The Biology of Reproduction

Female Reproductive System Side View

To understand the different methods of birth control that are available today and to choose the best one for you, you will need to know something about the male and female reproductive systems and the process of conception. This chapter outlines how the systems work and how conception takes place. The sexual organs of the male consist of the penis, scrotum, and testicles (on the outside), and the epididymis, the vas deferens, the prostate, and the urethra (on the inside) (see Figures 1.1 and...

How Long Conceptrol Can Be Used After Expiration

As the name implies, a spermicide is a chemical compound that kills sperm. Spermicides are available in a number of forms that are safe and easy to use aerosol foams, gels or jellies that require an applicator, dissolvable suppositories, and dissolvable squares of film. The active ingredient in these products is nonoxynol-9, which works by damaging the surface membrane of the sperm cell. Like other barrier contraceptives, spermicides do not affect hormone levels in the body or change the...

Male Sterilization Vasectomy

Testicular Atrophy

Vasectomy, the sterilization procedure for men, is simpler and safer than female sterilization and is usually performed in a doctor's office or a clinic. A vasectomy takes approximately 20 minutes, is almost 100 percent effective, has few complications, and is permanent. Some 500,000 vasectomies are performed each year. The term vasectomy means cutting the two vasa deferentia, the sperm ducts, that carry sperm from the testicles to the penis. A small portion of each duct is usually removed and...

Prentif Cervical Cap

Figure Cervical Cap

The cervical cap is a small, deep latex cup with a firm but flexible rim around the open end. It is 1 1 4 to 1 1 2 inches long and looks like a large rubber thimble. It fits snugly over the cervix and the os, the tiny opening to the cervix Figure 5.1 . The cervical cap is similar to a diaphragm in that it does not cause any hormonal or chemical changes in the body. It has almost no side effects and does not interrupt lovemaking. When used for every single act of intercourse, the cap plus...

The Pill Progestin Only Pills POPs

Progestin-only pills (POPs) are variants of the more commonly used combined (estrogen and progestin) oral contraceptives. Because POPs have no estrogen and only very small amounts of progestin, they are sometimes called minipills. Like Depo-Provera and Norplant, POPs do not contain the estrogen thought to lead to serious cardiovascular complications, such as blood clots and thrombophlebitis. They also are thought to be safer than the combined pill for women who smoke. A POP is taken every day...

Progestasert Can Replaced After 10 Years

Disadvantages Iud

Intrauterine devices are small and flexible, are made of plastic or plastic and copper, and are placed in the uterus through the cervical opening to prevent conception. An IUD must be put in and removed by a trained health professional. Once the device is in place, a woman is highly protected against pregnancy. Only two types of IUDs are approved by the FDA for use in the United States today the Progestasert and the ParaGard T380A. The vertical stem of the T-shaped Progestasert contains a...