Withdrawal

Withdrawal is a method of birth control that requires a man to remove his penis from the vagina when he feels he is about to ejaculate. Ejaculation then takes place outside the woman's body, completely away from her vaginal area, to protect her from any contact with his sperm. Withdrawal costs nothing, is always available, and does not require using any devices or chemical-based products. Although it causes no side effects, withdrawal can interrupt intercourse at its climax, or before, and may...

Info

As the name implies, a spermicide is a chemical compound that kills sperm. Spermicides are available in a number of forms that are safe and easy to use aerosol foams, gels or jellies that require an applicator, dissolvable suppositories, and dissolvable squares of film. The active ingredient in these products is nonoxynol-9, which works by damaging the surface membrane of the sperm cell. Like other barrier contraceptives, spermicides do not affect hormone levels in the body or change the...

Part four

Female Sterilization Tubal Occlusion Healthy women may remain fertile until their late 40s, and healthy men are fertile all their lives. Most couples have all the children they want long before they lose their fertility. As a result, they face a good many years in which they have to use some effective form of birth control. Many couples choose sterilization as a solution. As a result, voluntary sterilization is one of the most common contraceptive methods used in the United States. Either...

Sources

Psychological Responses After Abortion, Science 248 (April 6, 1990) 41-44. Alvarez, F., V. Brache, et al. New Insights on the Mode of Action of Intrauterine Contraceptive Devices in Women, Fertility and Sterility 49, no. 5 (May 1988) 768-773. American Medical Association. Encyclopedia of Medicine. New York Random House, 1989. Andrews, W.C. and K.P. Jones. Therapeutic Uses of Oral Contraceptives, Dialogues in Contraception 3, no. 3 (Winter 1991) 1-8. Published by...

Male Sterilization Vasectomy

Vasectomy, the sterilization procedure for men, is simpler and safer than female sterilization and is usually performed in a doctor's office or a clinic. A vasectomy takes approximately 20 minutes, is almost 100 percent effective, has few complications, and is permanent. Some 500,000 vasectomies are performed each year. The term vasectomy means cutting the two vasa deferentia, the sperm ducts, that carry sperm from the testicles to the penis. A small portion of each duct is usually removed and...

Progestasert Can Replaced After 10 Years

Intrauterine devices are small and flexible, are made of plastic or plastic and copper, and are placed in the uterus through the cervical opening to prevent conception. An IUD must be put in and removed by a trained health professional. Once the device is in place, a woman is highly protected against pregnancy. Only two types of IUDs are approved by the FDA for use in the United States today the Progestasert and the ParaGard T380A. The vertical stem of the T-shaped Progestasert contains a...

Abortion

A woman is fertile for about 30 years of her life. If she has a normal reproductive system, becomes sexually active in her teens, and uses no contraception, she could have more than a dozen children. As a result, for most of her reproductive years the average woman is trying either to postpone or to avoid pregnancy. More than half the 6 million pregnancies that occur in the United States each year are not intended. Of these mistimed or unwanted pregnancies, about 1.5 million are ended by an...

The Female Condom

Currently, there is only one version of a female condom on the market the Reality Female Condom. It is a soft, loose-fitting tube or long pouch that is made of a very thin, strong, transparent polyurethane, approximately 3 inches in diameter and 6 to 7 inches long. It looks a bit like a miniature wind sock (Figure 3.1). It is designed to line the inner contours of the vagina and protect a woman against sperm and the bacteria and viruses that cause disease, including AIDS. The female condom has...

The Biology of Reproduction

Reproductive Gif

To understand the different methods of birth control that are available today and to choose the best one for you, you will need to know something about the male and female reproductive systems and the process of conception. This chapter outlines how the systems work and how conception takes place. The sexual organs of the male consist of the penis, scrotum, and testicles (on the outside), and the epididymis, the vas deferens, the prostate, and the urethra (on the inside) (see Figures 1.1 and...

Lnserting Foreign Objects In The Cervix First Trimester

From the uterus, a termination of the pregnancy should be considered. When the IUD is withdrawn and the pregnancy carried full term, no negative effects occur. If you suspect you may be pregnant, get in touch with your health care provider immediately. Ectopic Pregnancy. If you become pregnant while using a Progestasert IUD, the pregnancy is more likely to be ectopic (a tubal pregnancy) than it would be for a woman using another method or the ParaGard. The risk is about the same as it is for a...

Cycle Based Fertility Awareness Methods

Cycle-based fertility awareness methods depend on an understanding of the fertile period in a woman's menstrual cycle and abstaining from sex during those days. These birth control methods are called natural by some people because women learn to interpret the normal physical signs of their bodies that signal the beginning and end of fertility each month. However, it is not necessarily natural for couples to avoid having intercourse for many days out of each month, which these methods require....

Combined Oral Contraceptives

Birth control pills, also called oral contraceptives or OCs, offer almost complete protection against pregnancy when taken exactly as prescribed. They are available in several types and more than 20 different formulations. Most common are the combination pills, which contain synthetic versions of the two major female hormones estrogen and progesterone. When combination pills originally became available, the dose of hormones was quite high today much smaller amounts of hormones are used. In...

The Pill Progestin Only Pills POPs

Progestin-only pills (POPs) are variants of the more commonly used combined (estrogen and progestin) oral contraceptives. Because POPs have no estrogen and only very small amounts of progestin, they are sometimes called minipills. Like Depo-Provera and Norplant, POPs do not contain the estrogen thought to lead to serious cardiovascular complications, such as blood clots and thrombophlebitis. They also are thought to be safer than the combined pill for women who smoke. A POP is taken every day...

Prentif Cervical Cap

How Check Barrier Cervix

The cervical cap is a small, deep latex cup with a firm but flexible rim around the open end. It is 1 1 4 to 1 1 2 inches long and looks like a large rubber thimble. It fits snugly over the cervix and the os, the tiny opening to the cervix Figure 5.1 . The cervical cap is similar to a diaphragm in that it does not cause any hormonal or chemical changes in the body. It has almost no side effects and does not interrupt lovemaking. When used for every single act of intercourse, the cap plus...

The Male Condom

Use The Comdam

The male condom is a soft, flexible cover that fits over the penis. It may be made of latex, polyurethane, Tactylon, or treated animal tissue that is thin, strong, and flexible. The female condom is described in Chapter 3. Because a condom prevents semen from entering the vagina, it is a very effective barrier to pregnancy. Except for those made of animal skin, condoms also act as a barrier to viruses and bacteria, protecting both partners from sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis,...