Patient Health Questionnaire

The 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ; Spitzer, Williams, Kroenke, Hornyak, & McMurray, 2000), known as the PHQ-9, assesses depression symptoms and has been found to be sensitive and selective in detecting depression in older adults. The patient indicates the degree to which he/she has experienced symptoms over the course of 2 weeks, and each item is scored on a Likert scale from 0 to 4. A score of 10 or more is considered the most accurate cutoff for detecting late-life depression (Spitzer et al., 2000). It is highly accurate in tracking change in depression over the course of therapy, which makes it an excellent clinical tool (Lowe, Unutzer, Callahan, Perkins, & Kroenke, 2004).

Positive Thinking As The Key To Success

Positive Thinking As The Key To Success

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