Conclusions

BPD co-occurs quite commonly with depressive disorders. We reviewed several proposed explanations for this co-occurrence and concluded that several mechanisms might be operative. The presence of BPD usually complicates the treatment of depressive disorders with CT, as well as other treatments, and is associated with a poorer long-term outcome of depression. Understanding the mechanisms that maintain the pattern of behaviors referred to as BPD and focusing treatment strategies on those mechanisms are essential for a good clinical outcome. Several theoretical constructs from the CT model, including specific dysfunctional attitudes and beliefs, cognitive processing styles, and information-processing biases, have been shown to be associated with BPD. We also described the biosocial theory of BPD, which is a foundation of DBT though space has precluded discussion of emerging supportive evidence regarding emotional sensitivity and experiences of invalidation. We have discussed several self-report questionnaires that screen for and assess features of BPD, adaptations of standard CT specific for BPD, and some principal features of the DBT model and how they might be integrated into CT. Emerging evidence that indicates DBT, and possibly CT, have efficacy in greatly decreasing the severity of several problems associated with BPD, including depression. We have illustrated the use of these principles and strategies in a case example.

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