Conclusions

CT has considerable potential as a treatment for depression and related problems in patients with chronic medical illnesses. For most illnesses, however, there is not yet enough evidence from rigorous clinical trials to claim that CT is a safe and efficacious treatment for comorbid depression. It will take years to amass the evidence needed to determine whether CT can truly be called an empirically supported therapy for comorbid depression in patients with chronic medical conditions. For now, clinicians who seek evidence to support the use of CT with medically ill patients have relatively little to draw upon except for ENRICHD, a handful of small comorbid depression trials in various medical populations, and CT trials conducted in generally healthy but depressed patient populations, such as the recent trial by DeRubeis et al. (2005). Several relevant studies are currently in progress, and there is good reason to hope that a number of high-quality trials will be published over the next decade.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

We wish to thank Iris Csik, MSW, LCSW, for her comments and suggestions.

REFERENCES

American Heart Association. (2004). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2005 update.

Dallas, TX: American Heart Association. Anderson, R. J., Freedland, K. E., Clouse, R. E., & Lustman, P.J. (2001). The prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with diabetes: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care, 24, 1069-1078. Bankier, B., Januzzi, J. L., & Littman, A. B. (2004). The high prevalence of multiple psychiatric disorders in stable outpatients with coronary heart disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 645-650. Bastien, C. H., Morin, C. M., Ouellet, M. C., Blais, F. C., & Bouchard, S. (2004). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia: Comparison of individual therapy, group therapy, and telephone consultations. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 653-659. Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression.

New York: Guilford Press. Berkman, L. F., Blumenthal, J., Burg, M., Carney, R. M., Catellier, D., Cowan, M. J., et al. (2003). Effects of treating depression and low perceived social support on clinical events after myocardial infarction: The Enhancing Recovery in Coro nary Heart Disease Patients (ENRICHD) randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 3106—3116.

Blumenthal, J. A., Babyak, M. A., Keefe, F J., Davis, R. D., Lacaille, R. A., Carney, R. M., et al. (2006). Telephone-based coping skills training for patients awaiting lung transplantation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 535—544.

Burns, D. D. (1980). Feeling good: The new mood therapy (1st ed.). New York: Morrow.

Carney, R. M., Freedland, K. E., Stein, P. K., Skala, J. A., Hoffman, P, & Jaffe, A. S. (2000). Change in heart rate and heart rate variability during treatment for depression in patients with coronary heart disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62, 639-647.

Carney, R. M., Rich, M. W, Freedland, K. E., Saini,J., teVelde, A., Simeone, C., et al. (1988). Major depressive disorder predicts cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 50, 627-633.

Cole, M. G., & Dendukuri, N. (2003). Risk factors for depression among elderly community subjects: A systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1147-1156.

Connerney, I., Shapiro, P. A., McLaughlin, J. S., Bagiella, E., & Sloan, R. P. (2001). Relation between depression after coronary artery bypass surgery and 12-month outcome: A prospective study. Lancet, 358, 1766-1771.

Davidson, K. W, Kupfer, D.J.,Bigger,J. T., Califf, R. M., Carney, R. M., Coyne,J. C., et al. (2006). Assessment and treatment of depression in patients with cardiovascular disease: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group Report. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68, 645-650.

Day, R. C., Freedland, K. E., & Carney, R. M. (2005). Effects of anxiety and depression on heart disease attributions. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 12, 24-29.

DeGroot, M., Anderson, R., Freedland, K. E., Clouse, R. E., & Lustman, P.J. (2001). Association of depression and diabetes complications: A meta-analysis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 619-630.

DeRubeis, R. J., Hollon, S. D., Amsterdam, J. D., Shelton, R. C., Young, P R., Salomon, R. M., et al. (2005). Cognitive therapy vs medications in the treatment of moderate to severe depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 409416.

ENRICHD Investigators. (2001). Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) study intervention: Rationale and design. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 747-755.

Evans, D. L., Charney, D. S., Lewis, L., Golden, R. N., Gorman, J. M., Krishnan, K. R., et al. (2005). Mood disorders in the medically ill: Scientific review and recommendations. Biological Psychiatry, 58, 175-189.

Frasure-Smith, N., Lesperance, F, & Talajic, M. (1993). Depression following myocardial infarction: Impact on 6-month survival. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270, 1819-1825.

Freedland, K. E. (2005). Heart disease attributions: introduction to the miniseries. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 12, 21-23.

Freedland, K. E., Carney, R. M., Lustman, P. J., Rich, M. W, & Jaffe, A. S. (1992). Major depression in coronary artery disease patients with vs. without a prior history of depression. Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 416—421.

Freedland, K. E., Carney, R. M., Rich, M. W, Caracciolo, A., Krotenberg, J. A., Smith, L. J., et al. (1991). Depression in elderly patients with congestive heart failure. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24, 59—71.

Freedland, K. E., Rich, M. W, Skala, J. A., Carney, R. M., Davila-Roman, V G., & Jaffe, A. S. (2003). Prevalence of depression in hospitalized patients with congestive heart failure. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 119—128.

Freedland, K. E., Skala, J. A., Carney, R. M., Raczynski, J. M., Taylor, C. B., Mendes de Leon, C. F, et al. (2002). The Depression Interview and Structured Hamilton (DISH): Rationale, development, characteristics, and clinical validity. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 897—905.

Furze, G., Bull, P., Lewin, R. J., & Thompson, D. R. (2003). Development of the York Angina Beliefs Questionnaire. Journal of Health Psychology, 8, 307—315.

Given, C., Given, B., Rahbar, M., Jeon, S., McCorkle, R., Cimprich, B., et al. (2004). Does a symptom management intervention affect depression among cancer patients?: Results from a clinical trial. Psycho-Oncology, 13, 818—830.

Goodwin, R. D. (2003). Association between physical activity and mental disorders among adults in the United States. Preventive Medicine, 36, 698—703.

Herrmann, C., Brand-Driehorst, S., Kaminsky, B., Leibing, E., Staats, H., & Ruger, U. (1998). Diagnostic groups and depressed mood as predictors of 22-month mortality in medical inpatients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 60, 570—577.

Kales, H. C., Maixner, D. F., & Mellow, A. M. (2005). Cerebrovascular disease and late-life depression. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13, 88—98.

Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Koretz, D., Merikangas, K. R., et al. (2003). The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 3095-3105.

Krishnan, K. R., Hays, J. C., & Blazer, D. G. (1997). MRI-defined vascular depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 497-501.

Larson, S. L., Owens, P. L., Ford, D., & Eaton, W (2001). Depressive disorder, dysthymia, and risk of stroke: Thirteen-year follow-up from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. Stroke, 32, 1979-1983.

Lewin, R. J., Furze, G., Robinson, J., Griffith, K., Wiseman, S., Pye, M., et al. (2002). A randomised controlled trial of a self-management plan for patients with newly diagnosed angina. British Journal of General Practice, 52, 194-201.

Lincoln, N. B., & Flannaghan, T. (2003). Cognitive behavioral psychotherapy for depression following stroke: A randomized controlled trial. Stroke, 34, 111115.

Lustman, P. J., Anderson, R. J., Freedland, K. E., de Groot, M., Carney, R. M., & Clouse, R. E. (2000). Depression and poor glycemic control: A meta-analytic review of the literature. Diabetes Care, 23, 934-942.

Lustman, P. J., Freedland, K. E., Griffith, L. S., & Clouse, R. E. (1998a). Predicting response to cognitive behavior therapy of depression in type 2 diabetes. General Hospital Psychiatry, 20, 302—306.

Lustman, P. J., Griffith, L. S., Freedland, K. E., Kissel, S. S., & Clouse, R. E. (1998b). Cognitive behavior therapy for depression in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 129, 613—621.

Massie, M.J. (2004). Prevalence of depression in patients with cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monographs, 32, 57—71.

Mohr, D. C., Boudewyn, A. C., Goodkin, D. E., Bostrom, A., & Epstein, L. (2001). Comparative outcomes for individual cognitive-behavior therapy, supportive-expressive group psychotherapy, and sertraline for the treatment of depression in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 942—949.

Mohr, D. C., Likosky, W, Bertagnolli, A., Goodkin, D. E., Van Der, W. J., Dwyer, P., et al. (2000). Telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of depressive symptoms in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 356—361.

Parker,J. C., Smarr, K. L., Slaughter,J. R.,Johnston, S. K., Priesmeyer, M. L., Hanson, K. D., et al. (2003). Management of depression in rheumatoid arthritis: A combined pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioral approach. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 49, 766-777.

Penninx, B. W., Guralnik,J. M., Pahor, M., Ferrucci, L., Cerhan,J. R., Wallace, R. B., et al. (1998). Chronically depressed mood and cancer risk in older persons. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 90, 1888-1893.

Rudisch, B., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2003). Epidemiology of comorbid coronary artery disease and depression. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 227-240.

Sharpe, L., Sensky, T., Timberlake, N., Ryan, B., Brewin, C. R., & Allard, S. (2001). A blind, randomized, controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural intervention for patients with recent onset rheumatoid arthritis: Preventing psychological and physical morbidity. Pain, 89, 275-283.

Simon, G. E., Ludman, E. J., Tutty, S., Operskalski, B., & Von, K. M. (2004). Telephone psychotherapy and telephone care management for primary care patients starting antidepressant treatment: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 292, 935-942.

Skala, J. A., Freedland, K. E., & Carney, R. M. (2005). Heart disease. Ashland, OH: Hogrefe.

Spertus, J. A., McDonell, M., Woodman, C. L., & Fihn, S. D. (2000). Association between depression and worse disease-specific functional status in outpatients with coronary artery disease. American Heart Journal, 140, 105-110.

Stewart, A. L., Greenfield, S., Hays, R. D., Wells, K., Rogers, W H., Berry, S. D., et al. (1989). Functional status and well-being of patients with chronic conditions: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 262, 907-913.

Sullivan, M. D., LaCroix, A. Z., Russo, J. E., & Walker, E. A. (2001). Depression and self-reported physical health in patients with coronary disease: Mediating and moderating factors. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 248-256.

Trask, P. C., Paterson, A. G., Griffith, K. A., Riba, M. B., & Schwartz, J. L. (2003). Cognitive-behavioral intervention for distress in patients with melanoma: Comparison with standard medical care and impact on quality of life. Cancer, 98, 854-864.

Weinman, J. A., Petrie, K. J., Moss-Morris, R., & Horne, R. (1996). The Illness Perception Questionnaire: A new method for assessing the cognitive representation of illness. Psychology and Health, 11, 114-129.

Weisman, A. N., & Beck, A. T. (1978, November). Development and validation of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale: A preliminary investigation. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Chicago, IL.

Wells, K. B., Golding, J. M., & Burnam, M. A. (1988). Psychiatric disorder in a sample of the general population with and without chronic medical conditions. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 976-981.

Whyte, E. M., & Mulsant, B. H. (2002). Post stroke depression: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and biological treatment. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 253-264.

Arthritis Joint Pain

Arthritis Joint Pain

Arthritis is a general term which is commonly associated with a number of painful conditions affecting the joints and bones. The term arthritis literally translates to joint inflammation.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment