The indirect effect of anticariogenic substances on body except for tooth

The test substance might have multiple functions apart from anticariogenic effects. Test substances such as ELM, ES and Alg53, which have been used in our experiments, have inhibitory effect on a-glucosidase. Therefore, if experimental animals are given an a-glucosidase inhibitor and sucrose, the latter is not digested by intestinal disaccharidases and reaches the large intestine, where it is fermented by microbiota. These intestinal microbiota produce short-chain fatty acids, CO2, NH4 and H2 (Oku, 2005). This action is similar to that of prebiotics such as non-digestible oligosaccharides and sugar alcohols ingested orally. These short-chain fatty acids are energy sources for the host and improve intestinal microflora. In this way, sucrose (the digestion of which in the small intestine is inhibited by a-glucosidase) provides many beneficial effects. However, if a large amount of sucrose and a-glucosidase are ingested simultaneously, transient diarrhea is caused because of an increase in osmotic pressure in the large intestine. This mechanism is thought to identical to that of lactose intolerance.

When a diet containing ELM or ES is added to Diet #2000 and given to rats, most of the rats suffer osmotic diarrhea during the experimental period and growth is slightly suppressed. ELM and ES strongly inhibit sucrase activity. Hence, a lot of sucrose of Diet #2000 is transferred to the lower intestine and may cause osmotic diarrhea. Osmotic diarrhea may reduce the immune response, and disturb anticariogenic effect of phytochemicals in experimental animals. If experimental animals catch illness except for dental caries during the experiment, the risk of dental caries infection may increase. Therefore, the properties and functional effects of test substance apart from anticariogenic effects need to be examined, and the concentration and form of test substance added to diets should be investigated carefully before carrying out animal experiments.

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