Chitosan, an abundant natural polymer, is obtained by alkaline N-deacetylation of chitin. Chitosan being a binding agent, bio-adhesive, bio-compatible, bio-degradable, and non-toxic polymer also possessing medicinal activities, such as antifungal, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, anticancer, antiplaque, ant tartar, hemostatic, wound healing, and potentiates anti-inflammatory response, inhibits the growth of cariogenic bacteria, immunopotentiation, antihypertensive, serum cholesterol lowering, increases salivary secretion (anti-xerostomia), and helps in the formation of bone substitute materials. The adherence of oral bacteria on the tooth surface leads to plaque formation. It is believed that the adhesion between the bacteria and the tooth surface is due to electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. These interactions are disrupted by chitosan derivatives because of competition by the positively charged amine group. The antibacterial activity of chitosan could be due to the electrostatic interactions between the amine groups of chitosan and the anionic sites on bacterial cell wall because of the presence of carboxylic acid residues and phospholipids. Use of most of the currently used gelling agents, such as tragacanth, Irish moss, and sodium alginate mucilage, in the toothpaste was limited only to their gelling capacity and also require antimicrobial preservatives due to their carbohydrate nature, whereas chitosan being a good gelling agent, does not require any preservatives as chitosan possess antimicrobial activities. Chitosan nanoparticles have found as drug carriers. In a study was evaluated anti-plaque activity a chitosan-based poly herbal toothpaste. The toothpaste significantly reduced the plaque index by 70.47% and bacterial count by 85.29%(34). (Mohire & Yadav 2010).
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