Potential of phytochemicals as anticariogenic materials

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The main finding of this study is that three phytochemicals, partially decomposed alginate by SUN53 (Alg53), the extractive from the leaves of Morus alba (ELM) and the extractive from Salacia chinencis (ES), have inhibitory effects on glucan synthesis by GTase. It may become a key point that certain phytochemicals have inhibitory effects on a-glucosidase when we screen natural materials which inhibit Gtase activity. However, the degree of inhibitory effect is not always similar for sucrase and GTase. The inhibitory effect of ELM and ES on sucrase was very strong. The inhibitory constant (Ki) of ELM and ES for sucrase was 2.1x10-4 mM and 6.7x10-4 mM, respectively (Oku et al, 2006).

A: Right after incubation B: After washing

ELM, extractive from the leaves of Morus alba; ES, extractive from Salacia chinensis Reaction mixture [cell solution, 0.5 mL; 2% sucrose (final concentration, 1%) in BHI, 0.8 mL; test substance 0.3 mL] incubated at 20° for 24 h at 37°C. In the blank, distilled water was added instead of sucrose. In the negative control, distilled water was added instead of test substance (Hashiguchi et al, 2011).

A: Right after incubation B: After washing

ELM, extractive from the leaves of Morus alba; ES, extractive from Salacia chinensis Reaction mixture [cell solution, 0.5 mL; 2% sucrose (final concentration, 1%) in BHI, 0.8 mL; test substance 0.3 mL] incubated at 20° for 24 h at 37°C. In the blank, distilled water was added instead of sucrose. In the negative control, distilled water was added instead of test substance (Hashiguchi et al, 2011).

Fig. 8. Adhesion of S. sobrinus 6715 and glucan on smooth surfaces of glass after incubation with sucrose

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21

IIUH

Control

Oolong

Fig. 9. Inhibitory effects of the extractive from the leaves of Morus alba and Salacia chinensis on the adhesion of S. sobrinus 6715 and glucan (Hashiguchi et al, 2011)

In addition, Alg53 suppressed pH decline by the production of organic acids from glucose, whereas ELM and ES could not suppress pH decline as well as oolong. For the prevention of dental caries, Alg53 may be useful as a functional food that has two types of inhibitory effects on the synthesis of glucan by GTase and acid production. Alternative sweeteners for sucrose, such as sugar alcohols and oligosaccharides, are not used as substrates for acid production by mutans streptococci, so pH decline does not occur. However, alternative sweeteners cannot inhibit the production of organic acids from sugars. Therefore, we recommend that ELM and ES are used in a combination of sugar alcohols or oligosaccharides to prevent dental caries.

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