in the freezer for 10 to 15 minutes. Serve immediately. Store remaining candies in freezer, as they will become soft when left at room temperature. T'hESE delectable chocolate candies are ready-to-eat right out of the freezer. Enlightened Chocolate-Covered Tosteds 'n' Fruit Protein 3 g, carbohydrate 10 g, fiber 2 g, fat 1 g, saturated fat 2 g, cholesterol 0 mg, calcium 15 mg, sodium 10 mg Calories 63 from protein 18 , from carbohydrate 63 , from fat 19 Traditional Chocolate-Covered Peanuts 'n' Fruit...

Chocolate Chip Okara Spice Bars

V2 cup dairy-free chocolate chips Place oats in food processor or blender and process to a coarse flour, about 20 seconds. Place in a medium bowl, and combine with pastry flour, soy flour, baking powder, baking soda, cinnamon, nutmeg, and salt. Mix in cranberries and chocolate chips, and set aside. Chocolate Chip Okara Spice Bars Traditional Chocolate Chip Spice Bars Place cocoa powder in a small bowl and set aside. Microwave Fruitsource on 100 power for 30 seconds, or simmer on stovetop for 2 minutes. Whisk hot Fruitsource into cocoa until smooth. Place soymilk in food processor or blender with the chocolate mixture and the soymilk powder. Blend. Add the soy ice cream and coffee and blend. Chill and serve.

Chocolate Raspberry Phyllo Cups

This lovely dessert makes an elegant presentation. Chocolate Layer For the chocolate layer Place tofu in food processor and process. Add banana and blend. Place cocoa in a medium bowl and set aside. Heat Fruitsource in microwave for 45 seconds, or on stovetop for 1 minute over medium-low heat until hot. Add Fruitsource to cocoa and, using a small wire whisk, mix into a smooth syrup. Add chocolate syrup to tofu mixture along with vanilla. Combine soymilk and agar flakes and heat in microwave for a minute (almost to a boil), stirring halfway, or on stovetop for 2 minutes over medium heat. Blend into tofu mixture. Fill pastry shells full with chocolate filling. Top each with 1 teaspoon of Cookie Crumb Topping. Bake for 20 minutes or until firm at the center. Cool on wire racks. Add to chocolate-filled shells, and top each with 1 teaspoon of cookie crumbs. Refrigerate for at least 1 hour before serving. Enlight ened Chocolate Raspberry Phyllo Cups Protein 5 g, carbohydrate 39 g, fiber 1...

Wine and Chocolate

Epidemiologic studies of wine and alcohol have found a J-shaped curve, with nondrinkers and heavy drinkers at increased risk for all-cause mortality compared to moderate consumers. It is difficult to separate the effects of flavonoid and alcohol in these studies. There are limited epidemiologic data linking chocolate consumption with risk of chronic disease The available data suggest that there is no association between chocolate consumption and risk of coronary heart disease.

Desserts

CHOCOLATE PEANUT BUTTER PIE crackers G cup chocolate syrup Spray a 9-inch pie plate with cooking spray. Allow frozen yogurt to become soft but not melted or runny. In a medium bowl, mix graham cracker crumbs with cocoa powder and powdered sugar. Add melted butter and corn syrup and stir. The crumbs should be sticky but not soggy. Spoon into pie plate. Using a piece of waxed paper, press the crumbs to evenly cover bottom and sides of pie plate. In a small bowl, stir chocolate syrup into peanut butter until all lumps are removed the mixture should be like a paste. Spread about two-thirds of mixture evenly over bottom of crust. Set the other one-third aside. Spoon softened frozen yogurt on top of peanut butter mixture in pie plate in an even mound. When pie plate is full, smooth top with spatula. If yogurt seems soft or runny, return pie to freezer to harden before next step. Add milk to left-over chocolate peanut butter mixture and stir until smooth. Using a spoon, drizzle mixture over...

Inhibit Platelet Function

In another randomised trial of 30 healthy volunteers 100 mg of dark chocolate, but not white or milk chocolate, were found to significantly inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation (Innes et al 2003). The alteration of eicosanoid synthesis has been suggested as a plausible mechanism by which procyanidins can decrease platelet activation, and has been observed in an in vitro study of the effect of procyanidin on aortic endothelial cells, as well as in a randomised, blinded, crossover study of high procyanidin chocolate (4.0 mg g) (Schramm et al 2001).

Inhibition Ofdental Caries

Cocoa contains substances that protect against dental caries (Palenik et al 1977, s'Gravenmade et al 1977) and in vitro experiments have shown that monomeric polyphenols and tannins from cocoa may interfere with glucosyltransferase activity of Streptococcus mutans and reduce plaque formation (Kashket etal 1985). Similar results were reported in hamsters, with a marked caries-inhibitive effect found with a water-extract of cocoa (Stralfors 1966). Cocoa bean husk, while not used in cocoa or chocolate, demonstrates antibacterial properties attributed to its unsaturated fatty acids and antiglucosyltransferase activities attributed to epicatechin polymers, as well as being shown both in vitro and in vivo to possess significant antiplaque activity (Matsumoto et al 2004).

The Value of Mentorship

One day after about four months, Peter asked Marla for a parent-chef conference. Peter asked if Dan was really learning anything and if he liked it. Marla's first thought was that Dan was messing up, but she told Peter that Dan was baking desserts and showing her meal presentation tips. Peter said he was concerned about whether Dan was truly interested. Marla thought he was.

Ligkt and Lovely Crepes

Egg-free, dairy-free, and with just a touch of olive oil, these crepes are easy to make, delicious, and healthy. Choose DilleJ Asparagus and Wild Mushrooms (page l6S) for an elegant savory filling, or Just Peachy Dessert Crepes (recipe follows) for a delectable dessert. Just Peachy Dessert Crepes Enlightened Peach Dessert Crepes Traditional Peach Dessert Crepes

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

Today, carob trees are grown for reforestation in the poor soils and dry environments of the coastal areas of some Mediterranean regions. The traditional uses of the carob bean (pod) until the 1960s were of the pulp (90 of the fruit) for animal feeding, or as a chocolate or cocoa substitute. Unlike cocoa, carob does not contain caffeine or theobromine. People who are allergic to chocolate can generally eat carob without a problem. It is also low in sodium and high in potassium, making it desirable for diets used to treat congestive heart failure and hypertension (Yousif & Alghzawi, 2000). In Europe, the part of the fruit that currently has the

Influence of food processing practices and technologies on consumerpathogen interactions

All raw foods contain microorganisms that will eventually cause spoilage unless they are controlled or destroyed. Many of the thousands of microorganisms that have been discovered and identified perform some useful function, such as the production of fermented foods (breads, cheese, wine, beer, sauerkraut, sausages, olives, tea and chocolate, to name just a few). However, it is also true that many raw foods contain pathogens that, if not controlled, can result in human illness. Thus, there are two major roles of food processing - to preserve food against spoilage and to render a food safe for consumption by eliminating or controlling pathogens. Pathogen control in foods results from preventing contamination, applying an inactivation treatment, preventing pathogen growth, or a combination of these practices.

The Metaphysics of Mental States

These subjective characters of brain states are probabilisti-cally nomically related to various other properties of brain states, have causal roles, and may have functions. But it is not part of common sense that they are no more than such causal roles or functions, and in fact is a pretty firm postulate of reflective common sense that they are more than that. There has been considerable debate on this point in recent philosophy. Block convincingly fights the battle for common sense with more diligence, engagement, imagination, and intelligence than I possess. Those who are seriously tempted by the idea that the properties of our brain states of which we are aware when we have an orgasm or taste a chocolate chip cookie are not only properties that have a causal role and serve some function, but simply are the properties of having that role or playing that function, should stop at this point and read Mental Paint and Mental Latex (Block 1995b) or its descendant Mental Paint (Block...

Other Past Drug Epidemics

In the 1600s, in Europe, there were epidemics of Chocolate (cocoa) consumption, Tobacco consumption, and COFFEE consumption. These epidemics followed shortly after colonization of the Americas by Europeans and were sustained by ever-increasing supplies of these products shipped from the cash-poor colonies.

The Zombie Argument

This creature is molecule for molecule identical to me, and identical in all the low-level properties postulated by a completed physics, but he lacks conscious experience entirely. (Some might prefer to call a zombie it, but I use the personal pronoun I have grown quite fond of my zombie twin.) To fix ideas, we can imagine that right now I am gazing out the window, experiencing some nice green sensations from seeing the trees outside, having pleasant taste experiences through munching on a chocolate bar, and feeling a dull aching sensation in my right shoulder. outside, in the functional sense, and tasting the chocolate, in the psychological sense. All of this follows logically from the fact that he is physically identical to me, by virtue of the functional analyses of psychological notions. It is just that none of this functioning will be accompanied by any real conscious experience. There will be no phenomenal feel. There is nothing it is like to...

Sliding down a slippery slope

The Holmes had chosen to drive to the ski resort, whilst we were flying. We had to be at the airport early, so once we had checked in we headed for Garfunkels for breakfast. James and I tucked into a full English breakfast, Tom had bacon, beans and toast, but Joe announced he didn't need anything because he had already had some yoghurt at home. I tried to persuade him at least to have some toast because it was going to be a long day, but he refused. I reminded him what the doctor had said about the dangers of losing too much weight, but he got very angry. I ordered him a chocolate milk shake in the hope that he wouldn't classify this as food but he had two sips before claiming he was absolutely stuffed full and couldn't possibly drink any more. I didn't want our holiday to start with a huge fight over food so I backed off. After breakfast I headed for Boots and bought a large tin of high calorie orange glucose drink, which claimed to be packed full of vitamins and minerals and some...

Communication Dynamics

He waits for me to be ready to share information with him. We have a good sense of humor about diabetes. I joke that when I die and meet Jesus, Hell have a dessert buffet waiting for me. I'm blessed to have such a patient, understanding, and loving man in my life.

Fast Food Restaurants

Many people think snacking is unhealthy and leads to L S weight gain because many people don't eat healthy snacks If you enjoy snacking and you want to maintain your body weight and perform well, then selecting healthy snacks is critical. Think through a typical day. How often and where do you usually snack Are your snacks healthy or loaded with extra kcals Many people snack on foods when they are bored and often don't realize how much food they have eaten. Snacks should not replace a meal. Avoid these situations by being aware of your behaviors, food selection, and kcal consumption. Follow these tips to help promote healthy snacking

Magic and Superstition

Examples of similarity include burning effigies of persons in order to cause harm to them, or reliance on appearance in judging objects when the appearance is known to be deceiving (e.g., avoidance by educated adults of chocolate shaped to look like feces or difficulty experienced in throwing darts at a picture of a respected person). In the domain of words, Piaget (1929) described as nominal realism the child's difficulty in understanding the arbitrary relation of word and referent. Similarly, educated people have difficulty disregarding a label on a bottle (e.g., poison ) that they know does not apply.

Consuming soporific suppers

If you suffer from insomnia, avoid eating a fashionably late dinner stop eating at least three hours before bed. Also, be sure to take other basic steps that can facilitate sleep. For example, avoid all caffeine (coffee, tea, cola drinks, and chocolate) starting six to seven hours before bedtime, so your system won't be overstimulated when it's time to fall asleep. Consider eating foods that are known to be rich in natural tryptophan, a chemical that induces sleep. Turkey's packed with it. Milk also has this substance, although in lower quantities than turkey has.

Sleep situation 1 Watching what you eat and drink

You probably know that caffeine is a stimulant and, as such, keeps many people awake. Some folks don't seem to be all that affected by caffeine, but others may lie awake for hours after a single cup of java. Coffee isn't the only culprit though other sources of caffeine include tea, many soft drinks, chocolate, and some pain relievers. Read the labels of what you're consuming or you may be wide awake all night

Eating food is a lot more work but it can multiply your results exponentially

My clients just hate me when I take away their Chocolate Myoplex, but the fact is, becoming dependent on MRPs is just plain laziness. If you want to get lean and muscular as possible, by all means, use MRPs, but save them for convenience only - real food is the answer Man-made products cannot and never will be superior to nature's creations.

Biomarkers of Diseases

Of black tea per day compared to a control, caffeine-containing beverage resulted in a 6.5 decrease in total cholesterol and an 11.1 decrease in LDL-cholesterol after 3 weeks of consumption. There were no concomitant changes in HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides. A cholesterol-lowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract has also been observed in a large (N 240), double-blind, randomized outpatient study of individuals with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. In this study, individuals consumed either a capsule containing 375 mg of theaflavin-enriched green tea extract or a placebo capsule. After 12 weeks, the individuals taking the theaflavin-enriched green tea extract capsule had an 11.3 decrease in plasma total cholesterol and a 16.4 decrease in LDL-cholesterol from their pretreatment concentrations. The were no significant changes in total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol in the placebo group and no change in HDL-cholesterol or triglyceride concentration in either...

Urbanization and Nutrition Transition

Electricity, food technology, and concentration of wealth in urban areas have changed this panorama in recent years as a process of 'nutrition transition,' a term introduced by Barry Popkin, has come to dominate particularly the urban populations of today's developing nations. More, rather than less, variety of food is the reality of modern cities. Sweetened and flavored processed foods have higher appeal than coarse staple roots and cereals. The 20th century saw a meteoric rise in the demand for and production of cooking oils and fat-based spreads, while refrigeration meant that fluid milk did not have to come from the udder of a dairy animal on one's doorstep to be safe and available. Processed foods - bottled, canned, and frozen -entered the market with the rise of the food sciences and food technology, and sweets and desserts became a larger component of daily fare. Inexpensive vegetable oils from corn, soy, safflower, cottonseed, etc., entered international commerce for cooking,...

Introduction and description

There is probably no other spice in the world that strongly evokes the sweet memories of childhood and nurture than vanilla - ice cream to cool off in the scorching heat of summer, milk to nourish young and agile bodies, and warm chocolate to perk up mornings with friends and loved ones. Consider how bland these delights would be without the aroma of vanilla From the time it was offered in the form of a flavoured concoction by a gentle people to a Spanish conquistador to the current quest for a novel biotechnological means to produce its major flavouring constituents, vanilla has continually provided gastronomic pleasure to generations of people through the centuries. Vanilla is considered to be the greatest contribution of the Americas to the world of flavours. The following historical account of vanilla discovery and geographical spread is condensed from Correll (1953). Vanilla was introduced to the Old World when the Aztec emperor Montezuma of Mexico in 1520 welcomed the Spanish...

Nutritional summary

Function Cell membrane stability and production of some hormones may be influenced by nickel availability. Nickel also is a cofactor of various microbial enzymes. Nickel intake might, therefore, influence microbial action in human intestines. Food sources Grains, chocolate, nuts and dried legumes are good sources of nickel. Americans typically get about 300 ig nickel per day from water and food. Requirements Less than 100 p.g d appears to be needed by healthy adults. Deficiency Low availability impairs reproduction and growth in some mammals and may impair iron, copper, and zinc metabolism.

Now Revised And Updated

Ten years ago the original edition of From Chocolate to Morphine was recognized immediately as the definitive guide toHegal and illegal drugs. Now best-selling author Dr. Andrew Weil and coauthor Winifred Rosen have revised their popular Extensively illustrated, supplemented by helpful comments from drug users and nonusers, From Chocolate to Morphine is a'unique rcsourcc. This clear-headed, authoritative book is now more valuable than ever.

Blaeberry See bilberry

And colour, mixed with hot milk to make a dessert. bland diet A diet that is non-irritating, does not overstimulate the digestive tract and is soothing to the intestines, generally avoiding alcohol, strong tea or coffee, pickles, spices and high intake of dietary fibre. bloom Fat bloom is the whitish appearance on the surface of chocolate which sometimes occurs on storage. It is due either to a change in the form of the fat at the surface or to fat diffusing outwards and being deposited as crystals on the surface. Sugar bloom is due to the deposition of sugar crystals on the surface, but is less common than fat bloom. See also tenderisers. brominated oils Oils from a variety of sources, including peach and apricot kernels, olive and soya oils which have been reacted with bromine to add across the carbon-carbon double bonds. They are used to help stabilise emulsions of flavouring substances in soft drinks. Also known as weighting oils. bronze diabetes See haemochromatosis. brose A...

Kay E Segal Sarah E Altman Jessica A Weissman Debra L Safer and Eunice Y Chen

In the group-only DBT program modified for BED, treatment targets are the same as standard DBT, although most patients with a primary diagnosis of BED will spend most time in treatment targeting quality-of-life-interfering behaviors. These include Mindless Eating , or not attending to one's eating (e.g., eating popcorn while watching Tv only to find one has finished the bowl without being aware) Food Preoccupation , or having their thoughts attention absorbed or focused on food to the point that functioning is adversely affected (e.g., inability to concentrate at work or school) Capitulating , or giving up on their goals to cope skillfully with emotions and stop binge eating and, instead, acting as if coping with food is the only option and Apparently Irrelevant Behaviors , or behaviors that do not initially appear relevant to binge eating or are ones that patients convince themselves do not matter but which, on examination with the chain analysis, actually play an important role in...

Personal hygiene practices of consumers

Personal hygiene includes cleanliness of the hands, hair, clothing, and body in general. Hand washing is most frequently the sentinel behavior for assessment of personal hygiene in consumer food safety studies. From a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) perspective, the critical control point for ensuring the safety of foods that are prepared to be served without heating is personal hygiene. Controlling the transfer of pathogens from the hands to food is important for almost all foodborne illnesses, but especially (1) raw vegetables and fruits (2) some types of desserts (3) raw or undercooked foods exposed to polluted water and (4) previously cooked foods handled by consumers and served without additional heating. It is estimated that 5 of Hepatitis A cases are foodborne, 20 of Shigella cases, and 40 of Norovirus cases are estimated as being foodborne (Mead et al., 1999). Thus, hands contaminated with fecal pathogens can be the source of pathogens in foods (Feachem,...

Subconscious Incubation

When we test normal people's memory by having them recognize previously presented words that come from the same semantic class or overlapping categories (e.g., sweets, M&M's, caramel, Milky Way, Snickers, chocolate), many normal people will have false memories and think they were told to recall closely related words (e.g., candy) (Schacter et al., 1997). According to associative theory, the distributed representations of the concepts of the words to be remembered substantially overlap the distributed representations of concepts that represent the falsely recognized words. When we tested high-functioning autistic patients (Beversdorf et al., 2000) with this false-memory paradigm, these autistic participants recalled fewer false memories and discriminated true memories from false memories better than did the normal control participants. These results suggest that people with autism have constricted their semantic representations (i.e., relatively sparse and...

Indications Coriander

Seeds, the size of a peppercorn, have a sharp but pleasant aroma, pleasing to many ethnics (e.g., Arabs, Egyptians, some Europeans, Asian Indians), sometimes flavoring breadstuffs, cakes, and confections therewith. Used as early as 1550 B.c., the dried fruits, called coriander seed, combining the taste of lemon peel and sage, is used in pastries, cookies, buns, processed meats (such as sausage, bologna, and frankfurters), pickling spice, and curry powder. Also used to flavor liqueurs, such as gin and vermouth in the cocoa, chocolate, and cordial industries. Young plants used in salads as a vegetable and in chutneys, sauces, soups, and curries. (Bib. FAC TAN). 1-2 tsp crushed fruit cup water up to 3 x day (APA) 0.1 g essential oil, 2-3 x day (HH2) 3 g fruit (KOM PHR) 0.3-1 g powdered fruit (PNC) 0.5-2 ml liquid fruit extract (PNC) 0.05-2 ml (they said 2 ml, I would have said 0.2 ml cf. celery seed, close kin) essential oil (PNC).

Jonathan Mond Anita Star and Phillipa

I'm a 32-year-old secretary working at a solicitor's office. I've been overweight since adolescence, but in recent years this problem has increased to the point where I'm severely obese, with a BMI well in excess of 40 kg m2. Over the years, I've tried a number of diet and healthy eating plans, but have never been able to adhere to the recommendations for any length of time. I live alone, have a strained relationship with my family and have few friends that I feel I can rely on. Generally, my diet is regular in that I eat three meals a day and these meals contain a wide variety of foods. However, to help cope with my feelings of isolation, I treat myself with luxury foods such as chocolate, cheesecake, and ice-cream. Because this sort of eating is linked to my emotions, rather than level of hunger, it can occur at any time. When I get home from work I often go to the fridge for a small snack trouble is, after eating the snack I'm unable to stop eating and continue to consume a large...

Smoking Habit And Eating Disorders

Acupuncture Points For Eating Disorders

This area belongs to the so-called 'libido' areas proposed by Durinyan for the treatment of sexual disorders. It is possible that this area represents a craving area particularly for those smokers who stop smoking but who continue for some days weeks to have a pronounced desire for cigarettes. What is surprising is that the craving for pleasures other than sex, such as sweets, ice cream, chocolate, etc., may also cause a concentration of points in this area.

Dietary Management

Small tub of diet cottage cheese 1 tomato, can of diet pop Midafternoon Chocolate eclair 2 dishes of blackcurrant cheesecake, a choc ice, 4 bowls of ice cream, 6 snack-size chocolate bars, 5 cheese biscuits with butter and cheese, 5 slices of toast with butter and peanut butter, 2 packets of chocolate biscuits, 2 bowls of cereal, 1 packet of crisps and 1 chocolate and mint biscuit 6 glasses of water 1 chocolate or cream biscuit 6-8 tablespoons custard or rice pudding 1 packet crisps or nuts and raisins 1 average-sized chocolate bar

Chemical Components

Cocoa is among the most concentrated sources of the flavanols, catechin and epicatechin, with four times the catechin content of tea (Arts et al 1999). Chocolate also contains additional flavonoids not found in tea, with high concentrations of oligomeric procyanidins (Lazarus et al 1999). Post-harvesting and processing pro 2007 Elsevier Australia cedures can have a striking influence on the flavanol content of chocolate and cocoa (Hollenberg et al 2004). Dark chocolate has the highest total catechin content with approximately 53.5 mg 100 g, whereas milk chocolate contains approximately 1 5.9 mg 100 g (Arts et al 1999). White chocolate primarily contains cocoa butter with minimal levels of polyphenols. Cocoa also contains the methylxanthines, caffeine and theobromine, the biogenic amines phenylethylamine, phenylalanine and tyrosine (Bruinsma & Taren 1999) and the cannabinoid-like fatty acid anandanine analogs, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-linoleoylethanolamine (Di Tomaso et al 1996)....

Cardiovascular Disease

Dark chocolate, but not white chocolate, was observed to significantly improve endothelial and platelet function in healthy smokers, with increased flow-mediated dilatation, increased total antioxidant status and reduced shear stress dependent platelet function seen 2-8 hours after ingestion (Hermann et al 2006). Dark chocolate has also been shown to increase insulin sensitivity and decrease blood pressure in healthy people (Grassi et al 2005a). Similar results were obtained in a RCT using 100 g of dark chocolate containing approximately 500 mg polyphenols which was consumed daily for 1 5 days. Chocolate was found to decrease DBP by -11.9 7.7 mmHg, decrease serum LDL-cholesterol from 3.4 to 3.0 mmol L, improve flow-mediated dilation, and reduce insulin resistance and increase insulin sensitivity in patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension (Grassi et al 2005b). Similarly, a study of male soccer players found that consumption of 105 g of flavanol-containing milk chocolate...

Enhanced Cognitive Function

The results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study suggests that both milk and dark chocolate, but not white chocolate, improve cognitive function. A second double-blind study suggests that this improvement is due to the methylxanthin content of chocolate, with 11.6 g of cocoa powder producing identical improvements in cognitive function and the mood construct 'energetic arousal' as a mixture of caffeine (19 mg) and theobromine (250 mg) (Smit et al 2004). Consumption of a 65 g chocolate bar was shown to significantly increase driving accuracy and reduce collisions compared to an equicaloric snack of cheese and biscuits or no snack in a controlled trial of 12 volunteers (Smith & Rich 1998).

Digestion Absorption and Elimination

Digestive System

Eat her hamburger, fries, and chocolate shake, but how do these nutrients get to the tissues in the body that need them Digestion is the process of preparing foods to enter the body. This may sound strange, but any foods inside the digestive system are not yet actually in the body. The digestive system is a long tube (about 30 feet when relaxed) with openings at both ends (Figure 4.1). This tube is contained within the body and anything that enters it must pass into the cells lining the tube in order to get into the body's tissues. As food passes through the digestive tube, it is processed and broken down gradually so that the nutrients (e.g., sugars, proteins, and fats) can be absorbed by microscopic cells. This process occurs through the steps of digestion (including ingestion and propulsion), and absorption.

Total Daily Estimated Energy Requirement

If you want to gain weight, your goal should be to gain 1 2 - 1 lbs. per week. The objective is to gain lean mass, not fat. Exercise routinely, including strength training, and increase your caloric intake by using the Food Guide Pyramid guidelines (discussed in Chapter 3). Also, eat healthy snacks between meals.

Sources of further information and advice

K (2001), 'Calcium supplementation of chocolate effect on cocoa butter digestibility and blood lipids in humans', Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73, 246-252. shapses s a, heshka s and heymsfield s b (2004), 'Effect of calcium supplementation on weight and fat loss in women', J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 89, 632637.

Irans Rich Foods In Vegetables

Avoid high sugar containing foods (desserts, candy, soft drinks), Reduction of high sugar or a low glycemic diet is something to consider. Many holistic practitioners believe a diet that avoids high levels of blood sugar is critical to reduce inflammation and balance the endocrine system for optimal health and disease prevention. Foods rich in carbohydrates can be evaluated by their glycemic index. A low glycemic index is preferred as it is less likely to cause a high blood sugar level. White rice, pasta and breads, desserts, and candy are some foods known to have high glycemic indexes. Eating carbohydrates in combination with equal amounts of fiber and good fat is also recommended.

Key factors related to caries prevalence in human populations Physiological or cultural factors

The castle show significantly lower caries frequencies (6.4 ) than ordinary village people (12.1 - Fryer, 1984). In post-medieval Europe caries tends to affect more the opulent class than the poor class due to the regular consumption of sweet foods. Since that epoch caries has been perceived as an occupational disease among bakers and confectioners (Gotze et al., 1986 Kainz & Sonnabend, 1983). Historical records of the meals served for the Spanish royalty of the 18th century included meat broths and stews from hunted and breeding animals that contained wine, sugar and cinnamon, while bread was the usual side order. The last part of each main meal was the sweet dessert that included cakes, creams, sugar coated donuts, fruit tartlets, cookies, jelly, fruits with syrup, dates, pomegranates, nuts, hazelnuts, and figs. The Spanish royalty usually consumed chocolate that was the unique food permitted during the penitence days (P rez Samper, 2003).

Digestion In The Small Intestine

Fat Absorption

Digestive enzymes break starch, proteins, triglycerides, and nucleic acids into intermediate size pieces. Pancreatic amylase breaks down starch. The bicarbonate from the pancreas creates the alkaline conditions needed for amylase and other enzymes to function. Amylase does not break starch into glucose monosaccharide units, but into smaller pieces, including the disaccharide maltose. Thus far in the digestive process, the disaccharides, such as sucrose (from table sugar and fruits) and lactose (from milk, such as the chocolate shake in our example), that are ingested have not been broken down. Dietary triglycerides are broken apart by pancreatic lipase. About 9 quarts of water enter the small intestine each day. Some water is ingested with food (like the chocolate shake), but most of it enters into the system at various points during the digestive process to aid in the breakdown of food. The source of these fluids is approximately as follows 1 to 2 quarts with food, 1 quart of saliva,...

Leo E Hollister Revised by Rebecca J Frey

Theobromine is found in the seeds of the plant Theobroma cacao, which is the well-known source of Chocolate and cocoa. The cacao seeds have caffeine too (as does Tea, which contains small amounts of theobromine and theophylline) caffeine has powerful stimulant effects on the brain, whereas theobromine has very little (although popular articles alleged for years that theobromine makes one feel ''happy''). High doses of theobro-mine can, however, affect several physiological functions in the body, such as increasing the formation of urine in the kidney.

Major Drug Nutrient Interactions of Clinical Relevance

Tyramine-rich foods (avacado, canned figs, aged cheese, cola beverage, coffee, chocolate, wine, soy sauce, fermented meats, yeast, yoghurts) Tyramine-rich foods (avocados, canned figs, aged cheese, cola beverages, coffee, chocolate, wines, soy sauce, fermented meats, yeast preparation, yoghurts) Alcohol

Sensory Stimulation and Palatability

However, the second definition should not be taken to indicate that there is a direct correlation between the perceived palatability of a food and the amount of that food which is ingested. As with hunger, the coupling between the expressed sensation and the amount of food or energy ingested is loose. This definition takes account of the fact that the palatability of the food is jointly determined by the nature of the food (smell, taste, texture, and state), the sensory capabilities and metabolic state of the subject, and the environment in which the food and subject interact. Palatability is therefore not stable indeed, the palatability of a food typically declines as its own ingestion proceeds. Work on military personnel suggests that the decline in preference for highly preferred foods (e.g., chocolate) is greater than that for staple foods such as bread, which exhibit more stable preference profiles. Palatability can be dissociated from sensory intensity since sensory...

Prevention of Bacterial Food Poisoning

With the increasing trend toward the manufacturing of foods in large quantities for distribution not only nationally but also internationally, the potential for vast outbreaks of foodborne disease is considerable. Outbreaks of salmonellosis and E. coli FP caused by cheese, salami, chocolate, beef jerky, infant dried milk, minced beef, hamburgers, and even potato crisps have all been documented. In one outbreak of E. coli O157 H7 infection, 34 lots of 281 000 lb of beef patties were manufactured in one plant, and 7 of 21 lots tested were found to be contaminated. The introduction of HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) in food manufacturing processes has been a significant advance in the production of safer food and the prevention of FP. Microbiological guidelines now exist for ready-to-eat foods. The establishment of Enternet in countries in Europe and elsewhere is an important step in the early detection of such outbreaks and the curtailment of their effects. This is a...

Changes in taste and smell

Once Katy begged me to make her my special double chocolate sour cream cake. Surprisingly, it smelled really good to her as it baked. She took a big bite, spit it out all over the table, and ran back to her room sobbing. She cried for a long time. She told me later that it had tasted bitter and horrible.

The genetic bell curve

Away with fewer workouts and more cheat days). On the extreme right edge of the curve, you have the people who can eat chocolate and donuts all day long, they don't work out at all and they have six-pack abs These are the genetically gifted, or as I affectionately call them, the genetic freaks.

Forbes Wolfe Nanotech Reports

Given the range of cosmetics using nanoparticulate metal oxides primarily for UV protection it is interesting to note a cosmetics product containing fullerene in the list. In this case the fullerene is claimed to have antioxidant properties. Carbon nanotubes have been used as a reinforcing component in a new baseball bat. Silver nanoparticles feature again, this time in socks where enhanced bonding of the 19 nm silver particles to the polyester fibres is claimed to provide enhanced and longer-lasting antimicrobial and antifungal performance. A novel chewing gum having chocolate flavour, which is apparently difficult to achieve, has been produced using ''nanoscale crystals'' of unknown chemistry to enhance the compatibility of the cocoa butter with the polymers that are used to give the gum elasticity. So-called self-cleaning windows and paint surfaces are also included in the top 10. These are based on photoactive titanium dioxide with the windows gaining a further benefit when it...

Can exercise affect my reflux

The types of food you eat around the time of exercise can also make a difference. Foods that are higher in fat content generally take longer to digest and remain in the stomach a longer period of time. These foods also require higher acid production for complete digestion, which is a good setup for worsening reflux disease. Carbohydrates are digested more quickly and can pass through the stomach much easier, causing less reflux symptoms if you are going to exercise or participate in high-energy activity. Also, citrus and tomato-based foods, caffeine, mints, and chocolate all are associated with GERD. Different types of food can increase reflux or can increase the amount of acid the stomach produces These include high-fat foods, spicy foods, carbonated beverages, chocolate, mint, and alcohol.

Application of Self Regulation to Self Help Treatments

Awareness and helps direct progress toward the goal. Self-change programs that identify strategies for achieving the goal and make it easier for the client to monitor progress with regard to both the target behaviors and strategies employed to achieve the target increase the likelihood that the strategies will be executed and progress toward the goal achieved. Monitoring successes increases desired behavior and progress toward the goal, while monitoring failures produces little change in performance. Since self-monitoring is a device for increasing awareness, information about what works and what makes it work is more likely to produce behavior change than is information about what does not work. Moreover, information that is temporally proximate to the behavior is more likely to produce change than is information distal to the performed behavior. If an individual wants to learn that he was successful in resisting an urge to devour a favorite dessert, he would do best to examine...

Scott E Lukas Revised by Rebecca Marlow Ferguson

CHOCOLATE An ingredient of many popular treats candies, sweets, baked goods, soft drinks, hot drinks, ice cream, and other frozen desserts. It is prepared, often as a paste, from the roasted crushed seeds (called cocoa beans) of the small South American cacao tree called Theobroma cacao (this is not the shrub known as the COCA PLANT, which produces COCAINE, Erythroxylon coca). duce the chocolate flavor loved throughout the world. Cocoa butter and cocoa powder are other important extracts from the bean. Cocoa beans were introduced to Europe by the Spanish, who brought them back from the New World in the sixteenth century. They had first been used by the civilizations of the New World Mexicans, Aztecs, and Mayan royalty in a ceremonial unsweetened drink and as a spice in special festive foods, such as mole. They were first used in Europe by the privileged classes to create a hot, sweet drink. By the seventeenth century, cocoa shops and COFFEE shops (cafes) became part of European life,...

What are the longterm risksbenefits of endoscopic antireflux procedures

I have had symptoms of acid reflux for more than 10 years. Most of my acid reflux incidents occur during the evening while I sleep. Although the symptoms have increased over the years, so has my age and the reasons that cause acid reflux (late meals, added weight, late-night snacks, lack of exercise, etc.). When I adhere to a schedule that includes taking my medication regularly, eating properly, eating smaller meals at the appropriate times, and staying away from processed foods, chocolate, and fatty snacks, I would never know I have acid reflux. Therefore, for me a lifestyle change is what I need to control my acid reflux, not surgery.

Reaction Between Folic Acid And Oxalic Acid And Result In Food Combination

(2) Indian desserts of various types, made from carrot, pumpkin or banana, sweetened and flavoured. halverine Name sometimes given to low-fat spreads with less histamine The amine formed by decarboxylation of the amino acid histidine, found in cheese, beer, chocolate, sauerkraut and wine. Excessive release of histamine from mast cells is responsible for many of the symptoms of allergic reactions. Stimulates secretion of gastric acid, and administration of histamine is used as test for achlorhydria.

Major Contributors of Dietary Saturated Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cholesterol

According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) recall data from 1999-2000, the 10 major dietary sources of saturated fatty acids in US diets are regular cheese (6.0 of the total grams of saturated fatty acids consumed), whole milk (4.6 ), regular ice cream (3.0 ), 2 low-fat milk (2.6 ), pizza with meat (2.5 ), French fries (2.5 ), Mexican dishes with meat (2.3 ), regular processed meat (2.2 ), chocolate candy (2.1 ), and mixed dishes with beef (2.1 ). Hence, the majority of saturated fatty acids are contributed by regular dairy products (16 ), and the top 10 sources contribute 30 of the total saturated fatty acids consumed. The increased prevalence of fat-free and low-fat dairy products provides a viable option with which to encourage a populationwide decrease in saturated fat intake. To put the value of decreasing populationwide intakes of saturated fat into perspective, it has been estimated that the isocaloric replacement of 5 of energy from saturated...

Central Nervous System Stimulants

Perhaps 80 percent of the world s population ingests caffeine in the form of TEA, Coffee, COLA-flavored drinks, and CHOCOLATE. In the central nervous system, caffeine decreases drowsiness and fatigue and produces a more rapid and clearer flow of thought. With higher doses, however, nervousness, restlessness, insomnia, and tremors may result. Cardiac and gastrointestinal disturbances may also be observed. Tolerance typically develops to the anxiety and dysphoria experienced by some individuals. Some degree of PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE has, however, been associated with the chronic consumption of caffeine. The most characteristic symptom of caffeine withdrawal is a long throbbing headache, although fatigue, lethargy, and some degree of anxiety are also common. In general, the long-term consequences of chronic caffeine consumption are relatively minor.

The Epistemology of Experience

The things I've said about subjective characters have illustrated the sorts of things that can be parts of our concepts of subjective characters. I have a concept of what it is like to taste a good chocolate chip cookie. Unfortunately, as I write, that concept is not attached to a present sensation of that sort. It contains memory images, images of the cause (chocolate chip cookies), the effects (torpor, obesity), and so forth. The idea finds its place in representations I have of various facts and other states of affairs my memories of past chocolate chip cookie eatings, my desires for and now developing anticipations of future ones, and so forth. suggests some sort of recipe or set of criteria, which gives the wrong picture in many cases of knowledge of one's own experiences. I'll continue to use these words, but I hereby cancel any suggestion that the methods or ways in question involve step by step analysis or lists of criteria.) I can tell you if the experience I have is like the...

Caffeine in Food and Drugs

Due to its stimulant properties, caffeine is used around the world in any of its many forms, such as coffee, tea, soft drinks, and chocolate. The accompanying table displays the amount of caffeine in foods. An eight-ounce cup of drip-brewed coffee has about 85 milligrams of caffeine, whereas the same amount of brewed tea contains about 47 milligrams. Twelve-ounce cans of soft drinks (soda) provide about 35 to 45 milligrams of caffeine.

Hornby Lesley Twiggy 1949 Model actress and singer

Twiggy modeled for only four years and became an icon and one of the most recognized models of all times. She was perhaps recognized internationally as the world's first supermodel and was named the Face of 1966 by the London Daily Express. To most people's surprise, Twiggy's thin frame was far from a result of anorexia, dieting, or exercise. She admitted to eating 'anything, absolute rubbish,' including the ice cream and chocolate sauce piece de resistance 'Bananas Twiggy' whipped up especially for her at her favorite London restaurant. Her irreverent eating habits aside, Twiggy set a standard that most models found impossible to reach (Zimmerman 1997 21-2).

Historical And Presentday Cultivation And Usage

Hazelnuts were and are still typically consumed as the whole nut (raw or roasted), or used as an ingredient in a variety of foods, especially in bakery products, snacks, chocolates, cereals, dairy products, salads, entrees, sauces, ice cream, and other dessert formulations. After cracking the hazelnut's hard shell, the hazelnut kernel may be consumed raw (with its skin)

Carob ceratonia siliqua l fabaceae caesalpiniaceae

Caruba Beans

This is one of the most important tree species in the Middle Eastern vegetation type known as maquis, with Pistacia. Arab proverbs hint that the carob tree is cursed, and one should not sleep under it. And yet, carob is widely cultivated for its fruit and seeds, both high in sugar and calcium, low in protein and fats. It is used in health foods as a chocolate substitute. A single carob tree may yield 800 pounds of fruit. The seeds are said to be the ancient weight used by goldsmiths, and instituted from early times as carat weight. Seeds commanded a high price singers imagined they cleared the voice. Carob is also used in textile printing, synthetic resins, insecticides, and fungicides. American imports were mostly used in tobacco flavorings and cosmetics, but have now moved into the health food arena. In the Prodigal Son story, the younger son asked for his inheritance, which he then spent quickly and unwisely. When he had no money or food left, he hired out as a swine tender....

Ascorbic Acid And Dehydroascorbate

Aspartame An artificial sweetener, P-aspartyl-phenylalanine methyl ester, some 200 times as sweet as sucrose. Stable for a few months in solution, then gradually breaks down. Used in soft drinks, dessert mixes and as a 'table top sweetener'. Trade names Canderel, Equal, Nutrasweet, Sanecta.

What kind of foods can make GERD worse

Different types of food can increase reflux or can increase the amount of acid the stomach produces. These include high-fat foods, spicy foods, carbonated beverages, chocolate, mint, and alcohol. Many foods cause relaxation of the LES, which increases GERD. Avoidance of these foods and drinks can help you control GERD and may eliminate or decrease your need for medications. In addition to those previously discussed, examples are citrus foods such as oranges, lemons, grapefruits, and limes spicy foods tomato-based foods and sauces chocolate mint onions and garlic. Some of these relax the LES, others increase gastric acid production. Avoid these foods particularly before going to sleep because sleeping slows stomach emptying. Tea or coffee with a chocolate cookie before bed is probably not a good idea for those with nocturnal GERD.

Intake Of Dietary Fiber Food Sources

The major sources of naturally occurring inulin and oligofructose are wheat and onions, which provide about 70 and 25 percent of these components, respectively (Moshfegh et al., 1999). Isolated inulin provides a creamy texture and is added to replace fat in table spreads, dairy products, frozen desserts, baked goods, fillings, and dressings. Oligofructose is most commonly added to cereals, fruit preparations for yogurt, cookies, dairy products, and frozen desserts.

General Dietary Influences

Kwanzaa, which means first fruits of the harvest, is a holiday observed by more than 18 million people worldwide. Kwanzaa is an African-American celebration that focuses on the traditional African values of family, community responsibility, commerce, and self-improvement. The Kwanzaa Feast, or Karamu, is traditionally held on December 31. This symbolizes the celebration that brings the community together to exchange and to give thanks for their accomplishments during the year. A typical menu includes a black-eyed pea dish, greens, sweet potato pudding, cornbread, fruit cobbler or compote dessert, and many other special family dishes.

Hyperactivity and Antisocial Behavior

In children, there is an increasing frequency of the diagnosis of ADHD, a condition characterized by inattention, impulsive and disruptive behavior, learning difficulties, and increased levels of gross motor activity and fidgeting. Also, the prevalence of food allergies and intolerances has been increasing. Perhaps it is not surprising that dietary explanations and treatments for ADHD have been sought regularly for several decades, given theories of allergic reactions or intolerance to food additives, ingredients in chocolate, and even refined sugar (often grouped as the 'Feingold theory', after an early instigator of unproven dietary intervention). There has also been a long-standing interest in the possibility that antisocial behavior in children and adults might in part result from poor nutrition, although early studies were poorly designed. Behavioral effects of sugar and of many additives have by and large not been supported by controlled studies however, determining...

Isnt there a psychological component to our relationship with food

It is generally accepted that how we feel can influence what we choose to eat or drink (mood to food) what is less well known is how what we eat can affect our mental functioning (food to mood). The use of caffeine is one example of what is a complex relationship. Caffeine, found in tea, coffee, cola drinks and chocolate is probably the widest used behaviour-modifying drug in the world. We often choose to drink it if we are feeling tired and irritable because it gives us a boost and helps us to concentrate. Having a cup of coffee or tea also has a lot of positive psychological associations. We meet a friend for 'a coffee and a chat' or give ourselves a break by sitting down with a cup of tea, and these things are very important. But too much caffeine (which is a different amount for each of us) can cause symptoms such as anxiety, nervousness and depression. Any exploration into food and mood needs to take into account this two-way relationship and include the psychological aspect...

Lipid Oxidation and Damage

Whereas intake of quercetin from black current and apple juice appears to increase protein oxidation, it decreases plasma malondialdehyde concentration, a marker of lipid oxidation. Isoprostanes, which are specific and sensitive markers of lipid peroxidation, are not different after consumption of a high-flavonoid or low-flavonoid diet, after consumption of green or black tea, or after consumption of black tea and hot water. Similarly, there is little change in urinary isoprostane excretion after supplementation of dark chocolate and cocoa or after consumption of red and white wine (although dealcoholized wine does decrease urinary isoprostane).

Dietary Sources and Intakes

The most common disaccharides are sucrose, lactose, and maltose. Sucrose is mostly found in sugar cane and beet, and in lesser amounts in honey, maple sugar, fruit, and vegetables. The properties of sucrose are important in improving viscosity, sweetness, and flavor of baked foods, ice cream, and desserts. Maltose is formed from starch digestion. It is also produced from the germination of grain for malt liquors. Lactose is found in milk and dairy products, and is not as sweet as glucose or sucrose.

Cows Milk Protein Avoidance

Butter, margarine, cream, cheese, ice cream, and yogurt all need to be avoided. Fats that can be used instead include margarines made from pure vegetable fat (e.g., Tomor) and lard. Caution is required with baby foods, as a large number of manufactured products, e.g., rusks, contain milk protein. A common trap is so-called 'vegetarian' cheese, often wrongly believed to be safe for subjects with cows' milk allergy. In fact, it differs from ordinary cheese only in the use of nonanimal rennet and is unsuitable for people with cows' milk allergy. Meat, game, and poultry are all allowed, but sausages and pies should be avoided unless it is known that they are milk free. Intolerance to cows' milk protein is not a reason to avoid beef. Eggs are allowed, but not custard or scrambled egg which may contain milk. Fish is permitted, unless it is cooked in batter (which unless otherwise stated should be assumed to contain milk) or milk. Lemon curd, chocolate spread, chocolate (unless stated to be...

Changes in Sucrose Consumption

It was not until the early 1700s, however, when the supply of sugar boomed, its price fell, and coffee, tea, and chocolate entered the British diet, that ordinary people finally began to buy significant amounts, and the per capita consumption reached 1.8 kg per year. The changeover from honey to sugar occurred more gradually in rural areas than in the cities. From this point sugar consumption rose inexorably, while honey consumption declined. Beekeeping ceased to be the general custom that it had been in former years there was no longer a hive in every garden. By the beginning of the twentieth century the availability of refined sugar reached about 50 kg per head per year in most industrialized nations. Surprisingly, it did not continue to increase but remained at approximately this level or declined throughout the next 100 years. The 'steady state' suggests that the market and the taste buds have reached saturation.

Changes in Antioxidant Capacity

Antioxidant capacity of the blood may be one indicator of a food's ability to act as an in vivo antiox-idant. Two commonly used measures of overall antioxidant capacity are the ORAC assay (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and the FRAP assay (ferric reducing ability of plasma). Dietary interventions do alter the antioxidant capacity of blood. For example, individuals consuming a high cocoa and chocolate diet for 2 weeks have higher serum ORAC than when they consume a control diet. However, these results are not always consistent. For example, in individuals consuming pro-cyanidins in similar amounts of cocoa powder and chocolate, there is no change in plasma ORAC after 6 or 12 weeks.

Other Common Ingredients Used across Asia

Nuts are popular in Asia, eaten plain as snacks or mashed into porridge and sauces. In Malaysia and Indonesia, satays (peanut-based sauces) flavor chicken and beef dishes. The Chinese bake almond cookies and make rice cream with almonds or hazelnuts. Steamed cakes with almonds or maca-damias are also common, and rice puddings with fruit, raisins, almonds, walnuts, or hazelnuts are popular desserts in India. Both East and Southeast Asia boast stir-fry dishes with peanuts, while India flavors its rice with lemon and peanuts.

Central American and Mexican Dishes

Beyond the basic staples, the cuisine of Mexico and Central America is rich with many regional variations. The tortilla-based Mexican preparations familiar in the United States are generally simpler in form in Mexico. Tacos are generally made with meat, chicken, or fish grilled or fried with seasoning and served on tortillas enchiladas are filled tortillas dipped in a chile-based sauce and fried and tostadas are fried tortillas topped with refried beans or meat, and sometimes with vegetables and cream. Chiles rellenos are made with the large and sweet chile poblano and filled with ground meat. Examples of specialty dishes include mole, a sauce made with chocolate, chile, and spices and served over chicken, beef, or enchiladas and ceviche, raw marinated fish or seafood made along the coast throughout Central America and Mexico.

Mechanisms calcium and the regulation of energy metabolism

This brings up again an idea proposed a longer time ago, according to which the divalent cation calcium prevents the intestinal absorption of part of the dietary fat and increases faecal lipid loss and sterol excretion forming insoluble fatty acid soaps and bile salts (Denke et al., 1993, Drenick, 1961, Vaskonen et al., 2001, 2002, Vaskonen 2003, Welberg et al., 1994). By the same mechanism calcium may enhance a cholesterol-lowering effect of other food components, e.g. plant sterols (Vaskonen et al., 2001). The extent of this effect increased with an increasing proportion of long-chain saturated fatty acids in the diet, whereby, with Western eating habits, the energy excretion with fat is probably around 1 and 3 of the daily energy supply, i.e. around 30 and 90 kcal day. In a study by Shahkhalalili and co-workers (2001) calcium fortification of chocolate doubled calcium ingestion from 950 to 1855 mg day and increased faecal fat excretion by 36 kcal day (4.04 g day). This effect seems...

Carrie Amazing Changes in Her Lipid Profile

Carrie was in for some unpleasant surprises. While no one would have considered a 5-foot 8-inch-tall woman to be obese at 158 pounds, Carrie discovered that she had a body fat percentage of 34.5, which put her into a high-risk classification. She thought she knew a lot about good nutrition, but when we evaluated what she was eating, we saw that she was trying to eat mostly vegetarian meals and not doing a very good job of balancing out the three food groups. Her diet consisted mainly of salads mixed with small amounts of tuna, cheese, breads, too many desserts, and pasta, with an occasional chicken breast or omelet thrown in for good measure. When I explained to her why she should be eating 30 percent acceptable fats, 40 percent low-glycemic carbohydrates, and 30 percent lean protein, it was a revelation. She had been suffering from frequent colds and flu and didn't realize how she was compromising her immune system by eating only small amounts of protein.

Summary and Research Needs

Such molecular-based studies, guided by epidemiological data and incorporated into future supplementation trials, will help answer the questions about the mechanisms of action and which, if any, antioxidants are important, how much, and for whom. However, while many questions relating to dietary antioxidants and health remain unanswered, to understand how to obtain a mixture of antioxidants and promote health we need look only at the macro level of food rather than at the micro level of specific constituents or molecular level of response. Fruits, vegetables, teas, herbs, wines, juices, and some types of chocolate are rich in antioxidants. It is known that diets rich in a variety of such foods are beneficial to health. The results of molecular-based experimental studies will determine whether these two truths are linked in a cause-and-effect relationship.

Discovering Dietary Effects Good Foods Bad Foods

People with FMS are different from each other, and no large-scale studies have found that some foods are good and others should be banned for people with fibromyalgia, but patterns are emerging. For example, some fibromyalgia sufferers agree that most fruits and vegetables (especially berries) and plain cereals are FMS-friendly, but chocolate, citrus fruits, and foods high in monosodium glutamate (MSG, a chemical regarded as a flavor enhancer), aspartame (an artificial sweetener), or caffeine aggravate their FMS symptoms. Check food labels to see whether MSG or aspartame is included in the product. (You may have a hard time giving up aspartame because it's in a wide variety of products, particularly diet soft drinks and reduced-calorie foods.)

Eating Disorders and Body Image

Grabbing my arm, we walked across the campus to the mini-mart. Kate bought Ben & Jerry's ice cream (18 grams of carbs per serving) and cigarettes. I was full and knew the ice cream would be too much, that my blood sugar would sky rocket, but Kate reached over and grabbed my elbow, guiding me up the steps of her dorm. We ate the ice cream side by side on her bed with our biology book open in front of us. When the tub of ice cream was empty, Kate said, let's go, I didn't ask any questions. I am a control freak in many areas of my life, and I think this has served me well when it comes to my diet. I carefully choose all my foods, good or bad If I'm going to indulge, I do so by making sure I'm getting exactly what I want. For example, I could care less about a bag of chips but brownies Bring them on So I don't eat the chips and the brownies. I'll portion out my dessert (in a one-cup bowl) and enjoy it

Dietary Interventions

During infancy and early childhood, caloric intake should conform to the current guidelines from the Nutrition Committee of the American Academy of Pediatrics. During the first 6 months of life, breast milk or infant formulas are primary nutritional sources, followed by introduction of solids at 5 or 6 months of age. Solid textures are gradually advanced based on oromotor skills (jaw strength and tongue mobility). Due to the high likelihood for development of hyperphagia and obesity, the majority of parents avoid exposure of the PWS child to high-calorie solids, desserts, and juices. Via close nutritional follow-up during the first 2 years, oral intake can be appropriately adjusted to maintain weight for height between the 25th and 80th percentiles. Caloric restriction under the guidance of an experienced nutritionist is employed only if weight gain becomes excessive.

Dealing with irritable bowel syndrome

As with fibromyalgia, experts disagree on what actually causes IBS, although most concur that stress makes it worse. Most experts also agree that certain types of foods can aggravate IBS. Interestingly, some of the same foods that can cause a flare-up of fibromyalgia can also worsen IBS, such as citrus fruits, chocolate, and alcohol, to name the leading culprits. How is IBS treated The doctor will usually urge you to increase your intake of vegetables and cut back on (or eliminate) alcohol and chocolate. Medication can help, and sometimes the same drugs that help a person with fibromyalgia can also alleviate some IBS symptoms. For example, a low dose of an antide-pressant such as Elavil (generic name amitriptyline) may ease IBS symptoms as well as FMS symptoms. Some medications used specifically to treat IBS symptoms have been withdrawn from the market because of side effects, for example, Zelnorm (generic name tegaserod maleate) for constipation and Lotronex (generic name alosetron...

Digestion and Nutrition

Amy is in a hurry and she knows the meal will be served fast and she knows the food is safe. The food may not be the tastiest in the world, or very good for her, but it will get her through lunch. Amy has eaten in this kind of place hundreds of times before. She orders a burger, fries, and a chocolate shake. She knows the burger and fries have lots of fat and salt that she does not need. She also knows the shake is risky for her. She has a form of lactose intolerance that sometimes results in abdominal cramping and diarrhea after ingesting milk products. But she is in a hurry, and at least she knows what she gets here besides, she has been thinking about the chocolate shake all morning. After Amy eats her lunch, her body processes the hamburger, fries, and chocolate milkshake into nutrients her body can use. The digestive system processes the food people eat into nutrients for the body. The process takes nutrients in the form of food we can see, smell, and...

Getting Your Child to Take the Medication

If your child is little, it's best to make taking medication a positive experience. However, remember to keep the medication well out of reach, as a small child who is rewarded for properly taking medication might take the whole bottle if he or she finds it. Liquid medicines may be combined with something that the child likes (chocolate milk is popular).

Detoxified for Health

There are many thoughts and hypothesis by Western medical thinkers as to the cause of breast lesions. Studying natural therapeutics for over 30 years, I must tell you from my experience that the three leading causes of unchecked elevated estrogen levels arise from 1) synthetic HRT (sourced from horse urine), 2) congested livers not capable of clearing estrogen, and 3) obesity. Eating high-fiber food and whole food B vitamins are absolutely necessary to combat high estrogen levels. An optimally functioning thyroid is needed to have proper bowel movements. Flax oil, rich in Omega 3 fat, promotes overall optimal hormonal function. A congested liver from consuming too much caffeine from coffee, tea, and chocolate can also lead to breast cysts.

Total Amounts Of Antioxidants In Foods

Desserts and cakes referred to the antioxidant food table published as an electronic supplement to the paper by Carlsen et al. (2010) for the FRAP results on all 3139 products analyzed. The updated database is available online at www.blomhoff.no (link to Scientific Online Material ). The categories Spices and herbs, Herbal traditional plant medicine, and Vitamin and dietary supplements include the most antioxidant-rich products analyzed in the study. The categories Berries and berry products, Fruit and fruit juices, Nuts and seeds, Breakfast cereals, Chocolate and sweets, Beverages, and Vegetables and vegetable products include most of the common foods and beverages which have medium to high antioxidant values. We find that plant-based foods are generally higher in antioxidant content than animal-based and mixed food products, with median antioxidant values of 0.88, 0.10, and 0.31 mmol 100 g, respectively. Furthermore, the 75th percentile of plant-based foods is...

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

The metabolic syndrome is associated with inflammation and elevated oxidative stress (Hansel et al., 2004), which are important features of atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease. Walnuts contain the highest amount of phenolics and antioxidants of all nuts, mostly residing in the outer pellicle of the nut (Table 135.2). Compared to berries and dark chocolate, which are well known for their high antioxidant content, walnuts have a higher antioxidant content per 100 g (23.1 mmol vs 8.2 mmol in blueberries, 5.1 mmol in blackberries and 13.4 mmol in dark chocolate (70 cocoa)) (Blomhoff et al., 2006). Intervention studies with walnuts, where markers of antioxidant status were measured in the fasted state after chronic feeding, have, however, been disappointing, showing no effects (Ros et al., 2004 Tapsell et al., 2004 Davis et al., 2007). This has been ascribed to the fact that walnuts are high in PUFAs, which are susceptible to oxidation, and that the high content of...

Psychological Effects

Chocolate is purported to have a range of psychological effects, including enhanced arousal and cognitive function, stimulation of feelings of wellbeing and euphoria, as well as initiating cravings. The orosensory aspects of chocolate, including its taste, smell and texture, certainly contribute to chocolate's positive appeal. Chocolate contains large amounts of fat in the form of cocoa butter, which melts at body temperature producing a pleasurable melt-in-the-mouth experience. Chocolate also often contains large amounts of sugar and thus satisfies the seemingly innate preference for sweet, high-fat, foods (Bruinsma & Taren 1999). In addition to unique sensory properties, chocolate also contains many pharmacologically active substances. Several endogenous biogenic amines with sympathomimetic properties are found in chocolate, most notably tyramine and phenylethylamine (Hurst 1982). Phenylethylamine is an amphetamine analogue structurally related to methylenedioxymethamphetamine that...

Premenstrual Syndrome

Magnesium deficiency may contribute to the symptomology of PMS, which may be improved by chocolate or cocoa powder, which contain a high concentration of magnesium ( 100 mg 100 g in chocolate and 520 mg 100 g in cocoa powder). There is also some evidence to suggest that serotonin levels are low premenstrually, and it is possible that premenstrual chocolate cravings are the body's attempt to raise CNS concentrations of serotonin (Bruinsma &Taren 1999).

Adverse Reactions

It is believed that chocolate is a trigger for migraine, yet there is inconsistent support for this. In one small double-blind, parallel-group study of 12 patients who believed that chocolate could provoke their attacks, chocolate ingestion was more likely than placebo to trigger a typical migraine episode, with the median time until the onset of the attack of 22 hours (Gibb et al 1991). Three other double-blind placebo-controlled trials suggest that chocolate on its own rarely precipitates migraine (Marcus et al 1997, Moffett et al 1974), with the results of one trial suggesting that chocolate was no more likely to provoke headache than was carob in typical migraine, tension-type, or combined headache sufferers (Marcus et al 1997). There is no evidence that chocolate contributes to acne (Ravenscroft 2005).

Tuesday 12 March 2002

I tried to focus on my work for the next few hours, but there were no real stories in the stock market and it was a struggle to get the clients interested in anything. The morning dragged and every time my home phone rang I leapt out of my skin, thinking that Joe had perhaps collapsed at school. But he coped quite well that particular morning and even managed a smile when I picked him up at lunchtime. He had been coming home for lunch for several weeks now because he couldn't eat the school lunches in front of his school friends. He had the same thing for lunch everyday a ham sandwich, a banana and a chocolate bar with a small drink. This doesn't sound too bad, but each day he would eat slightly less. Today he managed about half the sandwich, a bite of the banana and the chocolate bar and half a glass of orange squash. After lunch Joe felt really bloated so he did half an hour of sit-ups and press-ups before I took him back to school for a couple of lessons. I knew that if I tried to...

Salmonella Infections

Other potent sources of contamination are sewage, polluted water, or direct fecal contamination of foodstuffs. Thus, many foods are bought already contaminated. Recent examples include mung beans, black pepper, dried herbs and spices, chocolate, spent yeast (used as a flavoring vehicle in packet potato crisps), infant dried milk, salamis, and sausages. Indeed, it is important to note that almost any food can be contaminated given the right circumstances. A multistate outbreak of salmonello-sis in the United States was traced to tomatoes that had been washed in a contaminated water bath. An extensive outbreak in the United Kingdom was shown to be caused by lettuce. These episodes are particularly worrying because they show that any vegetable eaten raw may cause a salmonella infection. Cross-contamination from raw meat to relishes and dressings in a kitchen may also occur. Direct contamination of a food by a food handler, at any rate enough to cause an outbreak, is rarely documented....

Nutritional Support

High-energy high-protein diet The encouragement of a high-calorie, high-protein diet will produce growth in the majority of children and adults with CF. A good variety of energy-rich foods should be encouraged, such as full cream milk, cheese, meat, full cream yoghurt, milk puddings, cakes, and biscuits. Extra butter or margarine can be added to bread, potatoes, and vegetables. Frying foods or basting in oil will increase energy density. Extra milk or cream can be added to soups, cereal, desserts, or mashed potatoes and used to top canned or fresh fruit. Regular snacks are important. Malnourished children achieve higher energy intake when more frequent meals are offered. Attention should be given to psychological, social, behavioral, and developmental aspects of feeding. A meta-analysis of differing treatment interventions to promote weight gain in CF demonstrated that a behavioural approach was as effective in promoting weight gain as evasive medical procedures.

In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evidence of Antioxidant Properties of Polyphenols

Similar to tea polyphenols, resveratrol, a major polyphenol in red wine, has also been found to have a protective effect against LDL oxidation in some but not all studies. In contrast to the disparate findings from wine and tea and their flavonoids on LDL protection, studies consistently suggest that cocoa, chocolate, and the procyanins found in cocoa protect LDL from oxidation, both in vitro and ex vivo. In vitro studies of apples, apple juice, and apple extracts (rich in anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols) indicate that these foods also protect LDL.

Functional Roles of Sucrose in Foods

For example, sucrose contributes to the bulk and texture of cakes and cookies and it provides viscosity and mouth feel in liquids such as soft drinks and fruit juices. Sucrose is also a powerful preservative and contributes the long storage life of jams and confectionery. In frozen products like ice cream, sucrose has multiple functions It acts as an emulsifier, preventing the separation of the water and fat phases it lowers the freezing point, thereby making the product more liquid and 'creamier' at the temperature eaten. The presence of sucrose retards the crystallization of the lactose in dairy foods and milk chocolate (tiny crystals of lactose feel like sand on the tongue). In canned fruit, sucrose syrups are used to prevent mushiness caused by the osmotic movement of sugar out of the fruit and into the surrounding fluid. Because sucrose masks unpleasant flavors, sugar syrups are used as carriers for drugs and medicines, especially for young children who cannot swallow...

Fermentable Carbohydrate

A wide variety of foods contain carbohydrate that is capable of giving rise to acids as a result of bacterial metabolism (fermentation) within dental plaque. Of the common dietary sugars, sucrose, fructose, and glucose are found in fruit and fruit juices, soft drinks, jams, honey, chocolate and other confectionary, and an immense variety of composite foods and drinks. Lactose arises naturally in milk and milk products but is also widely used as an ingredient in its own right by the food industry. Clearly, the wide range of individual dietary choices and eating habits may influence the risk of developing caries. The physical characteristics of fermentable carbohydrates will affect the rate at which they are cleared from specific sites in the dentition. Foods that are inclined to remain for long periods in stagnation sites (for example, between the teeth), such as toffees or raisins, are likely to give rise to a greater local fall in pH than are those that are rapidly cleared, such as...

Antioxidant and Biomarker Evidence from Intervention Studies in Humans

There are limited data from diet-controlled randomized crossover studies of humans on tea and other flavonoid-containing foods. Most intervention studies, apart from design considerations, suffer from lack of diet control, making them difficult to interpret. Results from intervention studies that employ dietary recalls, food records, and self-administered diets are notorious for introducing error that can mask treatment effects. Clinical studies in humans have focused on the antioxidant capacity of blood and oxidative damage to protein, lipid, and DNA as well as a number of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, including lipids, hemostasis, platelet aggregation, endothelial function, and blood pressure. Interventions have included high- and low-flavonoid diets, tea, chocolate, cocoa, wine, grape extracts, and fruit juices.

How can I improve my symptoms of GERD

Other types of foods, such as alcohol, chocolate, or peppermint, can also cause reflux by relaxing the LES, which lowers its pressure. Normally, the LES acts as a one-way valve that relaxes to open during a swallow but stays contracted between swallows as a barrier to reflux. Avoiding foods that relax the LES can reduce the occurrence of reflux.

Have heard people can develop something called the dumping syndrome after RouxenY What is this and can it be prevented

When you think of sweets, your first thoughts are probably chocolate, ice cream, and cookies. While these foods can certainly cause the dumping syndrome, potatoes are also frequently implicated. This is because potatoes are a high glycemic index food, meaning that potatoes are rapidly digested to sugar (glucose). One of my patients of Irish heritage had practically lived on potatoes, but now he found he couldn't tolerate them in any form. Post gastric bypass the only thing he longed for was potatoes. I'm Irish, he said, they're in my blood. But time is a great healer, and losing 105 pounds helped, too. He has now adjusted to life without potatoes.

Case study 141 Multistate outbreaks caused by oysters from Louisiana USA

In addition to shellfish, produce, and salads, other foods that have been implicated in viral foodborne outbreaks include desserts, sandwiches and deli meats, foods that are consumed raw, and other minimally processed foods. In general, any food that has been handled manually is at risk for contamination. These ready-to-eat (RTE) foods are the most important cause of foodborne disease. RTEs are discussed in Section 14.4.4. Contamination may occur at any point in the food path from farm to fork.

Making Chocolate 101

Making Chocolate 101

If you love chocolate then you can’t miss this opportunity to... Discover How to Make Homemade Chocolate! Do you love gourmet chocolate? Most people do! Fine chocolates are one of life’s greatest pleasures. Kings and princes have for centuries coveted chocolate. Did you know that chocolate used to be one of the expensive items in the world, almost as precious as gold? It’s true!

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