Overt Difficulties

According to Persons's (1989) case formulation model, psychological problems are considered at two levels, the first of which represents a patient's overt difficulties. These problems may take the form of cognitions, behaviors, or moods. Specifically, at the cognitive level, overt difficulties may take the form of negative automatic thoughts, such as "I'm stuckā€”I'll never get this promotion," or other forms, such as images. At the behavioral level, overt difficulties may take the form of nonverbal behaviors (e.g., withdrawal from activities, self-injury, or substance abuse), verbal behaviors (e.g., excessive reassurance seeking, negative feedback-seeking, or suicidal threats), or physiological responses (e.g., agitation, fatigue, or insomnia). Finally, overt difficulties may take the form of negative or unpleasant mood states, such as sadness, fear, or guilt.

Although patients are typically more likely to be aware of and to attend to overt difficulties at the level of distressed mood (J. S. Beck, 1995; Persons, 1989), overt difficulties in one area likely reflect overt difficulties in other areas. For example, depressed mood might be accompanied by negative automatic thoughts, such as "I can't do this," and related problematic behaviors, such as procrastination. Thus, Persons argues that problems in cognitions, behaviors, and mood are synchronous. Following from this notion of synchrony, cognitions, behavior, and mood are also conceptualized as interdependent; that is, it is likely that change in one overt problem area is likely to result in change in the other problem areas. Indeed, this idea forms an important tenet in CT, which is based on the assumption that changes in maladaptive information processing are central to understanding changes in depression (Clark et al., 1999). Furthermore, this hypothesis is supported by research demonstrating that interventions targeted at producing change in one system are also associated with change in other systems (Persons, 1995). For example, in their component analysis of CT for depression, Jacobson and colleagues (1996) found that a strictly behavioral therapy was neverthe less associated with significant changes in dysfunctional attitudes from pre-to posttreatment. Similarly, from pre- to posttreatment, a strictly cognitive intervention was associated with significant changes in behavior, as evidenced by increases in pleasant events.

Exploring EFT

Exploring EFT

EFT stands for Emotional Freedom Technique. It works to free the user of both physical and emotional pain and relieve chronic conditions by healing the physical responses our bodies make after we've been hurt or experienced pain. While some people do not carry the effects of these experiences, others have bodies that hold onto these memories, which affect the way the body works. Because it is a free and fast technique, even if you are not one hundred percent committed to whether it works or not, it is still worth giving it a shot and seeing if there is any improvement.

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