Patricia A Aren Leilani Feliciano

For many years people over the age of 65 were excluded from psychotherapy research. The assumption that drove this exclusion was that older people are unable to learn new skills, and that mental illness, depression in particular, is a normal consequence of aging. In the early 1980s, this assumption was challenged primarily in research conducted by Drs. Gallagher-Thompson and Thompson, who were able to demonstrate that not only can older people benefit from psychotherapy, but that they can also learn new mood regulation skills, almost as well as younger people (Mackin & Arean, 2005). In addition to this research, emergent neuropsychological research was beginning to show that whereas older people learn differently than younger people, they can in fact learn, and that the brain, and all the accompanying cognitive functions, remains relatively plastic (Knight & Satre, 1999). The mental health field's assumption about aging was further confronted by Epidemiologic Catchment Area study data showing that older people have significantly lower rates of current and lifetime depression than younger cohorts (Koenig & Blazer, 1992).

This new research turned the gerontological field on its head, forcing it to move from a palliative model of mental health to a preventive and action-oriented model of mental health. As a result, psychotherapy research with older adults has become far more advanced. Not only are there more data to show that older adults can benefit from psychotherapies, but also we are more familiar with how these therapies should be adapted to fit the needs of current cohorts of older people (Arean, Hegel, & Reynolds, 2002). Cognitive therapy (CT) in particular has made significant advances in gerontology. In this chapter, we discuss assessment and formulation of late-life depression, data in support of CT in late-life depression, and how CT in older cohorts differs from that in younger cohorts. These issues are illustrated with the case of Mr. Z.

Power Of Positive Thoughts In The Post Modern Age

Power Of Positive Thoughts In The Post Modern Age

The Power Of Positive Thinking In The Post Modern Age Manifest Positive Thoughts In This Fast Pace Age. Positive thinking is an attitude that admits into the brain thoughts, words and pictures that are conductive to development, expansion and success.

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