Dental programs in Mexico

In Mexico, a school-based caries preventive program was established in the 1970's in the State of Mexico it was a pioneer program, and later in 1988 the program of salt fluoridation was implemented for the first time as a pilot program in the state. The program was carried out with technical support from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and financial from W.K. Kellogg. Then, the salt fluoridation program is positioned as a nationwide policy in 1992. Because in the country there are...

Effects of topical fluoride agents on enamel surface in cooperation with bleaching agents

Considering enamel abrasion, the calcium phosphate precipitation from saliva results in hardening of porous enamel which gradually may return to its initial situation if the process continues. The amount of the fluoride in the tooth's surface is also an important factor for the changes that could occur after the bleaching process. It has been shown that fluoride has the potential to inhibit demineralization which means that less surface changes would occur. To avoid these unfavorable effects of...

Feeding pattern in children with ECC

The relationship between sugar consumption and dental caries is one of cause and effect. The evidence to support such a relationship is generally considered overwhelming (Burt, 1986). Epidemiological studies have shown that caries prevalence was highest among children who ingested a diet high in sugar (Sheiham, 1991). Surveys have also shown that high consumption of cariogenic drinks and foods at bed time by pre-school children is an important factor in risk of caries (Palmer, 1971). Holt's...

Qualitative lightinduced fluorescence QLF

Qualitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) is used for the detection and quantification of early-stage caries (Pretty, 2006 McComb & Tam, 2001) and for monitoring demineralization or remineralization of smooth surface lesions (Verdonschot & van der Veen, 2002 Heinrich-Weltzien et al., 2005). The tooth is illuminated by the diffuse blue-green light beam of an argon laser at a wavelength of 488 nm (Tran us et al., 2005 McComb & Tam, 2001). It can also be illuminated by a xenon...

Caries and lifestyle

3.1 Dietary changes and the raise of caries experience in past human societies In fact, the history of dental caries is associated with the rise of civilization, and more recently with dietary changes that occurred since the Mercantilism and Industrial Revolution. Several archaeological and historical works have confirmed the relationship between high caries frequencies and prevalences and the increase of carbohydrates intake in human populations from the advent of agriculture6 (Larsen, 1997...

Clinical and histological aspects of caries lesions on occlusal approximal and smooth surfaces

The occlusal surface is characterized by the pit and fissure systems, a favorable biofilm stagnation area where the bacterial accumulations receive the best protection against functional mechanical wear (mastication, attrition, abrasion from brushing, flossing or toothpicks). Those aspects contribute to the high prevalence of caries on occlusal surfaces both in the primary and permanent dentition (Kidd & Fejerskov, 2004). The complex anatomy of the occlusal surfaces requires professional...

Discussion

Three main topics will be discussed in this last part. The first one deals with the assets and the drawbacks of archaeological collections in a study of dental health. The second develops the influence of socioeconomic status on dental mineralization. And finally, we will discuss the differential enamel susceptibility to be affected from defects and lesions. 5.1 Archaeological collections assets and drawbacks in the study of socioeconomic influence on dental health There are many studies on the...

Conclusions of the diagnostic tests

Modern dental practice needs diagnostic methods to diagnose caries in the early stages of the disease, and research efforts must focus on satisfying this need. The traditional diagnostic techniques offer high specificity, but with the possibility of false-negative results due to dentin caries. Laser fluorescence (LF) shows high sensitivity, and is able to identify hidden dentin caries in situations where visual inspection (VI) and X-rays are unable to detect the lesions. However, because of its...

Aim and requirements for sealing materials

- mechanical closure of anatomical fissures, crevices and pits on masticatory surfaces of lateral teeth, upper distal-lingual fissures, buccal surfaces of inferior teeth and blind pits in incisors, - sealing of intercusp fissures from penetration of oral fluids, microorganisms and their substrates which start carious process, - obtaining mechanical microretention of sealing materials, - obtaining clinical efficacy in caries reduction on occlusal surfaces. - appropriate period of activity, fast...

The indirect effect of anticariogenic substances on body except for tooth

The test substance might have multiple functions apart from anticariogenic effects. Test substances such as ELM, ES and Alg53, which have been used in our experiments, have inhibitory effect on a-glucosidase. Therefore, if experimental animals are given an a-glucosidase inhibitor and sucrose, the latter is not digested by intestinal disaccharidases and reaches the large intestine, where it is fermented by microbiota. These intestinal microbiota produce short-chain fatty acids, CO2, NH4 and H2...

The relevance of microleakage to secondary caries

Microleakage refers to the clinically undetectable leakage between the cavity wall and the filling Kidd, 1976 . Irie et al. found that a gap of 6-10 m formed immediately even after applying an acid etch and a bonding agent Irie et al., 2002 . Iwami et al. have confirmed that any restorative material can completely eliminate the microleakage between restoration and the cavity wall Iwami et al., 2005 , supported by other researches Irie and Suzuki, 1999 Huang et al., 2002 Piwowarczyk et al, 2005...

Adhesion to caries affected dentine

Carious lesions have different characteristics depending on diverse factors such as host, diet, period of time and injury severity. Controversial results can be observed in the literature of adhesion to caries-affected dentine. While some studies claim that the bond strength obtained in caries affected dentine is similar to the attained in sound tissue (Mobarak et al., 2010 Zanchi et al., 2011 Zawaideh et al., 2011), other researchers detected lower bond strength when adhesives were applied on...

Statistical models for intraoral caries data

Although many dental studies provide detailed tooth-level data on caries activity, most analyses still rely on aggregated scores such as the DMF index. These scores summarize at mouth level caries information for each individual typically recorded at the tooth level or tooth-surface level. They have therefore been instrumental in evaluating and comparing the risks for dental caries among population groups. Despite these advances in the etiology of dental caries, there are still some fundamental...

Prevention and treatment of secondary caries 41 Prevention of secondary caries

As secondary caries is one of the major reasons for restoration replacement, a large number of clinical dentists and scientists have placed great emphasis on preventing or slowing down the procession of secondary caries lesion from many aspects, so as to increase clinical restoration durability. Secondary caries, the same as other types of dental caries, is determined by the dynamic balance between pathological factors that lead to demineralization and protective factors that lead to...

Caries

The most common causes of the tooth lost are caries and periodontal disease, following a tooth fracture (Jacobsen, 2008). Data suggests that in most industrialized countries 60-90 of school aged children and almost 100 of adult population are affected by tooth decay (Petersen et al., 2005), with the prevalence, which is more higher in female than male (Lukacs & Largaespada, 2006 Ferraro & Vieira, 2010). Tooth decay or dental caries is defined as chronic, multifactoral disease...

References

Ten Cate, J.M, Angmar-Mansson, B. De Josselin de Jong, E. Sundstrom, G. Exterkate, R.A. & Oliveby, A. (1997). Quantification of formation and remineralization of artificial enamel lesions with a new portable fluorescence device. Advances in Dental Research, Vol.11, No.4, (November), pp. 502-506, ISSN 0895-9374 Araujo, F.B. Araujo, D.R. Santos, C.K. & Souza, M.A. (1996). Diagnosis of approximal caries in primary teeth radiographic versus clinical examination using tooth...

Clinical considerations and management of MIH 51 Dentinopulpal complex considerations and MIH

Patients with MIH affected teeth suffer from dentine sensitivity once often report exacerbated sensitivity to a variety of normally innocuous thermal, mechanical and osmo-chemical stimuli (Jalevik & Klingberg, 2002) due to the presence of porous enamel and sometimes, the exposed dentine. Based on the immunocytochemical findings in hypomineralised permanent first molars, changes in pulpal innervation, vascularity, and immune cell accumulation were indicative of an inflammatory response.(Rodd...

The specific diagnostic problem and the diagnostic methods

As it was described above, while secondary caries accounts for more than half of replacing restorations regardless of the different materials in the general practice, around 50 percent, this high prevalence is not found in one controlled clinical trial in which only 2 among 2660 Class I or II restorations were replaced due to secondary caries Letzel et al., 1989 . On the contrary, in another randomized controlled clinical trial 66.7 and 87.6 of the failures that occurred in amalgam and...

Factors impacting effective sealing

Efficacy of sealing procedure is determined by retention of sealant and obtained caries reduction. Factors impacting retention of sealing materials are - condition of tooth surface before sealing, - degree of tooth eruption (and probably the time of tooth exposure to oral environment before sealing), - anatomical features characteristic for an anatomical group, - individual susceptibility to caries, - precision of sealing procedure. Varied morphology of fissures in lateral teeth makes...

Morphology and microflora of intercusp fissures in teeth

Fissures on masticatory surfaces of lateral teeth are created during development of cusps in odontogenesis, which begins in the first weeks of fetal life with formation of deciduous tooth buds, and terminates about the age of 12 years, or 15-18 years with wisdom teeth. If some disturbances occur in the process of odontogenesis, they cause anomalies within forming dentine or enamel. During early dentinogenesis, insufficient supply of whole protein, amino acids and vitamins or introduction of...

Particularities of the orthodontic treatment

Malocclusion is the third place in the oral diseases, the occurrence of occlusal anomalies varies between 11 al 93 the complications that it brings could be psychological derived from the alteration of the dentofacial aesthetics oral function problems, including difficulties in the mobility of the jaw, pain or disorders in the temporomandibular joint and problems to chew, to swallow or to speak and finally, problems of major susceptibility to traumatism, periodontal diseases or dental decay...

Salvadora Persica

The Salvadora Persica tree drives its Persian name, Darakht-e-Miswak or tooth brush tree. South of Iran, next to Persian Gulf, is the main growing area of this plant. This plant belongs to the Salvadoraceae family, a crowded evergreen shrub that has a soft inclined to a white wood. Since the brushes made of its wood strengthen the gums, it has been called Miswak tree (Meswak tree) in traditional medicine (Poureslami 2007). Chemical compounds such as sodium chloride, calcium oxalate, silica,...

Clinical management of MIH

In accordance with the European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry until now there are only a limited number of evidence based research papers on MIH affected teeth. (Lygidakis et al., 2010) Because of this, the guidelines diagram according to Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) methodology (SIGN, 1999) is impossible to be made. However, treatment modalities in children with teeth affected by MIH were systematically reviewed by LYGIDAKIS, 2010. (Lygidakis, 2010) Thus, the clinical...

DMFS index

The DMFT index was developed by Klein, Palmer and Knutson during a study of the dental condition and the need of children's treatment in elementary schools in Hagerstown, Maryland, USA, in 1935. It has been the most important index in the dental researches to quantify the prevalence of tooth decay (Katz et.al., 1997). The caries experience (past and present) indicates the teeth damages and treatments received before by the count of teeth decays or natural history of the dental caries, which it...

Dental plaque biofilm management

For therapeutic purposes, it is necessary to attack the formed biofilm. For prophylactic purposes, it seems reasonable to target processes involved in the actual biofilm formation of single- or mixed-bacterial communities that have the potential to cause or support disease, without disturbing the balance of the normal flora. It is known that the mature oral biofilm is the result of a well regulated series of processes, which begins by adhesion of planktonic cells to the surfaces and could...

Direct composite restorative materials

A generalized definition of a composite is a multiphase material that exhibits the properties of both phases where the phases are complimentary, resulting in a material with enhanced properties. The first tooth-colored composite was silicate cement, which was introduced in 1870s. This composite formulation was based on alumino-fluro-silicate glasses and phosphoric acid. The dispersed phase was residual glass particles, and the matrix phase was the aluminum phosphate salt formed from the partial...

Summary and conclusion

Good nutrition is essential for good physical health. Nutrition also plays a key role in the development and maintenance of a healthy mouth, especially the teeth and gums. The food we eat affects our teeth both before and after their eruption into the mouth. The relation of dental caries and periodontal diseases to the type and frequency of diet and to intake nutritional elements is well-known. At the same time, the health or lack of health of our teeth and gums can affect what we eat. Missing...

Healthy eating habits in preschool children

Good preschool eating patterns are important because they influence both energy and nutrient intake, and dental health. An optimum eating pattern would be regular meals and nutritious, low fat, low sugar snacks. Young children have small appetites but large nutrient needs relative to their body size, therefore regular refueling is required. An eating pattern based on distinct meals is generally beneficial and also promotes dental health. Dental caries is prevalent in preschool children and it...

Demineralization protocol

Teeth were exposed to a pH cycling system to develop caries-like lesions. Each day teeth were incubated in demineralization solution (lactic acid and Carbopol pH 5.0 , 50 saturated with hydroxyapatite) for eight hours, rinsed with de-ionized water and placed in artificial saliva for 30 minutes, followed by two seconds of brushing with a powerbrush (Sonicare, Philips) and fluoridated dentifrice (NaF, 1,100 ppm F), rinsed again and placed back in artificial saliva until next demineralization...

Conclusion For Dental Caries

According to 1999-2004 survey in the United States, the mean dfs for children 2-8 years was 3.7, although for 6-11 years of age was 4.30 and 1.84 for dft. The same study reported 51.17 caries prevalence in primary dentition for 6-11 years old children. However, caries experience for permanent teeth was 21 while DFS index was 0.65. Additionally, a prevalence of 10.16 , 0.19 DFT and 0.29 DFS were reported in children from 6 to 8 years old (Dye, et al., 2010 National Institute of Dental and...

Communication microbial biofilms Quorum sensing mechanisms

In the dental biofilm bacteria do not exist as independent entities, but as a coordinated and metabolically integrated microbial community (Marsh & Bowden, 2000). This interaction provides enormous benefits to the participating organizations compared to the same bacteria grown in planctonic form, including a wider range of habitat for growth, increased diversity, increased metabolic efficiency and greater resistance to environment, antimicrobial agents and host defenses (Shapiro, 1998 Marsh...

Effects of Elm Es Alg53 and oolong on glucan production by GTase from S sobrinus 6715 and S mutans MT8148

Oolong has been used as a functional food to prevent dental caries. Oolong was therefore used to compare the inhibitory effects of other phytochemicals on glucan production by GTase. The inhibitory effect of phytochemicals on water-insoluble glucan synthesis by GTase from S.sobrinus 6715 is illustrated in Fig. 6A. The original ELM solution reduced the production of water-insoluble glucan to 66 of that of the control (ELM-free). ES also significantly reduced the synthesis of water-insoluble...

Conventional Xrays Rx

Clinical inspection is completed by radiological evaluation. Bitewing X-rays represent the technique of choice for diagnosing proximal surface caries, though they may also be useful for diagnosing occlusal dentin caries (Tran us et al., 2005 Wenzel et al., 1992). At occlusal level, the X-rays register a tooth thickness beyond the proximal zone, and the lesions are masked by the healthy tissues for a longer period of time (Wenzel et al., 1992). For this reason, from the histological perspective,...

Fiberoptic transillumination FOTI and digital imaging fiberoptic transillumination DIFOTI

Steve Foti

Fiber-optic transillumination (FOTI) and digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination (DIFOTI) have been introduced to improve early detection of carious surfaces and have been accepted by clinicians as a supplementary tool during clinical examinations. FOTI (Figure 10) device is a practical, easy, fast and inexpensive method of imaging teeth in the presence of multiple scattering. It is based on the changes in the scattering and absorption phenomenon of light photons that increases the...

Fluoride varnish

Preventive measures that do not require patient compliance would seem to make more sense for the typical orthodontic patient population of adolescents. For some patients, professional fluoride varnish application by orthodontic auxiliaries at routine appointments can in part address this compliance issue (Vivaldi-Rodrigues et al., 2006). On the other hand, each application requires over five minutes of chair-time, and whether or not today's high efficiency high volume orthodontic practice will...

Contemporary Approach To Dental Caries

Contemporary Approach to Dental Caries Janeza Trdine 9, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia All chapters are Open Access distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license, which allows users to download, copy and build upon published articles even for commercial purposes, as long as the author and publisher are properly credited, which ensures maximum dissemination and a wider impact of our publications. After this work has been published by InTech, authors have the right to republish it, in...

Dental biofilm Dynamics of biofilm formation

General microbial biofilms are defined as communities of microbes associated with any surface (Costerton et al., 1994). In dentistry the surface can be any tooth tissue (enamel, dentin), dental material or any other surface located in the oral cavity. This microbial complex system, also known as 'dental plaque is organized as bacterial biofilm community that consists of more than 700 different bacterial species (Aas et al., 2005). It is also important to point out that the diverse community of...

Future prospects of functional foods for the prevention of dental caries

In Japan, various types of functional foods have been developed and widely consumed for health promortion. Some of them have been advanced for prevention of dental caries. GTase inhibitors and sugar substitutes that are not the direct cause of dental caries are actively developed and utilized as preventive foods for dental caries. Recently, functional materials which enhance the defence system of host on dental caries are further added to those foods. For example, there are functional materials...

Introduction

Dental caries and periodontal disease are major public health problems that bother all countries in the world. Dental carie is an infectious, communicable disease that acid-forming bacteria of dental plaque can destroy tooth structure in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The mineral content of teeth is sensitive to increases in acidity from the production of lactic acid. So, the infection results in loss of tooth minerals from the outer surface of...

Prevalence of MIH

A first epidemiological study was carried out in Swedish children in the late 1970s, whose first permanent molars (FPM) called cheese molars, were described as creamy-white to yellow-brown enamel opacities or with disintegration in severe cases (Koch et al., 1987) After that, epidemiological data comes from studies conducted in European countries and reported the prevalence of MIH had varied from 3.6 to 25 .(Weerheijm & Mejare, 2003) Lately, a systematic review showed a wide variation in the...

Nidus Vespae

Nidus Vespae is widely distributed in China and is typically harvested in the autumn & winter seasons and dried in the open air, after removal of dead wasps, for use in traditional Chinese medicine, where it has been used in the treatment of a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular, digestive and urinary disorders. The well-known pharmacopoeia of traditional Chinese medicine also lists the use of Nidus vespae For toothaches, through tooth brushing. A study showed significant...

The new research agenda on the historical relation between caries and food

The main objective of the study of caries and other dental diseases from the anthropological point of view is to recognize long term dietary changes related to historical events, with the purpose of understanding the rise of civilization as an integrated process that articulates not only new subsistence patterns and technologies but also new forms of relationship among human beings. Bioanthropological literature offers several comparative studies of caries among groups with known subsistence...

Key factors related to caries prevalence in human populations Physiological or cultural factors

Much of the studies carried out in hunter-gatherers and farmers from different latitudes and temporal periods have stated a particular trend women show higher caries prevalences than men (Larsen et al., 1991 Lukacs, 1992, 1996, 2008, 2011 Luckacs & Largaespada, 2006 Milner, 1984 Rodriguez, 2003 Walker & Hewlett, 1990). This phenomenon suggests two possible, not necessarily excluding, explanations a) there is a major constitutional predisposition in females to caries b) the differences are...

The antiquity of caries Evidences of caries in hominines and early humans

Caries is a very old disease and it is not exclusive of the human species. Evidences of dental lesions compatible with caries have been observed in creatures as old as Paleozoic fishes (570-250 million years), Mesozoic herbivores dinosaurs (245-65 million years), pre-hominines of the Eocene (60-25 million years), and Miocenic (25-5 million years), Pliocenic (5-1.6 million years), and Pleistocenic animals (1.6-0.01 million years - Clement, 1958 Kear, 2001 Kemp, 2003 Sala et al., 2004). Caries...

Laser fluorescence LF

Laser fluorescence (LF) (Fig. 6) is less widely known and used by dental professionals, though it constitutes a necessary complement to the traditional methods. LF therefore deserves a more detailed description in this Chapter. Fluorescence occurs as a result of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and tissue molecules. When light falls upon the surface of the tooth it penetrates a few millimeters into the tissue, and is reflected towards the tip of a device that measures the...

Chitosan plus herbal extracts

Chitosan, an abundant natural polymer, is obtained by alkaline N-deacetylation of chitin. Chitosan being a binding agent, bio-adhesive, bio-compatible, bio-degradable, and non-toxic polymer also possessing medicinal activities, such as antifungal, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, anticancer, antiplaque, ant tartar, hemostatic, wound healing, and potentiates anti-inflammatory response, inhibits the growth of cariogenic bacteria, immunopotentiation, antihypertensive, serum cholesterol lowering,...

Effect of improved dentition on nutrition and growth in children

The reported association between chronic malnutrition, growth, and dental caries suggests that dental decay might contribute to poor weight gain in children (Alvarez et al, 1990). Four cases of children with early childhood caries and subsequent dental rehabilitation were published by Acs in 1998 (Acs et al, 1998). Regardless of the presumptive aetiology of the poor weight gain, all of these children demonstrated an immediate increase in weight, propelling them to higher weight percentile...

Quantitative lightinduced fluorescence QLF

Quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) (QLF-clin, Inspektor Research Systems BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands) (Figure 7) was developed for use in caries detection and it is available commercially for clinical use. This device consists of a handheld intraoral color microvideo CCD camera, interfaced with a personal computer and custom software (QLFpatient, Inspektor Research Systems BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands). The software enables to capture and to analyze in vivo images of the tooth during...

Recent advances in antiplaque agents Chemoprophylactic agents antimicrobial peptides antiquorum sensing approach and

Control of oral biofilms is essential for maintaining oral health and preventing dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. However, oral biofilms are not easily controlled by mechanical means and represent difficult targets for chemical control (Socransky, 2002). With the exception of chlorhexidine and fluoride, few of the existing oral prophylactic agents have significant effects (Petersen & Scheie, 1998 Wu & Savitt, 2002 Scheie, 2003). A likely explanation for this low efficiency is...

Probioticsderived biosurfactant

Lactobacilli, as a probiotic (because of it's known probiotic potential and it's acid resistance and bile salt's tolerance), are believed to interfere with pathogens by different mechanisms (table 3) and one of their mechanisms is biosurfactant production. As it is mentioned before, lactobacilli have been recognized for their antimicrobial activity and ability to interfere with the adhesion of pathogens on epithelial cells and for their anti-biofilm production on catheter devices and voice...

Relationship between root caries and alveolar bone loss in Yayoi people

Above mentioned, the people of the Yayoi had carious lesions that were most frequently located on the root surfaces of their teeth. Root surface exposure is a prerequisite for this type of decay, and alveolar bone loss is the main cause of such exposure. Therefore, we identify the factors associated with root caries, and examine the relationship between root caries and alveolar bone loss in the people of the Yayoi period. As shown in Table 2, the prevalence of root caries was significantly...

Caries detection methods

The detection of carious lesions has been primarily a visual process, based principally on clinical-tactile inspection and radiographic examination. Caries detection methods should be capable of detecting lesions at an early stage, when progression can be arrested or reserved, avoiding premature tooth treatment by restorations. However, none of the conventional methods fulfill this requirement and are highly subjective. The development of some alternative non-invasive detection methods, such as...

Epidemiological considerations about MIH 41 Diagnose of MIH

Dental Carrie Fracture

Traditionally, a wide variety of terms and definitions have been used to describe various developmental defects of enamel DDE . However, this original index turned out to be too complicated to use in practice and a modified DDE index mDDE was presented by FDI 1992 . The modified development dental enamel DDE index was considered to be too time consuming and not adequate for MIH prevalence studies because the post-eruptive breakdown is a pathognomonic feature in MIH but the mDDE index does not...

Public health aspects of dental caries

Despite improvements in the oral health of children in recent decades, early childhood caries ECC remains a serious threat to child welfare. ECC is manifested by severe decay of primary teeth. This can be a debilitating condition that can not only affect the children but also their families and the communities in which they live. Toothache leads to school absence, which is a ready indicator of children's health. In the USA, where caries is lower than elsewhere, visits or dental problems...