A Cured Meat Guide for Everyone

Meat Preserving And Curing Guide

The meat was originally processed to preserve it, but since the different procedures result in many changes in texture and flavor, it is also a way to add variety to the diet. Processing also makes it possible to mix the least desirable parts of the carcass with lean meat and is also a means of prolonging the meat supply by including other foodstuffs such as cereals in the product. extremely perishable product and quickly becomes unfit for consumption. may be hazardous to health due to microbial growth, chemical change and degradation by endogenous enzymes. These processes can be reduced by decreasing the temperature sufficiently to slow or inhibit the growth of microorganisms, by heating to destroy organisms and enzymes (cooking, canning) or by removal of water by drying or osmotic control (by binding water with salt or other substances so that it is no longer available for organizations). It is also possible to use chemicals to curb growth and, very recently, ionizing radiation (the latter possibility is not allowed in some countries, however). Traditional methods used for thousands of years involve drying by wind and sun, salting and smoking. Canning dates back to the beginning of the 19th century and preserves food for many years because it is sterilized and protected from further contamination. Read more here...

Meat Preserving And Curing Guide Summary


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Synthesis During Meat Processing

The presence of toxigenic fungal strains on dry cured meat products (Escher, Koehler, & Ayers, 1973 Tabuc et al., 2004) raises the possibility of the direct contamination of these foods. Many surveys were conducted to evaluate contamination of dry meat products. However, these surveys essentially demonstrated the possible carryover of the ochratoxin A in processed meat. Indeed, even if ochratoxigenic moulds have been isolated from such foods (Battilani et al., 2007 Bogs, Battilani, & Geisen, 2006 Tabuc et al., 2004), it appears that ripening and ageing conditions are not favourable to toxin production and the production of OTA on meat products after contamination with toxigenic strains seems to remain quite low, even if this mycotoxin appears to be stable in meat products (Bailly et al., 2005 Escher et al., 1973).

Influence of food processing practices and technologies on consumerpathogen interactions

This chapter will cover the role of food processing in increasing or decreasing contamination, growth and survival of pathogens in food. There is a long history of preservation of foods however, the science behind the safety of food preservation is relatively new, as is noted in Section 5.2. Section 5.3 addresses how science and technology have influenced production and manufacturing processes, including the impact of the adoption of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system in the food manufacturing sector. Section 5.3 also describes how foodborne illness outbreaks and new surveillance strategies have resulted in the development of new food safety control measures. Section 5.4 describes how consumer preferences can sometimes have a negative impact on public health, when preservation systems are reduced to meet

Influence of emerging technologies and potential negative impacts

In addition to new physical processing technologies, manufacturers are exploring novel food preservation systems, including the use of natural preservatives such as bacteriocins, competitive microflora, lysozyme, chitinases, lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase, to name a few. By combining physical processes with these novel food processing systems, it may be possible to design processes for the precision destruction (or inhibition) of pathogenic and or spoilage organisms, yet allow the desired fresh-like characteristics of the food to remain.

Metabolism and Meat Contamination

From processed meats (Tabuc et al., 2004 Lopez-Diaz, Santos, Garcia-Lopez, & Otero, 2001 Sosa et al., 2002). Moreover, it has been showed that toxigenic strains of Penicillium were able to produce the toxin on meat products and that the toxin was stable on that substrate since more than 80 of the initial contamination was still recoverable after 8 days of incubation (Bailly et al., 2005). These results suggest that an accumulation of a relative high level of CPA could be observed on cured meat after contamination and development of toxigenic strains. Due to cyclopiazonic toxicity and its suspected role in ''Kodua poisoning'' in humans (Anthony, Janardhanan, & Shukla, 2003 Lalitha Rao & Husain, 1985), fungal strains used in meat processing should be tested for their ability to produce cyclopiazonic acid before use on commercial product. This recommendation is in agreement with previous one concerning the use of fungal starters in cheese (J. Le Bars & P. Le Bars, 1998). The development...

Gastric Cancer and Stroke

There is a strong geographical correlation between stomach cancer and stroke mortality, both of which correlate with salt intake. There are four recognized major etiological factors for gastric adenocarci-noma infection with Helicobacter pylori, excessive salt consumption, and low intakes of ascorbic acid, carotenoids or more generically of vegetables and fruits. Sodium chloride induces atrophic gastritis and enhances the mutagenic effect of nitrosated foods. Salt may also play a role in the later steps involving the transformation of mucosal dysplasia to carcinoma. The salted pickles and salted fish of Japanese cultures appear to be strongly linked to the development of stomach cancers.

Stomach Cancer Gastric Adenocarcinoma

Dietary factors have been studied extensively, but results from various studies are inconsistent. There is an inverse relationship between the intake of vegetables and fruit and the risk of gastric cancer. Other food items such as processed meat and fish, milk, and salt have given inconsistent results. Vitamin C has been seen to be protective in observational studies in China, Italy, and Sweden, while results on tocopherol are contradictory. Vitamin A does not seem to have any effect on risk of cancer of the stomach however, most reports indicate that beta-carotene, a vitamin A precursor, appears to be protective. Studies on protein, carbohydrate, fat, dietary fiber, and calcium have conflicting results. At the population level, dietary nitrate exposure has been correlated with risk of gastric cancer. Case-control studies on nitrate and nitrite consumption do not support their proposed role in carcinogenesis, probably because of the difficulty in measuring their levels in food...

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

Plaquenil Toxcity Asians

Fermentation is one of the oldest methods of food processing. It is widely utilized as a means of food preservation in developing countries, particularly in areas where refrigeration, canning, and freezing facilities are either inaccessible or unavailable. Fermentation enhances nutritional quality, through the biosynthesis of vitamins, essential amino acids, and proteins. It improves protein digestibility, enhances micronutrient bioavailability, and degrades anti-nutritional factors (Achi, 2005).

C botulinum Predictive Models for Cooked Meats

Botulinum Time Temperature Combination

A brief overview of the models for C. botulinum growth was discussed by McClure, Cole, and Smelt (1994). The earliest models developed for C. botuli-num were for predicting the survival of the spores during thermal processing (canning). Subsequent models for probability of growth or time to toxin production have been reported in the literature. The factors that have been used for preserving foods at risk for C. botulinum growth and toxin production include pH, NaCl, sodium nitrite, and sorbate among others. Predictive models describe the effects of these factors in a variety of food matrices such as cheese spreads, pork slurry (Lindstrom et al., 2001), and sous vide beef and sous vide pork (Hyytia-Trees et al., 2000).

Carcinogens Produced by Food Processing

Traditional methods for preserving meat and fish involve either salting or smoking. Epidemiolo-gical evidence has been found for an association between an increased incidence of cancer of the mouth and pharynx and intake of salted meat. It seems likely that a reaction between sodium nitrate and or nitrite used for preserving the meat and alkylamides present in the meat results in the formation of N-nitrosamines and nitrosamides. These compounds have been shown to be potent carcinogens in animal experiments to the mouth, pharynx and other sites. Levels of nitrosamines in cured meats and fish can be as high as 100-200 ppb (parts per billion) for the simple alkylnitrosamines and between 10 and 100 ppb for volatile hetero-cyclic nitrosamines. Although dose levels required to induce tumor formation in animal studies are substantially higher than those likely to be ingested by man, there is a concern that the presence of nitrosamines in food presents a significant hazard to man....

Water binding of meat

Bound Water Free Water Protein

According to Hamm (1962), the waterbinding capacity of meat is caused by the muscle proteins. Some 34 percent of these proteins are water-soluble. The main portion of meat proteins is structural material. Only about 3 percent of the total water-binding capacity of muscle can be attributed to water-soluble (plasma) proteins. The main water-binding capacity of muscle can be attributed to actomyosin, the main component of the myofibrils. The adsorption isotherm of freeze-dried meat has the shape shown in Figure 1-33. The curve is similar to the sorption isotherms of other foods and consists of three parts. The first part corresponds to the tightly bound water, about 4 percent, which is given off at very low vapor pressures. This quantity is only about one-fifth the total quantity required to cover the whole protein with a monomolecular layer. This water is bound under simultaneous liberation of a considerable amount of energy, 3 to 6 kcal per mole of water. The binding of this water...

Predictive Modeling of Pathogen Growth in Cooked Meats

Thermal processing or cooking of food products has been adopted for centuries as a method of food preservation. Enhancement of product quality parameters such as color, flavor, and texture probably contributed to the adoption of the method for a variety of products. Today, cooking or thermal processing is one of the most commonly used unit operation in the food industry. The significant advantages to cooking of meat and poultry products include extension of shelf life, desirable organoleptic properties, enhanced economic value, and assurance of safety of the products.

Scurvy The History and Discovery of Vitamin C

Foods (wheat flour and oatmeal), salted meat, dried peas, cheese, butter, and ale, i.e., whatever could be dried and preserved, often for long periods in adverse tropical climates. The signs and symptoms that were commonly described in classical accounts of scurvy, written long before its cause was understood, included lassitude, swollen joints, putrid and bleeding gums, failure of wound healing and the opening of old wounds and sores, intradermal bleeding due to capillary fragility, heart failure, and sudden death (Table 2). Although nowadays we carefully distinguish the symptoms of true scurvy (now known to be produced specifically by vitamin C deficiency) from conditions such as beriberi (thia-mine deficiency, which is associated with oedema of the lower limbs), vitamin A deficiency (associated with night-blindness and corneal lesions), and rickets (caused mainly by a lack of exposure to sunlight in children), in the older literature these conditions were often not recognized as...

Experimental Observations Leading to Microbial Endocrinology

It was these sets of experiments during 1991-1992 that led me to reconsider the whole concept of stress and susceptibility to infectious disease not from the perspective of the animal but from that of the infecting bacterium. For a number of reasons, the infecting organism is as highly stressed, if not more so, than the stressed host. First, most infectious agents, such as food-borne pathogens, have survived food preservation and cooking steps that result in a damaged cellular state. Upon entrance into the host, the infecting bacterium must survive the host's physical defenses such as stomach acid and then survive and proliferate within the gastrointestinal tract amid the trillions of indigenous bacteria, which rigorously maintain ecological balance among various species through means including, for example, the elaboration of bacteriocins (Riley and Wertz 2002). Central among the factors that influence the ability of any infecting microbe to survive in a host is the capacity to...

Toxoplasmosis a foodborne disease without outbreaks

Contaminate, such as garden soil or unwashed fruits and vegetables and 2) ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked infected meat. About one-half of toxoplasmosis cases may be acquired through food. A case-control study involving pregnant women from six large European studies found that 30-63 of toxoplasmosis infections in pregnant women could be attributed to undercooked or cured meat products (Cook et al., 2000). A case-control study comparing seropositivity among vegetarians to rates among omnivores revealed that 24 of vegetarians had Toxoplasma titers compared with 50 of controls (Roghmann et al., 1999). Measures to prevent toxoplasmosis include cooking meat thoroughly, peeling or washing fruits and vegetables, hand washing, and cleaning cutting boards, surfaces, and utensils after they have been in contact with raw meat. Other interventions include prenatal and newborn screening for toxoplasmosis, with treatment of infected individuals. Screening and treatment programs have been...

Historical perspective on food processing Roman sausage to canning to space food

Early humans were hunters and gatherers. Getting food was a daily process, and food spoilage and foodborne illnesses must have been common. Agricultural production of grains and animal husbandry followed the hunting gathering stage, although hunting and gathering remained common means of obtaining food. Early forms of preservation such as salting, drying, smoking and fermenting were practiced long before people understood why they worked, and were likely discovered by accident. Although food safety was probably not at the forefront of early man's concern when they were just trying to get enough food to survive, these food preservation techniques that inhibited food spoilage microorganisms had the added benefit of inhibiting many pathogenic organisms. Early attempts at fermentation were probably especially fraught with dangers. Clostridium botulinum is derived from the Latin term botulus, meaning sausage. The 'controlled spoilage' under the specific conditions of fermentation allows...

Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid


D-Iso-ascorbic acid (erythorbic acid see Figure 13.1) also has vitamin activity. In vivo and in cell culture, it has only about 5 of the biological activity of ascorbate, but this seems to be from poor intestinal absorption and tissue uptake. In vitro with purified enzymes, it has the same cofactor activity as ascorbate. Although it is not a naturally occurring compound, erythorbic acid is widely used interchangeably with ascorbic acid, in cured meats and as an antioxidant in a variety of foods.

Advanced Decontamination Technologies High Hydrostatic Pressure on Meat Products

HPP of foods was first reported by Hite (1899). After a treatment of milk at 670 MPa for 10 min a 5-6 log-cycle reduction in total counts was achieved, and meat treated at 530 MPa for 1 h showed insignificant microbial growth after 3 weeks. In 1914, Bridgman reported egg albumen coagulation at 590 MPa for 1 h. These pioneers' observations suggested that high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) was a useful tool for food preservation, however, the technology was ignored until the 1970 s when it was applied to improve the tenderness of meat by Australian meat scientists (Macfarlane, 1973). Later the technology attracted a lot of interest and large HPP research programs were established in Japan, Europe, and United States. Its capacity to preserve the essential, functional, and nutritional characteristics of the food products while ensuring food safety, and the fact that the changes induced in the food proceed in a different manner from the properties of food processing by heat, were important...

Terpeneless oil See terpenes

Tetracyclines A group of closely related antibiotics including tetracycline, oxytetracycline (terramycin) and aureomycin. The last two are used in some countries for preserving food and as growth improvers, added to animal feed at the rate of a few milligrams per tonne (prohibited in the EU).

Food Borne Infections during Pregnancy

Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that can be transmitted to the fetus in utero through transpla-cental transmission, causing stillbirth, miscarriage, or mental retardation. The parasite has been found in raw, inadequately cooked or cured meat, cat feces, and unwashed raw fruit and vegetables. It has also occasionally been reported in unpasteur-ized goat milk. In the United Kingdom, toxoplasmosis occurs in approximately 2.5-5.5 in 1000 pregnant women (1750-2850 cases per year), generally causing flu-like symptoms, swollen lymph glands, or muscle aches and pains that last for a few days to several weeks. If a pregnant woman contracts the infection, there is an approximately 30-40 chance of fetal infection (congenital toxo-plasmosis). Infants who became infected before birth may develop growth problems, vision and hearing loss, hydrocephalus, brain damage, epilepsy, and other problems. In Europe, congenital toxoplasmosis affects between 1 and 10 in 10 000 newborns, of whom 1 or 2 develop...

Antidepressant Medications

A third group of antidepressants, classified as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), include isocarboxazid (brand name Marplan) and phenelzine (brand name Nardil). MAOIs require a special diet because the chemicals they contain interact with fermented foods and beverages (for example, wine, beer, pickles, fermented cheeses, and cured meats), so doctors typically choose to prescribe other medications.

Eat Fat And Grow Slim

Meat and animal fat alone, with no carbohydrates, with no fruit or vegetables, with no vitamins other than those they get in meat, not merely provides them with all the energy they need, but keeps them in perfect health for months at a time. Seal meat and blubber for the Eskimo, pemmican for the Indian and the trapper, biltong for the hunter, have proved to be the perfect diet both in quality and in bulk.

The Impact of Refrigeration on Salt Intakes

Salt intake varies widely across the world. Some agricultural communities, e.g., the Yanomano Indians from Brazil and the Chimbus of New Guinea, do not consume salt other than that found in natural food sources. The Kamtschadales and the Tungouses nomadic tribes from the north of Russia and Siberia are also averse to added salt, whereas the Japanese have traditionally consumed large quantities of salt in pickled salted fish and vegetables. Without some form of food preservation it would be impossible to supply urban populations with food in any systematic way. Refrigerators were introduced on a mass scale from the 1960s onwards and this was accompanied by a fall in salt consumption in most countries (Table 2) refrigeration has taken over from salting as a method of preserving food. In Japan, intakes as high as the 60-g intake of a farmer recorded in 1955 and the average of 27-30 gday-1 had fallen dramatically to 8-15 g day 1 by 1988. In the US, salt intake probably started to decline...

Assessment of Total Discretionary Salt

Figure 2 compares the traditional and lithium marker techniques for assessing both total salt intake and the distribution of its sources. When table and cooking salt are combined to form a single value, the percentage contribution of these discretionary sources to the total intake measured by the lithium marker technique is significantly lower in the UK compared with that assessed by traditional methods, which do not consider salt losses during cooking and at the table. This intake in the UK seemed unusually low, but when discretionary sources (table and cooking salt) were assessed in various regions of Italy using the lithium marker technique, discretionary salt intake varied between 31 and 41 of total intake. In rural Benin the use of discretionary sources in women was higher (52 ) and in rural Guatemala was as much as 77 of total intake. Thus, the more industrialized the food system the greater the proportion of nondiscretionary salt intake, which then makes it more difficult for...

Stabilization Cooling Performance Standards

Similar conclusions to those reached for C. perfringens can be reached for C. botulinum, but the severity of botulism warrants further consideration. In contrast to C. perfringens, there have been outbreaks of botulism throughout the world involving both cured and non-cured meats. However, an examination of currently available food attribution data and historical reviews (Tompkin, 1980) indicate that there have been no incidents of botulism in the US due to inadequate chilling of cooked perishable meat products produced under USDA or state inspection.

Reduction of preservatives

As a result of concerns about the potential for formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines in products containing nitrite, there have been numerous studies, reports, and debates about safe levels. However, nitrite serves as a means of preventing growth of Clostridium botulinum and is thus an important safety component of these products restricting its use presents an increased risk of botulism from cured products (Marriott et al., 1981 Tompkin, 1980). The residual level of nitrite in today's cured meats is five times lower than in the 1970s (CAST, 1997), as a result in part of introducing other compounds such as ascorbates in the curing system to allow reduction of nitrites while maintaining the ability to inhibit C. botulinum (Marriott et al., 1981). Similarly, salt plays a key role in the safety of many products. Salt levels decreased considerably during the twentieth century, from levels greater than 6 in the first half of the century to around 2 today (CAST, 1997). Much emphasis has...

Impact of injury and stress

Archer (1996) stated that traditional food preservation systems work well to inhibit the growth of toxin-producing bacteria such as S. aureus or C. botulinum that require relatively high numbers for the toxin to cause disease. However, he expressed concern that infectious bacteria such as E. coli 0157 H7 and strains of Salmonella may increase in virulence during stressful conditions of food preservation. Stresses such as starvation and extremes of temperature, pH, and osmolarity cause adaptive responses, one of which may be to potentiate expression of virulence genes or, even worse, create unpredictable mutations in the virulence genes. To date there is little evidence that this occurs in food production, but it warrants vigilance.

Impact of technologies that reduce competitive microflora

An example of a new food preservation technology that presents a potential concern is the use of vacuum packaging and modified atmosphere packaging of foods to extend shelf-life. This would seem to be a very useful technology for packaging fresh fish, which is highly perishable. Greater shelf-life could increase consumption of what has become recognized as a very healthy food. However, a natural concern would be to question whether this technology would create conditions that would allow neurotoxin to be produced by non-proteolytic C. botulinum sooner than in fish stored in non-oxygen-reduced environments. In one study, not only was neurotoxin produced faster in modified atmospheres, it was produced before the fish was considered spoiled (Post et al., 1985). Therefore, a technology that provides a longer shelf-life for this very perishable food may suppress the natural warning system for consumers by suppressing the growth of the natural spoilage microorganisms.

Degradation Turnover and Factors that Induce Increased Requirements for Vitamin C

The instability of vitamin C in air, and especially in neutral or alkaline aqueous solution, is attributable to the fact that in the presence of oxygen or other oxidizing agents it readily undergoes two successive one-electron oxidation steps to produce dehydro-ascorbate. Since the oxidation products are also unstable and undergo an irreversible lactone ring opening to diketogulonic acid, the vitamin is very easily destroyed, both in foods and (to a lesser extent because of efficient recycling mechanisms) in the body. Diketogulonic acid is one of several degradation products of vitamin C that cannot be reconverted to the vitamin and are further degraded to stable excretory products, such as oxalic acid, by oxidative metabolism. Of all the micronutrients that are essential for human health and survival, vitamin C is the most easily destroyed during drying and other traditional methods of preserving food. Citrus fruits contain other organic acids that inhibit this process of oxidation...

Nature Of This Cancer Type

At the rate of about one cancer per 100,000 per year, whereas the incidence is high in southern China (30-50 per 100,000 per year), among Eskimos in the Artic region, and among some indigenous populations in Southeast Asia. The risk is 2-3 times higher in men than in women. Risk factors include Epstein-Barr virus (Mueller 1995), consumption of salted fish (Miller et al. 1996), and occupational exposure to formaldehyde (IARC 1995). There are three histologic types keratinizing squamous-cell carcinoma, non-keratinizing carcinoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma.

Definition of Sugars

The term sugars is traditionally used to describe mono- and disac-charides (FAO WHO, 1998). Sugars are used as sweeteners to improve the palatability of foods and beverages and for food preservation (FAO WHO, 1998). In addition, sugars are used to confer certain functional attributes to foods such as viscosity, texture, body, and browning capacity. The monosaccharides include glucose, galactose, and fructose, while the disaccharides include sucrose, lactose, maltose, and trehalose. Some commonly used sweeteners contain trisaccharides and higher saccharides. Corn syrups contain large amounts of these saccharides for example, only 33 percent or less of the carbohydrates in some corn syrups are mono- and disaccharides the remaining 67 percent or more are trisaccharides and higher saccharides (Glinsmann et al., 1986). This may lead to an underestimation of the intake of sugars if the trisaccharides and higher saccharides are not included in an analysis.

The hurdle concept

Preserve foods for example, in smoking of salted meat, some microbial cells are destroyed by the heat while survivors are inhibited by chemicals present in the smoke that are deposited on the meat and by reduced water activity due to both heat and the presence of salt. Thus, using multiple hurdles can inhibit microbial growth or, in some cases, even enhance inactivation of microbes associated with food (Leistner and Gorris, 1995 Leistner and Gould, 2004).

Coping Strategies

A first line of responses may be viewed as 'insurance' against uncertainty these are activities that can stem loss of endowment, such as restructuring the mix of crops grown or pastoral practices in ways that insulate against drought- or flood-induced shortages. Examples include planting more robust crops, dispersing crops across a wider area, staggering plantings, or increasing livestock diversity and mobility. Food preservation practices and dietary changes to include less commonly eaten foods can initially increase the size and diversity of the food base. As terms of exchange become worse, coping mechanisms aimed at survival increasingly cost households their endowment. These responses include working longer and at different jobs for lower wages, migrating far from home to find marginal work, reducing meal frequency, consuming the next planting's seeds, and expanding intake to include 'famine foods' poor in, or lacking, nutritional quality. At first these may include unusual...

Adverse Effects

If continued, a diet too high in protein results in death after several weeks, a condition known as rabbit starvation by early American explorers, as rabbit meat contains very little fat (Speth and Spielmann, 1983 Stefansson, 1944a). Similar symptoms of eating only lean meat were described by Lewis and Clark (McGilvery, 1983). Conversely, an all-meat diet with a protein content between 20 and 35 percent has been reported in explorers, trappers, and hunters during the winters in northern America surviving exclusively on pemmican for extended periods with no adverse effects (McGilvery, 1983 Speth, 1989 Stefansson, 1944b). Pemmican is a concentrated food made by taking lean dried meat that has been pounded finely and then blending it with melted fat. It contains about 20 to 35 percent protein the remainder is fat (Stefansson, 1944b).

Processed Foods

H uman beings have been confronted with the need to preserve food ever since the first hunter killed the first mammoth and wondered what to do with all that meat From drying and salting to smoking, fermenting, and covering the off-flavor of spoiling foods with exotic spices and peppers, the search for means of preserving food became a search both for the ability to store food in times of scarcity and to conserve its nutritional value. Such attempts led (if the legend is correct) to the exploration of Asia and the discovery of the Americas and certainly to the centrality of salt mining in all cultures (Kurlansky 2003). Processing was the first step in controlling diet (Shephard 2000). By the eighteenth century, the traditional forms of processing foods gave way to the notion of manufactured food that was both accessible and healthy. Indeed some of these methods, such as the use of vinegar to pickle foods, which became wildly popular in England in the sixteenth century, quickly were A...

Sheila Payne

Data from Cancer Research UK1 indicate that more middle aged people with cancer are surviving, as in the last decade deaths in those people aged 35-69 fell by 18 in men and 17.3 in women. Certain types of cancer mortality have demonstrated even greater falls, for example, the number of people dying from bowel cancer has dropped by 22 in men and 26 in women, stomach cancer by 39 in men and 45 in women, and in women breast cancer deaths have fallen by 25 and cervical cancer by 33 . In the USA,2 over 95 of women diagnosed with localized breast cancer and over 75 with regional spread are anticipated to survive for 5 years. This reduction in mortality can be attributed to improvements in cancer screening, earlier diagnosis, better treatment, changes in food preservation, a steady decline in smoking particularly in men and other public health measures. During the same period the incidence of the common cancers such as lung, breast, bowel, and prostate cancer are largely unchanged so the...


Nisatidine See histamine receptor antagonists. nisin antibiotic isolated from lactic Streptococcus group N inhibits some but not all Clostridia not used clinically. The only antibiotic permitted in the UK to preserve specified foods. It is naturally present in cheese, being produced by a number of strains of cheese starter organisms. Useful to prolong storage life of cheese, milk, cream, soups, canned fruits and vegetables, canned fish and milk puddings. It also lowers the resistance of many thermophilic bacteria (see thermophiles) to heat and so permits a reduction in the time and or temperature of heating when processing canned vegetables. nitrates The inorganic form of nitrogen used by plants found in soils and included in inorganic fertiliser. Nitrate is a natural constituent of crops in amounts sometimes depending on the content in the soil. Also found in drinking water as a result of excessive use of fertilisers. Health problems can arise because within a day or two of...

East Asian Food

Different regions of China have distinct tastes in food. Shang-hainese cooking is known for its spicy chili flavoring and trademark red-colored meats. The Cantonese and Chaozhao regions are known for cooked meats and vegetables and in the Beijing, Mandarin, and Shandong regions steamed bread and noodles are used as staples instead of rice. The most prized food staples in China are rice and wheat, though yams, taros, and potatoes are eaten when rice and wheat are not available. Chinese vegetables are mostly imported from Central Asia, including cucumbers, coriander, peas, sesame, onions, grapes and pomegranates, tomatoes, maize, sweet potatoes, peanuts, mushrooms, and daikon (radish). Preserved foods are popular, including pickled foods, fermented vegetables, and smoked and salted meats. Other well-known seasonings that are used include salted black beans (douchi), sweet and salty sauce, garlic, oyster sauce, soy sauce, black fungus, chilies, hoisin sauce, ginger, sesame seeds,...

Body Lice

From 1987 to 1992 the government recalled cooked products from 27 firms, including hot dogs, bologna, and other luncheon meat, chicken salad, ham salad, sausages, chicken, sliced turkey breast, and sliced roast beef. Cheese, dairy, sandwich, prepared salad, and smoked fish recalls from 1987 to 1992 included 516 different products from 105 firms.

Arkshell See cockles

Energy, high-protein, low-sodium diet, together with diuretic drugs and fluid restriction. ascorbic acid vitamin c, chemically L-xyloascorbic acid, to distinguish it from the isomer D-araboascorbic acid (isoascorbic acid or erythorbic acid), which has only slight vitamin C activity. Both ascorbic acid and erythorbic acid have strong chemical reducing properties, and are used as antioxidants in foods and to preserve the red colour of fresh and preserved meats, and in the curing of hams.

Risk Factors

Low income is associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, independent of alcohol and tobacco use, suggesting that other factors associated with poverty may play a role. In Africa and Far East countries, incidences of esophageal cancer are high in regions where starchy food is the predominant food in the diet, and this may have been an indication of poor nutritional status. Several studies have reported that very low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables is associated with higher risk of esophagus cancer. Conversely, high intake of fruits and vegetables, particularly citrus fruits, may confer preventive benefits. Frequent consumption of highly salted meat, pickled vegetables, cured meat, and smoked meat was found to be associated with esophageal cancer risk these foods contain carcinogenic compounds such as heterocyclic amines and N-nitroso compounds.

Active packaging

Reducing the rate of oxidation and moisture loss or pickup. In addition to this passive role of packaging in food preservation, a new breed of packaging being developed is known as active or smart packaging. Active packaging interacts with the food and the atmosphere surrounding the food to create an environment that extends shelf-life by inhibiting the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, maintaining desirable quality attributes, and indicating migration of contaminants (Ozdemir and Floros, 2004 Tewari, 2002). Examples of some of the types of active packaging include material that absorbs oxygen, carbon dioxide, ethanol, moisture, ethylene, and flavors from the atmosphere within the package. Some systems may release carbon dioxide, ethanol or flavors, depending on needs of the product. Gas-permeable films used to maintain the quality of fresh-cut produce, incorporation of time-temperature integrators, and susceptors (metalized package materials used to intensify...


Clostridium perfringens and C. botulinum are potentially pathogenic microorganisms that are often contaminants in fresh meat. They are strictly anaerobic bacteria that may be present in the normal gut flora of animals and humans. They are spore-forming bacteria enabling them to survive in unfavourable environments, which present a challenge in food preservation.

Grapeseed extract

Historical note In the 1 500s a French expedition in North America found itself trapped in ice and forced to survive on salted meat and stale biscuits. After a time, the crew began to show signs of what we now recognise as scurvy. It is believed that the men survived because a Native American Indian showed them how to make a tea from the bark and needles of pine trees. The French explorer wrote of this encounter in a bookthat was subsequently read by researcher Jacques Masquelier, also a Frenchman, in the 20th century. Intrigued by the story, he began to investigate the chemistry and properties of pine bark and identified oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs). Several years later, he extracted OPCs from grapeseed extract (GSE), which is now considered the superior source of OPCs (Murray & Pizzorno 1 999).


The history of canning began with Nicholas Appert, a French confectioner, who heated foods in wide-mouthed, corked glass bottles in boiling water to preserve them for use by the French military. At the time, preservation was primarily through drying or the addition of 'a foreign substance for the purpose of impeding fermentation or putrefaction' (sugar, salt, vinegar), each process having specific drawbacks (Appert, 1812). The French government, at war with several countries, offered rewards for the development of means to use 'indigenous substances' and 'diminish the consumption of foreign commodities' (specifically, sugar). The French navy began using Appert's 'canned' (bottled) meats, vegetables, fruits and milk around 1806, which led to his reward of 12 000 francs in 1809 for his process for preserving foods (Drummond and Lewis, 1939). Although Leeuwenhoek had described bacteria viewed through his microscope in 1683, their role in food was unknown at the time. In 1810 Appert...

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