This group represents those materials that have separate etching, priming and adhesive steps. It just so happens that this group of materials is also the oldest. However, they are still widely used and have been shown to provide reliable bonding. The greatest problem with this group would seem to be that three distinct steps are needed, which gives rise to possible problems through contamination of the bonded surface prior to placement of the resin composite filling material; in other words, they are more technique sensitive [47, 79].
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