Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) is yet another method of assessing enamel demineralization. This technique accelerates and simplifies the measuring of mineral loss. The enamel specimens are sectioned in half, stained with fluorescent dye, and analyzed using a CLSM system (Fontana et al., 1996). The major advantage of this method is that it enables quantitative analysis of thick samples without the problems of thin section preparation required for microradiography or polarized light microscopy. Essentially, CLSM allows a subsurface examination since the scattered, reflected, and fluorescent light from planes out of focus is eliminated - providing a subsurface image only from a thin layer upon which it is focused. This processed digital image can be used to determine surface features, area and volume analysis of given structures, and views of the total structure from any angle in three dimensions. In terms of efficacy, a statistically significant high correlation was found between mineral changes measured using microradiography and the changes in lesion parameters analyzed by confocal microscopy (González-Cabezas et al., 1998)
With all the treatment modalities flooding the marketplace, the orthodontist might find it difficult to sort out what works best and why when oral hygiene deteriorates. The objectives of this chapter are to highlight the results of two recent studies that investigated:
1. The incidence of new WSLs before and after orthodontic treatment using photographic records; and
2. The potential of ACP-containing resin cement and other treatments (fluoride varnish, resin sealer, MI Paste) to prevent incipient caries lesions next to bracketed teeth.
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