Demographic Characteristics

A third factor to consider in developing the case conceptualization concerns demographic characteristics of patients, including age, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. First, there may be demographic differences in the prevalence, expression, and acceptability of different symptoms of depression. For example, cultural variations in the stigma associated with depression and other mental health problems may be important to consider in conceptualizing a depressed individual's view of him/herself. Furthermore, there may be differences across groups in the presentation of depression symptomatology. For example, although the data are somewhat mixed (Salokangas, Vaahtera, Pacriev, Sohlman, & Lehtinen, 2002), there is some evidence that, in comparison to men, women may more frequently endorse somatic symptoms of depression (Silverstein, 1999). Second, there may be demographic differences in the experiences and stressors that precipitate an episode of depression. For example, discrimination might be more common among older; minority; or gay, lesbian, bisexual, or trans-gender individuals. Discrimination may in turn increase the likelihood of someone experiencing depression and other mental health problems (Kessler, Mickelson, & Williams, 1999). Third, because different developmental and historical events may lead people from different demographic groups to develop different expectancies and beliefs about themselves, their world, and their future, these belief systems need to be incorporated within the conceptualization and treatment plan. For example, an older depressed individual may have internalized age stereotypes into her view of herself (e.g., viewing depression as part of the inevitable decline and decrepitude associated with aging) or may be more likely than younger individuals to believe that depression is a sign of weakness, either of which could keep her from engaging in stimulating and reinforcing activities; such beliefs may need to be addressed before the person is able to make other life changes that would help to reduce his/her depression (Laidlaw, Thompson, & Gallagher-Thompson, 2004).

Exploring EFT

Exploring EFT

EFT stands for Emotional Freedom Technique. It works to free the user of both physical and emotional pain and relieve chronic conditions by healing the physical responses our bodies make after we've been hurt or experienced pain. While some people do not carry the effects of these experiences, others have bodies that hold onto these memories, which affect the way the body works. Because it is a free and fast technique, even if you are not one hundred percent committed to whether it works or not, it is still worth giving it a shot and seeing if there is any improvement.

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