From a population of 2,296 patients treated in the graduate orthodontic clinic at the University of Michigan School of Dentistry (UMSD) between 1997 and 2004, 350 patient records were selected randomly using a random number sequence. Inclusion criteria for record selection consisted of patients who:
1. Underwent comprehensive orthodontic treatment utilizing full fixed appliances on labial tooth surfaces;
2. Had complete initial and final series of intraoral photographs; and
3. Had complete treatment log information within their chart.
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