Professional Makeup For Beginners
How a child copes with his HIV infection depends on his age and developmental stage, cognitive abilities, and general psychological makeup. One must also assess the child's stage of illness and the way in which the parents cope with the illness. Together, these factors determine the meaning the illness carries for the child, and the mental resources they possess to help them deal with each new challenge during the process of learning about their illness.
The history of herbs and spices is as long as the history of mankind. People have used these plants since earliest times. No other commodity has played a more pivotal role in the development of modern civilization as spices. The lives of people and plants are more entwined than is often realized. Some herbs have the power to change our physiological functioning, they have revolutionized medicine, created fortunes for those who grow, process and treat them, and in many cases have assumed social and religious significance. Herbs have changed the course of history and in economic terms have greater importance as ingredients in food and medicine, perfumery, cosmetics and garden plants. The knowledge of herbs has been handed down from generation to generation for thousands of years (Brown, 1995). Wars have been fought and lands conquered for the sake of these plants. Even today we continue to depend on herbs and spices for many of our newest medicines, chemicals and flavours and they are...
The second inquiry was whether the spontaneous preference for female faces was due to higher contrast of the internal features, possibly resulting from females' greater use of cosmetics. The first control experiment with faces without hair was thus repeated, but in this instance, the faces were inverted. The reasoning was that if the female preference was due to higher contrast of the internal features, then the preference should be preserved with the inversion manipulation, because the internal features are present in both upright and inverted faces. The result was that the infants no longer preferred the female faces, suggesting that the spontaneous preference depends on processing of the internal features in their upright orientation.
Creatine glycine anil glucose Oguri et al 1998 Cooked chicken was found to contain 18 21 jxg PhIP per 200 g serving
The iirst. activating reactions, are referred to as phase I reactions. Phase I reactions most often involve hydroxylation or oxidation of the compound a variety of other reactions are also possible. The second type, the phase II reactions, include conjugating and other modify ing reactions. These molecular modifications tend to make the original compound more polar and enhance their renal excretion. Phase 1 reactions often increase the reactivity of xenobiotics towards DNA and proteins. Phase II enzymes, on the other hand, tend to decrease the potential for harm by speeding up their elimination. I iowever. this is not universally the ease. Since phase I enzymes activities are a prerequisite for phase II-dependent modification the concerted and balanced action of members from both classes minimize risk. What is more, some phase Il-catalyzcd reactions (e.g. sulfotransferase-catalyzcd generation of highly reactive N-sulfonyloxy HA derivatives) actually increase the potential for harm....
Several issues must be addressed in the process of developing probiotics and prebiotics for use in improving host defenses, and these are outlined in Fig. 8.2. Strain variation, host condition and genetic makeup, and the pre-existing resident gut microfloral populations all have the potential to influence the actions of probiotics and prebiotics. Different species and strains of probiotic bacteria show varied effects on the immune system, probably reflecting variation in the efficiency of their interactions with specific cell types, such as macrophages versus intestinal epithelial cells. Certain strains have been reported to induce very different profiles of cytokine production (Perdigon et al., 2002 Cross et al., 2002). For this reason it is unlikely that one strain of probiotic bacteria will be suited for all immunomodulatory purposes - different strains are best suited to different activities. Differences in host condition can also contribute to variation in the effect of...
For example, Drazen and colleagues (190) postulated that since asthma patients harboring mutant forms of the 5-LO core promoter might have diminished 5-LO gene transcription, their asthma may be less dependent on leukotriene formation, and therefore they may be less sensitive to the antiasthma effects of 5-LO inhibition. To test this hypothesis, they stratified, by genotype at the 5-LO promoter, a cohort of 221 mild-to-moderate asthmatics who had completed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with a 5-LO inhibitor, ABT-761, which is clinically similar to zileuton (190). After 84 days of treatment, the 64 patients with wildtype genotype at the 5-LO core promoter locus who had received treatment with the 5-LO inhibitor had a substantially greater improvement in FEV1 than that in the 10 patients with no wild-type allele at the 5-LO core promoter receiving the same dose of medication (18.8 improvement vs. 1.1 decline p 0.0001) (Fig. 5). They also had a significantly...
When discussing gender-role development, the definitions of the terms ''sex'' and ''gender'' need to be understood. Referring to the nature-nurture controversy, scholars have found it important to distinguish those aspects of males and females that can be attributed to biology and those that can be attributed to social influences. The term ''sex'' denotes the actual physical makeup of individuals that define them as male or female. Sex is determined by genetic makeup, internal reproductive organs, the organization of the brain (such as in the control of hormone production), and external genitalia. By contrast, the behavior of individuals as males or females, the types of roles they assume, and their personality characteristics, may be as much a function of social expectations and interactions as their biological makeup. For example, in American culture, females are expected to be nurturing, and males aggressive. These behaviors and characteristics are dependent upon the social...
About 90 of the world crop is absorbed by the food industry. Shelled hazelnuts are commercialized mainly after roasting, which provides a more intense, pleasant typical flavor and a crisper texture, in addition to allowing for removal of the slightly bitter and astringent skin. Hazelnuts are available in many forms (whole, chopped, crumbled, ground into a paste) and are extensively employed in confectionery. Hazelnut oil is used not only as food, but also in cosmetics, for its astringent and emollient properties, or as a carrier in aromatherapy.
For weight-loss treatment because they could argue 'I've got a reason. I'm not just a fat slob' (Marchione 1997). The moral claim that obesity was simply a public sign of the lack of will, one of the most powerful notions driving the moral panic about obesity, could be stilled by the very notion that its cause was beyond the individual (even beyond the individual's genetic makeup) and was to be found in the ever more dangerous world of infectious diseases. The implications are enormous, said John Foreyt, a behavioral psychologist at Baylor College of Medicine. He called the research startling and potentially a real breakthrough in explaining the swift rise of the obesity epidemic (Marchione 1997). Twenty-six percent of American adults were obese in 1980, and more than 35 percent or more are now. It also could help explain the odd demographics of the obesity epidemic as it moved from the coasts and then toward the mid-section of the U.S.A. People are still struggling with why this...
Bathroom lighting should be installed to suit specific needs and circumstances. The highest illumination is required at vanity mirrors for close activities such as applying makeup and shaving. Incandescent or full-spectrum fluorescent light is best suited for this purpose. Because this lighting is intense, light sources should be baffled to reduce glare. Vanity lighting for wheelchair or seated users requires minor adjustments to conventional arrangements. Most wheelchair users, for example, cannot get close enough to the wall mirror for focused activities such as shaving or applying makeup. A portable self-illuminated mirror that is set on the vanity top is helpful for this purpose.
An issue that is obvious in any consideration of how best to approach estimating human requirements is the need to achieve consensus on the best science-based approaches to determine them. Internationally, the diversity of requirement estimates might mislead one to assume there was significant variability in nutrient needs based on geographic location or genetic makeup. As more information regarding the role that genetic factors play in disease becomes available, the variability seen in actual requirements will diminish. There will continue to be a need to recognize and use information about nutrient bioavailability, which may well be different for diets based on different foods and staples and thus require different reference values for such varied situations, but human physiology is remarkably similar.
An intricate web of biochemical pathways within each mammalian cell enables the cell to grow, divide, differentiate, and or die quite independently of the organ system or of the complete organism of which it is a part. A genetically encoded developmental program, constantly tweaked by the biochemical makeup of the surrounding milleu, achieves a balance between cell proliferation and cell function consistent with the needs of the whole organism. Numerous genes are involved in an elaborate system of checks and balances that ultimately dictates, at any given time, whether a cell will proliferate or whether the cell cycle will be arrested.
The FDA assures the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our nation's food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation. The FDA is also responsible for advancing the public health by helping to speed innovations that make medicines and foods more effective, safer, and more affordable and helping the public get the accurate, science-based information they need to use medicines and foods to improve their health.
A quick way of finding out whether particular plants have any of the desirable genes wanted for crossbreeding is to use gene probes. This technique can be used to monitor the genetic makeup of hybrid seeds produced in orchards and track the degree of inbreeding. Such long-term research on gene expression and genetic transformation is making genetic engineering and cloning almost routine in some parts of the forest industry.
By studying monozygotic (i.e., identical) and di-zygotic (i.e., fraternal) twins, as well as adopted siblings, behavioral geneticists have concluded that genetic factors account for 40 to 70 percent of the variability in certain characteristics. Sandra Scarr described how genes contribute directly to children's characteristics and indirectly influence social development through three processes passive effects, in which children's genes are related to the parenting of their biological parents evocative effects, by which children elicit certain types of behaviors from others and active effects, through which children seek out environments that best fit their genetic makeups. Although it is clear that genetic makeup plays a crucial role in social development, it is less certain exactly what biological mechanisms account for this influence. Certainly, many innate factors affecting social behavior are common to nearly all infants. For instance, infants will cry when distressed, and they...
The coexistence of prokaryotes and eukaryotes over several millennia may have enabled the evolution of communication systems based on soluble lipidic signaling compounds. One of the best examples of such interactions defined thus far is the effects of AHLs on host cells during pathogenic interactions however, it is clear that these interactions do not represent true communication as the outcomes appear to be to the benefit of the microbe. It is exciting to consider the possibility that autoinducers, or other microbial products, might participate in bidirectional communication, such as in the gut, and that the messages exchanged might influence the development of one or both organisms. For example, one implication of recent metagenomic studies that showed that gut microbe compositions varied and coevolved with their mammalian hosts (Ley et al. 2008) is that any description of human evolution must consider the genetic makeup of our microbial coinhabitants.
The U.S. federal agency that is responsible for enforcing governmental regulations pertaining to the manufacture and sale of food, drugs, and cosmetics. Its role is to prevent the sale of impure or dangerous substances. Any new drug that is proposed for the treatment of MS in the United States must be approved by the FDA.
Twins, monozygotic Also known as identical twins, two babies that come from a single fertilized egg and share identical genetic makeup. If one monozygotic twin develops MS, the other has a 30 100 risk of developing the disease, indicating that factors other than genetic makeup contribute to the etiology of MS.
Betalains are important natural pigments for industry. They have been exploited as colorants in processed food (46-48), cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. To this end, the safety of these compounds has been tested. Studies carried out to determine decomposition and stability (49,50), mutagenicity (48,51,52), and toxicological and toxicokinetic effects (53) showed that these pigments are not harmful. Some in vivo studies in rats indicated that betalains did not have toxic effects with any of the doses tested, up to 5 g kg body weight (53).
Oregano is used in meat, sausages, salads, stewings, dressings and soups. The food industry uses oregano oil and oregano resin both in foods and in beverages and also in cosmetics. Oregano oil is used in alcoholic beverages, baked goods, meats and meat products, condiments and relishes, milk products, processed vegetables, snack foods, and fats and oils. It is the most common spice for pizza. Along with black pepper, it is a common ingredient of dressings and a good substitute for table salt. Marjoram, too, is used in many foods and beverages in food industry meat sauces, canned foods, vinegar, vermouths and bitters are often seasoned with marjoram. It increases aroma in such vegetable dishes as pea soup and other pea dishes, squash and stews made from mixed vegetables, mushrooms and asparagus.
Twin studies allow researchers to examine familial components of disordered eating by comparing rates of eating problems among monozygotic (MZ identical or paternal) and dizygotic (DZ non-identical or fraternal) twin pairs. MZ twins are generally assumed to share 100 per cent of their genetic material. DZ twins, on the other hand, share on average 50 per cent of their genetic makeup (like brothers and sisters). Although these numbers are not precisely true, it is fair to say that MZ twins are considerably more similar genetically than DZ twins. Variance in susceptibility to a disorder can be divided into additive genetic factors, shared environmental factors, and unique environmental factors. Additive genetic effects refer to the cumulative effects of many genes, each of which has a small to moderate contribution. Because MZ twins share 100 per cent and DZ twins share 50 per cent of their genetic makeup on average, genetic effects are believed to be operative when MZ twin correlations...
It is very important to have an understanding of the relationship between child development and child maltreatment. Childhood is typically a time of rapid change and growth. Each stage of development brings new challenges and changes in the physical, cognitive, and behavioral makeup of a child. These changes are reflected in the epidemiology of maltreatment, which is the pattern of abuse and neglect that is commonly seen. Child development affects all of the following the precipitating factors that lead to maltreatment the susceptibility of a child to different types of maltreatment at different ages the physical findings of abuse or neglect the treatment options following maltreatment and the likelihood of long-term sequelae (secondary effects) from abuse or neglect.
Element within our bodies that may influ ence our personalities is our genes. Our genetic makeup determines whether our hair is curly or straight, whether our eyes are blue or brown, and whether we have large, heavy bones or a slight build. It also appears that our genetic makeup influence how active we are, whether we are hot-tempered and disagreeable, and whether we like to be with others or prefer solitude. Understanding if and how genetics contribute to personality falls squarely within the biological domain. This is our subject in Chapter 6.
Physical environment can also differ in disease states. Fluid volume is affected by pathology. Constipation results from increased water resorption in the gut leading to more viscous colonic contents. Chronic diarrhea is common in the active phase of IBD and is linked to transit as well as fluid volumes. The makeup of the colonic contents can also be affected the pH can be lower in the diseased (IBD) colon 18, 52, 53 . Recent work by 54 shows that there are variations in short chain fatty acids in ulcerative colitis. There are also differences in buffer capacity, osmolality, and protein levels between healthy patients and relapsed or remitting ulcerative colitis patients. Such differences need to be taken into account when designing drugs and delivery systems for colonic targeting.
Prefrontal cortex generally used to indicate the entire frontal lobes of the brain, concerned with the makeup of the individual's personality, resulting from the input of many cortical and subcortical sources, and specialisms in handling information needed to guide action.
In biblical times, saffron was important to oriental people as a condiment and sweet perfume. Still, it was not mentioned by early Sanskrit writers (although KAB present nearly fifty Sanskrit names for the plant DEP listed only three). Arabian authors speak of its cultivation in the 10th century at Darband and Ispahan. Chinese state that Mohammedens introduced it to China during the Yuen dynasty. Mullahs are said to write charms with a saffron ink (DEP). The stigmas were especially valued as a food colorant (e.g., adding yellows to Indian curries). It was mentioned by Dioscorides. In Pliny's time, benches at public theaters were strewn with saffron, the precious petals placed in small fountains, to diffuse the scent into public halls. One cannot believe the figures one sees for this most expensive of spices until we realize that it was not specified whether they were talking fresh weight (for the flowers stigmata) or perhaps dry weight for the saffron (dried stigmata). From my...
Herbs and spices have tremendous importance in the way we live, as ingredients in food, alcoholic beverages, medicine, perfumery, cosmetics, colouring and also as garden plants. Spices and herbs are used in foods to impart flavour, pungency and colour. They also have antioxidant, antimicrobial, pharmaceutical and nutritional properties. In addition to the known direct effects, the use of these plants can also lead to complex secondary effects such as salt and sugar reduction, improvement of texture and prevention of food spoilage. The basic effects of spices when used in cooking and confectionery can be for flavouring, deodorizing masking, pungency and colouring (Table 1.2). They are also used to make food and confectionery more appetizing and palatable. Some spices, such as turmeric and paprika, are used more for imparting an attractive colour than for enhancing taste. The major colour components of spices are given in Table 1.3. Because of their antioxidant and antimicrobial...
PERSONALITY AS A RISK FACTOR FOR DRUG ABUSE The term personality refers to those relatively enduring aspects of attitudes, feelings, responses, and behaviors that permit us to recognize a particular person whom we have known over time. It is, in a way, a fingerprint of an individual's psychological makeup the framework of how the individual thinks and acts. Psychiatrists believe that this framework arises out of childhood, powerfully shaped by the actions of parenting and the other social and environmental factors on a complex set of genetic and other biological givens. It is then further molded throughout one's development to achieve more or less lasting form in adolescence and early adulthood.
Cultural links of human societies in the use of different plants in foods, medicine, divination, cosmetics, dyeing, and textiles, as construction tools, currency, and clothing, and in literature, rituals, and social life have been documented. The study of how plants have been perceived,
Foods, drugs, cosmetics, and certain medical devices. The Delaney Clause, which was included in both the Food Additives Amendment and Color Additives Amendment, prohibited approval of any additive that had been found to cause cancer in humans or animals. However, in 1996 the Delaney Clause was modified, and the commissioner of the FDA was charged with assessing the risk from consumption of additives that may cause cancer and making a determination as to the use of that additive. The FDA continually monitors the safety of all food additives as new scientific evidence becomes available. For example, use of erythrosine (FD&C Red No. 3) in cosmetics and externally applied drugs was banned
This disorder occours when the body becomes hypersensitive to a particular allergen. When irritated by an allergen, the body produces histamine in the skin as part of the body's defence or immune system. The effects of different allergens are diverse and they affect different tissues and organs. For example, certain cosmetics and chemicals can cause rashes and irritation in the skin. Certain allergens such as pollen, fur, feathers, mould and dust can cause asthma and hay fever. If severe, allergies may be extremely serious and result in anaphylactic shock with symptoms in different parts of the body at the same time, including rashes, swelling of the lips and throat, difficulty breathing and a rapid fall in blood pressure and loss of consciousness.
Given the range of cosmetics using nanoparticulate metal oxides primarily for UV protection it is interesting to note a cosmetics product containing fullerene in the list. In this case the fullerene is claimed to have antioxidant properties. Carbon nanotubes have been used as a reinforcing component in a new baseball bat. Silver nanoparticles feature again, this time in socks where enhanced bonding of the 19 nm silver particles to the polyester fibres is claimed to provide enhanced and longer-lasting antimicrobial and antifungal performance. A novel chewing gum having chocolate flavour, which is apparently difficult to achieve, has been produced using ''nanoscale crystals'' of unknown chemistry to enhance the compatibility of the cocoa butter with the polymers that are used to give the gum elasticity. So-called self-cleaning windows and paint surfaces are also included in the top 10. These are based on photoactive titanium dioxide with the windows gaining a further benefit when it...
The hallmark of histrionic personality disorder is excessive attention seeking and emotionality. Often such persons are overly dramatic, preferring to be the center of attention. They may appear charming or even flirtatious. Many are inappropriatel seductive or provocative. And this sexually provocative behavior is often undirected and occurs in inappropriate settings, such as in professional settings. Physical appearance is often very important to histrionic persons, and they work to impress others and obtain compliments. Often, however , they overdo it and appear gaudy or flam boyant (e.g., histrionic women may wear way too much makeup).
There is also interaction between genetic makeup and behavior. Most people assume that genes shape the person behavior and brain anatomy. Nobel laureate Eric Kandel's work2 shows that when people learn new skills, their minds also affect which genes in their neurons are transcribed. Thus it is possible to shape genes to some degree through sports and exercise, which in turn shape the brain's microscopic anatomy.
In 1938 President Franklin Roosevelt signed the Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (FD&CA) into law, giving the FDA the authority to require that products establish safety prior to marketing. The FD&CA had additional provisions such as disclosure of all active ingredients, required directions for use, incorporation of warnings about misuse, provisions for facility inspections, prohibition of false claims, and extending authority to the regulation of cosmetics and devices.
Traditional health knowledge extends to an appreciation of both the material and nonmaterial properties of plants, animals, and minerals. Its classificatory systems range in scope from the cosmological to the particular in addressing the physiological makeup of individuals and the specific categories of materia medica the materials used for therapeutic purposes in traditional health systems needed to enhance health and well-being. Mental, social, spiritual, physical, and ecological factors are all taken into account.
This is one of the most important tree species in the Middle Eastern vegetation type known as maquis, with Pistacia. Arab proverbs hint that the carob tree is cursed, and one should not sleep under it. And yet, carob is widely cultivated for its fruit and seeds, both high in sugar and calcium, low in protein and fats. It is used in health foods as a chocolate substitute. A single carob tree may yield 800 pounds of fruit. The seeds are said to be the ancient weight used by goldsmiths, and instituted from early times as carat weight. Seeds commanded a high price singers imagined they cleared the voice. Carob is also used in textile printing, synthetic resins, insecticides, and fungicides. American imports were mostly used in tobacco flavorings and cosmetics, but have now moved into the health food arena. In the Prodigal Son story, the younger son asked for his inheritance, which he then spent quickly and unwisely. When he had no money or food left, he hired out as a swine tender....
Peak-flow monitoring is necessary, whatever the treatment. Homeopathic treatment of asthma is primarily constitutional. A practitioner will be particularly interested in an individual's food preferences, their emotional makeup, and any significant environmental factors. The choice of
Avoidance of food allergens focuses on dietary avoidance but attention must also be paid to exposure via skin (e.g. peanut oil in cosmetics), mucous membranes (e.g. kissing) or inhalation (e.g. peanut dust, steaming milk or fish). Accidental reactions are common in children with peanut allergy, 50 reported reactions to peanuts despite avoidance over a 2-year period 38 . Individuals with a history of immediate allergic reactions, anaphylaxis, those with asthma, and those with allergy to foods typically associated with severe reactions (i.e., peanut, tree nuts, fish, shellfish) should be prescribed an epinephrine self-injector.
Evaluation of existing evidence related to effects of micronutrient supplements on nutrition and health, aimed at formulating recommendations for supplementation, must take into account the influence of a person's stage of life and general health status on the absorption, usefulness, and need for any particular micronutrient. Physiological needs for specific micronutrients and, consequently, for micronutrient supplements differ at various stages in the life cycle. For example, infants require additional iron after 6 months of age, women who may become pregnant benefit from additional folate, and elderly people who lose their ability to absorb naturally occurring vitamin B12 in food require an alternative source of the vitamin. When studies are designed to investigate the relationship between micronutrient supplements and specific health outcomes, the outcomes that are chosen to be measured usually depend on the specific life cycle stage of the study participants. For any life cycle...
Sublingual nifedipine is used worldwide to lower BP acutely in so-called hypertensive emergencies. Unfortunately, many patients who received sublingual nifedipine needed it about as much as a patient with high cholesterol would need a sublingual statin. Ofnote, there is good evidence that the sublingual application is of no added benefit because what gets into the blood stream is actually what is swallowed. Also, sublingual nifedipine lowers BP in a completely uncontrolled way, and such an abrupt BP drop has been associated with acute MI, stroke and death. Clearly, this is BP cosmetics and should be considered malpractice.
Theories built on a Mechanistic Worldview reflect a belief that behavior and behavior change are predictable, lawful phenomena that can, theoretically at least, be fully understood through the use of systematic, objective empirical research methods (empirical meaning that the methods rely on observation or experimentation). Secondly, mechanists believe that behavior is caused by either factors external to the individual (efficient causes) or those defining the individual's biological makeup (material causes). Efficient causes include such things as parenting style, educational opportunities, and peer group composition. Material causes include inherited genetic characteristics and more general biological qualities such as temperament or information processing capability.
A growing awareness of the importance of the early years and their long-lasting impact on future development began in the early twentieth century and continued into the early twenty-first century. Building upon that awareness, the idea took hold that providing children with a solid, stimulating foundation in the early years can greatly affect their development. The results of brain research captured the attention of child development specialists in the 1990s. The extent to which a child develops is no longer thought to be due only to the child's genetic makeup. Professionals now believe that how a person's brain, and consequently the rest of the person, develops is based on the interaction between the person's environment and the genes the person was born with. The classic study conducted by two psychologists H. H. Skeels and H. B. Dye in Iowa orphanages in 1939 supports the knowledge scientists have in the early twenty-first century. The results of this study revealed that children...
You are absolutely right, severe obesity is often more than just too many calories and too little exercise. In each person the exact cause of severe obesity is different. Scientists believe that obesity is due to the complex interplay of genetics, environment, and culture. A person's psychological makeup also plays a role in the development of obesity. It is far too simple to say that obesity is just a matter of poor self-control and lack of exercise. Any person with severe obesity has a chronic illness that may require surgery and certainly will require lifelong medical and possibly psychological care.
Coconut can be a food allergen (Fries & Fries, 1983). It is a top-five food allergy in India, where coconut is a common food source (Teuber & Peterson, 1999). On the other hand, food allergies to coconut are considered rare in Australia, the UK, and the USA. As a result, commercial extracts of coconut are not currently available for skin-prick testing in Australia or New Zealand. Coconut-derived products can cause contact dermatitis (de Groot etal., 1987). They can be present in cosmetics, including some shampoos, moisturizers, soaps, cleansers, and handwashing liquids (Pinola et al., 1993).
Since the beginning of recorded history, societies have been concerned about the purity of the food and drink available to the public. Regulation of food in the United States dates back to early colonial times. Federal controls over the drug supply started in 1848 when the state of California passed a pure food and drink law. In 1902, Congress made appropriations to establish food standards in the same year, the Biologics Control Act was passed to license and regulate interstate sale of serum, vaccines, and other biologics used to prevent or treat disease in humans. The 1902 act established federal inspection of licensed facilities, prohibition of false labeling, and the concept of a dating period during which a biological product would be medically used. In 1906, the Food and Drug Act passed Congress, prohibiting interstate commerce of mis-branded and adulterated foods, drinks, and drugs. In 1938, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act was enacted, making the 1906 Food and...
Up, and remains essentially the same across the lifespan. Although siblings share a considerable part of their genetic makeup, children in the same family can have quite different temperaments. Some children are calm and easygoing, whereas others are impatient and easily upset. Not surprisingly, easygoing children experience less conflict in their sibling relationships than impatient children do. When one sibling is easygoing and another is impatient, the kind of relationship that they have depends on which sibling has the easygoing temperament. Sibling relationships run more smoothly when the easygoing sibling is older than the impatient one, because older children usually take charge of the situation when they are with their younger siblings.
Trends which deserve particular concern of the scientists, policy-makers and the public as a whole, are based on the growing number of evidence showing that long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution is the risk factor which can contribute to overall and especially to specific respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in general population (Brunekreef et al., 2009). Even some consumer products, including food, cosmetics and household cleaners, owing to their overall use, are among the most significant sources of exposure to toxic and carcinogenic chemicals. Higher level of awareness is the first step to tackle more adequate legislation and adversiting options, as well as technology innovations (American Cancer Society, 2007, as cited in Majnaric-Trtica, 2009 WHO, 2009).
Many factors affect a person's susceptibility to drug abuse, which makes studying the genetic bases for addiction difficult, particularly where drug addiction is concerned. Studies must match control and drug-abusing populations adequately, and the sample size must be large enough to detect small genotype changes from background influences. Individual variables (such as severity of dependence) need to be consistent between research groups. It's also difficult to determine whether an individual currently in the control group will express addictive behavior in the future. For these and other reasons, scientists have been unable to prove a definitive link between an individual's genetic makeup and a tendency to substance abuse, although they strongly suspect its existence, especially in the more severe forms of alcoholism and drug dependence.
Contact allergy to chemicals used in ear drops is the most common type of dermatologic otitis externa. Hairsprays, dyes, and cosmetics can also result in an eczematoid and draining otorrhea. If the source of external canal weeping is not obvious, routine patch testing is strongly suggested (20). The autoeczematization (ID) reaction, which is an autoimmune reaction that may involve only the external auditory canal, has been recorded for over 70 years in the otolaryngology literature. Recent studies confirm that this is due to a local reaction to distant fungus infections, most commonly dermatophytid in the feet and inguinal area. Control of the primary fungal infection with prolonged antifungal systemic treatment will nearly always control the ear reaction (21,22). There are other less-common dermatologic conditions that may focus on the ear. Atopic dermatitis, which has recently been found to result from a superantigen reaction to Staphylococcus aureus exotoxin, has been implicated in...
The next step was to find out more about this particular coro-navirus. To do that, WHO researchers sent samples of the virus to a laboratory at the University of California in San Francisco. Doctors there have a new tool called a DNA microarray, with which they can pinpoint a virus by examining a fragment of its genetic makeup.
Holmes and other experts believe it is likely that an animal virus mutated, and its protein spikes changed in such a way that they could latch onto human cells. Perhaps the barbs on the spikes altered in mutation, enabling them to be more of a threat to a human host. Researchers working on mapping the virus's genetic makeup support that theory, for in twelve different laboratories, twelve genetic profiles have been noted.
Device-retrieval analysis also has an important regulatory role, as specified in the Safe Medical Devices Act of 1990 (PL 101-629), the first major amendment to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act since the Medical Device Amendments of 1976.22,23 The user reporting requirements of this legislation require health care personnel and hospitals to report (within 10 d) to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or manufacturers or both (depending on the nature of the occurrence) all prosthesis-associated complications that cause death, serious illness, or injury. Such incidents are often discovered during a pathologist's diagnostic evaluation of an implant in the autopsy suite or the surgical pathology laboratory.
Restrict eating to recognized meal and snack periods with perhaps two snacks only for children and three snacks for adolescents Where possible, eat meals prepared at home and served on a plate rather than ready-to-eat, microwaved individual meals Where possible, prepare meals at home so that the cook at least is aware of the nutritional makeup of the meal Read the nutritional information given on the packet and observe not only the content 100 g but also the weight (and thus nutrient content) of the food bought and fed to each member of the family Portion sizes can be reduced using smaller plates may make this less obvious avoid second helpings Use 'low-calorie' margarines, spreads, mayonnaise, yoghurts, soups, baked beans, etc. Use semi-skimmed milk, sugar-free fruit
Optimal nutrition is needed to supply the necessary substrates for bone however, other parameters also influence the impact of a given nutrient on bone health. A substantial amount of bone mineral acquisition (up to 80 ) is genetically determined. An individual's ability to utilize a given nutrient intake is influenced by his or her genetic makeup.
While most people who discuss bariatric surgery with their physician have an essentially normal psychological makeup, a small but significant minority have serious psychological issues. While most of these psychological issues do not preclude undergoing gastric bypass surgery, they do need to be addressed. Sometimes the psychological problems can be treated prior to surgery. However, some issues will require therapy long after bypass surgery.
Scientists know that a local injury resulting from trauma can lead to lingering pain. Pain that lasts for weeks, months, or years is termed chronic pain and is accompanied by changes in the chemical and anatomical makeup of the brain and spinal cord. Chronic pain that goes untreated can increase in intensity and spread from an original site to body areas that weren't previously affected, further damaging health and functioning. At that point, chronic pain becomes a disorder in itself. Why this happens in some people and not others is unclear, although genetics may play a role. What is certain is that sometimes an injury will lead to a constellation of changes, including an elevation of spontaneous CNS firing, an increase in pain response level and length, and a decrease of pain threshold. These are the changes collectively termed central sensitization, and they appear to be fundamental to the pain sensitivity that defines chronic pain.
Thyroid disease, which affects about one in three people with type 1 diabetes, the likelihood of developing one of these other disorders is not high, but can be so in certain families. Most people with type 1 diabetes are screened annually for thyroid disease. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the other diseases appear to be independent, but related. In other words, they and the diabetes arise from a common soil in the affected person's metabolic makeup. These related diseases include cholesterol and other blood fat abnormalities (dyslipidemia), high blood pressure (hypertension), and gout. The first two are commonly seen in people with type 2 diabetes, while the third is less so.
Sharon felt that, more and more, these difficulties were getting in the way of her job and her relationships with close friends and potential clients. Architects have to meet prospective clients, understand what they want, and express themselves confidently and precisely. They have to anticipate what the client wants, almost before the client finishes a thought. They need to exhibit considerable personal charm in meeting with clients during the design process. Sharon said she needed lots of explanation to help her understand what other people wanted in the makeup of a building. She needed to write it down and go away and think about it. Often during a conversation, she had to repeat to herself what another person might be saying and deduce his or her meaning in a logical fashion. She also had to monitor what she wanted to say in return and to make sure that it was not inappropriate. She had little intuitive understanding of others and had to regulate her...
Research into the genetic foundations of disease, both acquired and inherited, has fostered progress of molecular medicines. Exemplified by the recent decoding of the complete human and mouse genomes medical scientists have ever-expanding tools useful to engineer and employ therapeutic gene transfer in medical research programs. In contrast to traditional drugs, which act by modifying existing gene product activity, therapeutic gene transfer, or gene therapy, alters the genetic makeup of the cell with the intention of ameliorating the target disease phenotype. Successful gene therapy requires the identification of therapeutic genes that will correct a genetic defect or rectify a disease process, as well as the design and construction of suitable vehicles for delivery and expression of these genes in vivo. Identification of genes with therapeutic potential and engineering of effective gene transfer vectors are rapidly proceeding, making gene therapy an imminent practical reality....
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a Federal agency in the Department of Health and Human Services with scientific, regulatory and public health responsibilities. The FDA mission statement notes that the FDA is responsible for protecting the public health by assuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, the nation's food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation The FDA is also
Feel Better is a program developed by the Personal Care Products Council Foundation in cooperation with the American Cancer Society. At the local level, beauticians from various salons donate their time and talent to hold workshops at which they instruct cancer patients in skin care, makeup, and the use of wigs, turbans, and scarves to help them look better. Large cosmetic companies donate generous gifts of makeup and perfumes, which the beauticians distribute to participants. There is also a Look Good . . . Feel Better for Teens, which offers an Internet network as well as local meetings.
Human behavior is very complex, and it is often difficult to examine. Although scientists do conduct studies on people, many investigations of drug effects on behavior are carried out using animals. With animals, investigators have better control over the conditions in which the behavior occurs as well as better information about the organism's past experience with a particular drug. Although animal experiments provide a precise, controlled environment in which to investigate drug effects, they also have their limitations. Clearly, they cannot research all the factors that influence human behavior. Nevertheless, many of the effects that drugs produce on behavior in animals also occur in humans. Moreover, behavioral studies sometimes require a large number of subjects with the same genetic makeup or with no previous drug experi
Walsh and her colleagues randomized 227 employed problem drinkers into compulsory inpatient treatment, compulsory attendance at AA, and a choice of options. During a two-year follow up, the researchers used measures of performance with drinking and drug use to gauge effectiveness. They concluded that the hospital group fared best and that the group assigned to AA fared least well. Many of those randomly assigned to AA probably lacked the readiness and the emotional makeup that appear to be required for affiliation. Matching patients to specific treatments has been advocated for many years (Ogborne & Glaser 1981 Pattison 1982), and the Walsh study certainly indicates the importance of matching in the case of AA.
Modified forms of titanium dioxide have also found markets. Oxonica has developed and is selling a manganese-doped titanium dioxide that exhibits significantly enhanced UVA absorption and minimises the generation of free radicals resulting from the absorption of UV light by the titanium dioxide.47 49 This product is already being used commercially in sunscreens and cosmetics and is being evaluated for applications in coatings and plastics. 3.4.3 Aluminium Oxide. Nanoparticulate aluminium oxide has been produced in platelet form and has found use in cosmetics. The benefits are achieved through a uniform platelet morphology that provides superior transparency and soft focus properties.57 Fumed silica has a chain-like particle morphology. In liquids, the chains bond together via weak hydrogen bonds forming a three-dimensional network, trapping liquid and effectively increasing viscosity. The effect of the fumed silica can be negated by the application of a shear force, e.g. by mixing or...
The small starch granule size and composition have been suggested to be responsible for unique gelatinization and freeze thaw characteristics that could be exploited by the food industry to develop various products (Becker et al., 1981). Amaranth starch can be used in many food preparations, such as custards, pastes, and salads, and nonfood applications, such as cosmetics, biodegradable films, paper coatings, and laundry starch. Amaranth flour is used as a thickener in gravies, soups, and stews. Sprouted amaranth is used in salads. The cooking of amaranth improves its digestibility and absorption of nutrients. Amaranth flour lacks gluten proteins present in wheat hence, it is not suitable for bread making. It is blended with wheatmeal flour in the preparation of unleavened flat bread known as chapattis in India and tortillas in Latin America. Amaranth flour is also used in the preparation of biscuits, muffins, pancakes, pastas, flat breads, extruded products, etc. In India, the grains...
Historical note The root word for orange is the Arabic, narandj (Sellar 1992). The orange is a symbol of innocence and fertility. Some scholars believe the 'golden apple' Paris presented to Venus was actually an orange. In return, Venus bestowed Helen on Paris as a reward for selecting her in a beauty contest, which eventually caused the Trojan War. The tree is indigenous to eastern Africa, Arabia and Syria and it is believed that the crusaders may have introduced the orange to Europe when they returned from the crusades. Unripe dried fruits and the fruit peel are incorporated into various products, including foods such as marmalade, alcoholic beverages such as Curacao and medicinal products. The essential oil is used in perfumes, cosmetics and aromatherapy (Leung & Foster 1 996), and also used as food flavouring and to disguise the unpleasant taste of medicines. Orange blossom water has been used for centuries in Mediterranean countries to flavour cakes and beverages (Jeannot et al...
Citrus aurantium var. dulcis The essential oil is used to convey warmth and happiness and improve mood (Battaglia 2003), reduce stress, and promote sleep (Miakeet al 1991), and aid concentration (Baron & Thomley 1994). It is traditionally known as 'the oil of communication and happiness'. It is also used to improve digestion and as a carminative to relieve gastric cramping and discomfort. Citrus aurantium var. amara The essential oil is used to reduce anxiety, muscle tension and promote relaxation. It is used in cosmetics to repair broken capillaries, stimulate cell regeneration and to manage acne-prone skin.
This is the first online inventory of nanotechnology consumer products and contains some 212 manufacturer-identified nanoproducts. The inventory can be accessed online at www.nanoproject.org consumerproducts and at least some of the products and applications described here are listed in this inventory. Others include reinforced tennis, squash and badminton racquets containing carbon nanotubes, cultured diamonds, non dirtying clothes, razors, automotive and other coatings, cosmetics, microprocessors, golf balls, silver colloids and photographic paper.
The term ''genotype'' refers to the specific genetic makeup of an individual and is often used with reference to allelic or mutant differences between individuals at one or more genes. The genotype of an individual is the genetic information within an individual's specific DNA sequence that sets the limits upon which nongenetic parameters like environment modulate normal and abnormal phenotypes. Genotypes at specific genes known to cause birth defects are used as diagnostics in genetic counseling to identify parents carrying specific disease genes and in prenatal genetic testing for offspring that will have birth defects. For example, a description of a mutation within the gene that causes cystic fibrosis is a genotype, while manifestation of the disease is the pheno-type. The results of the Human Genome Project are being used to identify DNA sequences that cause birth defects. The genotypes associated with birth defects are then available for development of more accurate diagnostic...
There is a classification of food items called night shades that in themselves are not harmful or bad. They have a substance that is a part of their makeup called solanine. Solanine is an irritant to the liver. Your liver needs to be functioning optimally in order for you not to have pain or inflammation caused by the night shades.
Historical note Lavender was used as an antiseptic in ancient Arabian, Greek and Roman medicines. Its generic name comes from the Latin lavare, to wash, and it was used as a bath additive as well as an antiseptic in the hospitals and sick rooms of ancient Persia, Greece and Rome (Blumenthal et al 2000). In the 1 7th century, Culpeper described lavender as having 'use for pains in the head following cold, cramps, convulsions, palsies and faintings' (Battaglia 1 995). Lavender was also used traditionally to scent bed linen and to protect stored clothes from moths. This was such a well-accepted practice that the phrase 'laying up in lavender' was used metaphorically to mean 'putting away in storage' (Kirk-Smith 2003). Lavender is now widely used to scent perfumes, potpourri, toiletries and cosmetics, as well as to flavour food. Lavender is commonly adulterated with related species that can vary in their constituents. Spike lavender yields more oil but is of lower quality. Lavandin is a...
Esther was in preparation for 12 months before seeing King Ahasuerus. Oil of myrrh and perfumes were used for beatifying Esther. Today lotions and body applications may create a toxic state. Become a label reader. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and sodium lau-reth sulfate (SLES) are major ingredients in cosmetics, toothpaste, and 90 percent of all shampoos and products that foam. They have been described as dangerous beauty. Studies on test animals using SLS or SLES, show eye damage, depression, labored breathing, diarrhea, severe skin irritation, and corrosion. SLS, when combined with other chemicals, can be transformed into cancer-forming compounds.37
Several considerations, however, suggest the need for a concept of content that would supervene on internal psychology, that is, a concept of narrow content. We normally assume that our behavior is causally explained by our intentional states such as beliefs and desires (see inten-tionality). We also assume that our behavior has its causal explanation in our individual, internal psychological makeup (see individualism). But if the explanation of behavior supervenes on individual, internal psychology, and the broad contents of our intentional states do not, then it seems that either those states will not figure in the causal explanations of a genuine psychological science or that a notion of narrow content is required. Some theorists have challenged this argument, however, by denying the first assumption (Stich 1978 1983), some have denied the second (Wilson 1995), and some have denied that the conclusion follows (Fodor 1994). Even the legitimacy of a distinction between broad and...
WHO recommends that every effort must be made to develop affordable fluoride toothpastes for use in developing countries. As a public health measure, it would be in the interest of countries to exempt these toothpastes from the duties and taxation imposed on cosmetics (Petersen, et al., 2004).
Poor diet, and allergies, as well as infections, may all cause outbreaks. Skin conditions may be aggravated by factors such as lack of exercise eating sugary foods, refined carbohydrates, or other foods caffeine and alcohol constipation the use of cosmetics and contact irritants in the environment.
Sun sensitivity can also be triggered by the coal tars in some medicated soaps and shampoos, or the oil of bergamot in certain perfumes, toilet soaps, lemons, and limes. Topical photosensitizers can be found in cosmetics, face creams, perfumes, and aftershave lotions. in addition, plants such as celery, wild carrots, limes, and meadow grass contain photosensitizing compounds. industrial contaminants and air pollutants such as tars and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are also potent photosensitizers.
Folinic acid 5-Formyl folic acid, more stable to oxidation than folic acid itself, and commonly used in pharmaceutical prepara-tions.The synthetic (racemic) compound is known as leucovorin. fondant Minute sugar crystals in a saturated sugar syrup used as the creamy filling in chocolates and biscuits and for decorating cakes. Prepared by boiling sugar solution with the addition of glucose syrup or an inverting agent (see sugar, invert) and cooling rapidly while stirring. fondue Swiss cheese melted with wine and herbs, eaten by dipping small squares of bread into the hot mixture. Fondue bourguignonne is small cubes of marinated meat, cooked on a long fork in a vessel of hot oil at the table. food Any solid or liquid material consumed by a living organism to supply energy, build and replace tissue or participate in such reactions. Defined by the FAO WHO codex alimentarius Commission as a substance, whether processed, semiprocessed or raw, that is intended for human consumption and...
The whole leaf of Aloe vera, or products extracted from whole leaf, have been used directly on radiation burns, thermal burns, partial thickness wounds, stasis ulcers, and diabetic ulcers. Most researchers report an initial increase in necrosis and then more rapid healing when compared to other treatments or no treatment.41-43 This may be a reflection of the above-identified immune modulating effects. Aloe vera has enjoyed a great popularity in household remedies and cosmetics. Research is just beginning to unravel the reasons why this botanical has been highly regarded by healers and the healed alike.
Informed consent prior to use of drugs. Use IV methylprednisolone pulsing to quickly get inflammation under control in order to minimize use of oral steroids. Early use of immunosuppressive medication. Healthy eating advice to limit weight gain. Camouflage nurses may give advice on treatment of stretch marks and makeup use. Early aggressive treatment of JDM may decrease the chance of lipoatrophy and calcinosis, both distressing for adolescents.
In the one animal antitumor study conducted, oral doses of sesquiterpene lactones (at 10 mg kg) extracted from the related plant Parthenium hysterophorus markedly increased the life span and reduced tumor size in leukemia-bearing mice.134 Given what we know about the makeup of P. hysterophorus, it is likely that parthenolide was a primary constituent in the extract. The equivalent human dose is about 96 milligrams per day of lactones.
Allergens can enter the body in numerous ways. They can be taken in by the mucous membranes of the nose from pollen or dust, absorbed through the intestinal tract from foods, bacteria, molds or drugs they may be injected from drugs or vaccines or they can enter through the skin from cosmetics, insect bites, or poison oak or ivy. (For spider bites, apply a comfrey poultice or compress for stings and bites in general, apply a cold compress.)
Unlike Zohary, I followed Moldenke and Moldenke in my first Bible book (Duke, 1983) and concluded that the cassia of Psalms 45 was the Indian kuth (standardized common name costus, widely used in perfumes and incenses). Other scholars, such as Zohary, would think that cassia in the Bible was more likely to be a species of Cinnamomum (which see and I agree). Still I include the kuth here. Others might side with the Moldenkes. Although noted as an aphrodisiac, costus' chief use is as a perfume. In China and India it serves as incense in temples. The essential oil is valued in perfumery and cosmetics. The essential oil has strong antiseptic and disinfectant properties, especially against Streptococcus and Staphylococcus. The root owes its insecticidal property to its essential oil content. Roots are employed in Kashmir as insecticide to protect shawls and woolen fabrics. A process for treating costus roots or inulin obtained from them for the production of fructose has been reported....
From time to time, there are paradigm shifts in the diagnostic process. In the 1990s, genetics showed how differences in the genetic makeup could reveal the risk of many diseases. Knowledge of these differences can form the basis for a new approach to earlier detection of disease and preventive medicine. Molecular medicine can detect disease at an earlier stage than is possible today, including mental diseases. Prevention will become more important than treatment. Mental illness, as is the case with cancer, will be characterized as the result of nature and nurture.
A ccording to the modern reconstructions by anthropologists, the Neolithic revolution began in the Middle East at about 10,000 bce. It is defined as marking the change from hunter-gatherer groups to agricultural societies and brought about a drastic change in the nature of human diets, but, it is claimed, not in our genes. The shift to agriculture was a gradual one however, by 7,500 bce, most people in the Middle East had switched to an agrarian way of life, and the first state was born by 5,500 bce. The Industrial Revolution in eighteenth-century Europe brought about another major shift in human diets without any alteration in our underlying genetic makeup.
Carcass composition among species and within species as a result of different fat-to-muscle ratios in the edible portion. As fat percentage increases, nutrient concentration of the muscle portion decreases. Also, to a certain extent, the fat profile composition and other nutrient content levels may be modified or affected by the animal's diet and or genetic makeup.
The nutritional quality of maize is determined by the amino acid makeup of its protein. Maize is deficient in two essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan, making it a poor protein food. The kernel is made up of the endosperm, the germ, the pericap, and the tip cap. The protein concentration is highest in the germ, but the quality is better in the endosperm. The germ proteins contribute significantly to essential amino acids, so maize food products without the germ, including quality protein maize (QPM) endosperm, are lower in protein quality compared to the whole kernel.
Parabens, sensitivity to The parabens (methyl-, propyl-, and butyl-) are the most common preservatives used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics, but they can cause a severe redness, swelling, itching, and pain. They can also cause anaphylactic shock in susceptible individuals. Parabens can be found in mayonnaise, salad dressings, spiced sauces, mustard, processed vegetables, frozen dairy products, some baked goods, jellies and jams, soft drinks, fruit juices, syrups, and candies. in medications, they are used in many dermatologic creams eye, ear, and nose drops rectal and vaginal medications bandages and local anesthetics. Cosmetics containing parabens include foundations, powders, cover-up sticks, bronzers, makeup removers, blushes, highlighters, lipsticks, quick-dry nail products, mascaras, eye shadows, and eyeliners. However, considering how widespread the use of parabens is, sensitivity to this preservative is low. (See also allergies.)
Historical note With the exception of cellulose, chitin is the most abundant natural polysaccharide on Earth. It is produced by different crustaceans, molluscs, insects, algae, fungi and yeasts. Recently, the commercial value of chitin has increased because of the beneficial properties of its soluble derivatives, which are used in chemistry, biotechnology, agriculture, food processing, cosmetics, veterinary science, medicine, dentistry, environmental protection, and paper or textile production. The most useful chitin derivative is chitosan.
Although everyone needs the same nutrients, each individual is different in his or her genetic and physiological makeup and therefore individual quantitative nutritional needs differ. Prevention is the wisest strategy in keeping healthy by getting periodic health checks, eating a nutrient-dense diet, exercising on a regular basis, and reducing or managing stress.
Historical note Chamomiles have been used as medicines since antiquity and traditionally grouped in botanical texts under the same general heading. They were probably used interchangeably. Roman chamomile was reportedly used to embalm the Egyptian Pharaoh, Ramses II, and is thought to have been introduced into Britain bythe Romans during their conquests. The Anglo-Saxons used chamomile, presumably the Roman chamomile, as one of their nine sacred herbs. Culpeper lists numerous ailments for which chamomile was used, such as jaundice, fevers, kidney stones, colic, retention of urine and inflammation of the bowel (Culpeper 1 995). It was also widely used to treat common conditions in children including colic in infants, teething pains and fever (Grieve 1976). It is used in the treatment of gout and to reduce the severity of sciatic pain, either taken internally or applied as a poultice externally (Culpeper 1995). Today, chamomile tea is one of the most popular herbal teas in Australia and...
Historical note The horse chestnut tree is commonly found in ornamental gardens throughout Europe, growing up to 35 metres in height. The seeds are not edible due to the presence of alkaloid saponins, but both the dried seeds and bark of the horse chestnut tree have been used medicinally since the 1 6th century. The seeds are also used for the children's game 'conkers' and were used to produce acetone during World Wars I and II. In modern times, a dry extract referred to as horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE) is standardised to contain 1 6-21 triterpene glycosides (anhydrous escin). HCSE has been extensively researched for its beneficial effects and is commonly used by general practitioners in Germany for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. Homoeopathic preparations of both the leaf and seed are also used for treating haemorrhoids, lower back pain, and varicose veins and the buds and flower are used to make the Bach flower remedies chestnut bud and white chestnut. The active...
Lack of sufficient endogenous production of vitamin D in the skin is influenced by geographical location (more northern latitudes have a shorter season during which the wavelength needed for vitamin D synthesis is available), increased use of sunscreen and cosmetics and skin care products containing sunscreen (sunscreens with SPF values of 8 or greater block the dermal production of vitamin D), and lifestyle factors that decrease exposure to sunlight.
Spices are valued as ingredients of incense, embalming preservatives, perfumes, cosmetics and medicines. The use of coriander dates back to the day humans learnt to use fire for preparing food. But for a very long time the seed spices were used as freshly harvested dried form. Much later, people realized the possibility of producing essential oil by pressing the plant parts. This was used for medicine and fragrance.
Organic essential oils, especially lavender oil, are produced in various parts of the world, including the UK, Australia and the USA a comparative study of the essential oil quantity and quality of ten cultivars of organically grown lavender and lavandin is provided by Charles et al. (2002). There does not seem to be any great difference in the essential oil composition of organic compared with conventionally grown lavender, except for some percentages of enantiomers however, the absence of pesticides would be welcomed. Farmers in the UK must comply with European Council Regulation (EEC) No. 2092 91, enforced 22 July 1991, regarding organic production and the rules governing the processing and sale of organic products. Land must be put into conversion prior to full-scale organic production and then applications must be made for status with the Soil Association, which inspects the sites. This takes around three years, and this, together with a lower yield, due to loss by natural...
Throughout pregnancy, this brain development is vulnerable to disruptions. if the disruption occurs early, the fetus may die, or the infant may be born with widespread disabilities and possibly mental retardation. if the disruption occurs later, when the cells are becoming specialized and moving into place, it may leave errors in the cell makeup, location, or connections. Some scientists believe that these errors may later show up as learning disorders.
Arnold Gesell, a psychologist, pediatrician, and educator in the 1940s, was very interested in child development. From his numerous observations of children, Gesell formulated a theory known as maturation. This theory stated that developmental changes in a child's body or behavior are a result of the aging process rather than from learning, injury, illness, or some other life experience. Gesell's idea of maturation was rooted in the biological, physiological, and evolutionary sciences. As a result, Gesell centered most of his theory on the power of biological forces, which he felt provided momentum for development to occur. Gesell and his contemporaries proposed that development follows an orderly sequence and that the biological and evolutionary history of the species decides the order of this sequence. Maturation supports the idea that each child's unique genetic and biological makeup determines the rate of development regardless of other potential environmental influences.
Neoplasms have been shown to be heterogeneous for the metastatic phenotype, consisting of subpopulations with diverse biology (129). This cellular diversity has been attributed to inherent or acquired genetic instability during tumour progression. Selective pressures within the metastatic cascade may select for a dominant population leaving the population of greatest metastatic potential Such cellular biological diversity in tumours was demonstrated using the B16 murine tumour (130). Subpopulations of this same tumour have a differing genetic makeup and when cloned and reinjected into animals exhibited differing metastatic potential for pulmonary metastases (130).
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