Issues in the Assessment of PDs

The therapists who suspects that a patient has a PD should such corroborating data. Several variables can warrant an invalid self-report of PDs, so that deriving additional information about the patient from informants can be useful. These informants may be individuals close to the patient (perhaps a spouse, partner, family member, etc.) that can either substantiate or deny information derived from the patient. An outside informant's participation in the assessment process enhances the richness of the clinical picture by providing clues not readily seen by the patient or the therapist. For example, DSM-IV-TR requires that a history of conduct disorder be part of the clinical history when assigning a diagnosis of antisocial PD (ASPD; American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 706). Given that lying is one of the criteria for ASPD, why should the clinician believe the patient's report of his/her one adolescent history? The patient may want to impress the therapist with what a tough fellow he was as an adolescent ("Yeah, I was once tough bastard. I ran away 10 times and killed small animals"). Or the patient may want to appear far less chronic ("Me? No. I never had trouble as an adolescent").

The therapist should be familiar with research on the treatment ofPDs. In addition, he/she should have a clear understanding of the nature of PDs and how they affect daily functioning. Furthermore, the therapist must be keenly aware of the mild, moderate, and severe manifestations of the disorders. Last, the therapist must recognize the prevalence of co-occurring disorders and discern between Axis I and Axis II disorders (Freeman, Pretzer, Fleming, & Simon, 2004).

Exploring EFT

Exploring EFT

EFT stands for Emotional Freedom Technique. It works to free the user of both physical and emotional pain and relieve chronic conditions by healing the physical responses our bodies make after we've been hurt or experienced pain. While some people do not carry the effects of these experiences, others have bodies that hold onto these memories, which affect the way the body works. Because it is a free and fast technique, even if you are not one hundred percent committed to whether it works or not, it is still worth giving it a shot and seeing if there is any improvement.

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