Assessment

Although the focus of this chapter is on basic elements of the treatment of depression using CT, treatment invariably begins with an assessment process. The amount of information included in the assessment, its breadth and complexity, and its duration are determined by a number of factors, but the general features of the assessment plan include a diagnostic evaluation, measurement of the severity of problems, the development of a problem list, evaluation of the history of problems and past efforts to ameliorate these problems, consideration of patient strengths and resources, and assessment of other aspects of functioning that may be critical to develop a case formulation for the patient.

A large number of assessment tools exist for patients who present with a primary problem of depression. Dozois and Dobson (2002) provide an introduction to assessment of depression and the integration of assessment information into case formulation and planning (see also Whisman & Weinstock, Chapter 2, this volume). Another excellent resource is the book by Nezu, Ronan, Meadows, and McClure (2000), which provides a summary of major empirically based measures of depression. Clinicians who work in the general domain need to be conversant with the symptoms of depression and how these might be expressed in various cultural groups or specific populations. In addition, because depression often presents coinci-dentally with other conditions (e.g., anxiety disorders, substance use, personality disorders, suicide), the clinician who works in this domain should also know how to conduct assessments in these related areas and be ready to intervene or to refer, as appropriate.

Free Yourself from Panic Attacks

Free Yourself from Panic Attacks

With all the stresses and strains of modern living, panic attacks are become a common problem for many people. Panic attacks occur when the pressure we are living under starts to creep up and overwhelm us. Often it's a result of running on the treadmill of life and forgetting to watch the signs and symptoms of the effects of excessive stress on our bodies. Thankfully panic attacks are very treatable. Often it is just a matter of learning to recognize the symptoms and learn simple but effective techniques that help you release yourself from the crippling effects a panic attack can bring.

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