How to Prevent the Common Cold

Avoid / Cure A Cold Fast

When it comes to supporting the immune system natural vitamin C is far better than the synthetic vitamin c . Scientists prove through tens of big experiments that the fresh food is still the best source for vitamin c and it still the best route to fight cold. This great guide avoid/cure a cold fast is a great practical guide including all the information you need to avoid or cure common cold. You will get full insight on the four pillars to avoid cold which are daily short exercises to improve immune system, all information you need to attain the quality sleep which proved by doctors to help curing and avoiding common cold, hydrating your body and the guide have a full insight on what to drink and what to avoid and at last but not the least all the information on the best food ingredients to fight cold. The website contains a lot of free information and a lot more to read in the guide itself. Being ill is a very bad way to spend one's life. You don't need to tolerant the common cold any more. Do not stay ill and lose any more money, buy this guide now and revive. Read more here...

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Upper Respiratory Tract Infections And The Common Cold

COMMON COLD SYMPTOM RELIEF AND REDUCED INCIDENCE The second systematic review conducted by Poolsup et al from the Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Silpakorn University, Nakhon-Pathom, Thailand, was a review of four randomised controlled trials (n 433) and they came to a similar conclusion, finding that Andrographis paniculata either by itself or in combination with Eleutherococcus senticosus (Kan Jang) is effective for uncomplicated acute URTI. Symptoms responding According to double-blind studies, numerous symptoms respond to treatment with andrographis. According to two trials that used a dose of 340 mg andrographis taken three times daily, total symptom scores improved, with throat signs and symptoms responding most strongly (Melchior et al 2000). A third study observed a decrease in rhinitis, sinus pain and headache compared with placebo (Hancke et al 1995). A fourth study using a treatment dose of 1200 mg andrographis daily found a significant reduction in tiredness...

Respiratory illness

Symptoms A sore throat and dry, tickly cough, possibly causing retching and vomiting. Phlegm is streaked with dark-red blood. Chest tightness may be due to asthma, bronchitis, or pneumonia. Colds tend to go straight to the chest. Symptoms better For sitting up for lying on the right side of the body for sleep for cold foods or drinks.

Colds vs Flu and Allergies

A cold is not the same thing as influenza. The common cold is usually limited to the head, whereas the flu will affect the entire body. A cold usually begins slowly, with slight sore throat, mild chills or aches, and mild fever not usually over 100 F. The common cold causes a scratchy throat, runny nose, and itchy eyes. Allergies share a few symptoms with colds, but they have significant differences. A cold that seems to be hanging on for months is more likely an allergy. Winter allergies cause itchy eyes itchy, runny, and stuffy nose itchy throat postnasal drip coughing, sneezing, and season-long symptoms.

Warming Up to Cold Remedies for Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is very different from the common cold, unless you want to factor in the generalized aches and pains of a severe flu into your cold equation. (Many people say that fibromyalgia feels like a semipermanent case of the flu to them, with periodic breaks of feeling a little better.) Despite this difference, some remedies that are given to people with colds, bronchitis, and related ailments may be helpful to people who have fibromyal-gia. I cover guaifenesin (a remedy that's effective in coping with cough) at the beginning of the chapter, so here I move on to other cold remedies that people with FMS have tried.

Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis

Polysaccharides from soy sauce have been shown to have anti-allergic activities in vitro and in vivo and an 8-week double blind study involving 51 subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis found that oral supplementation with 600 mg of soy polysaccharides was effective in significantly improving symptom scores such as sneezing, nasal stuffiness, and hindrance of daily life, as well as significantly improving the appearance and state of the nasal mucosa (Kobayashi 2005, Kobayashi et al 2005).

Hay Fever Allergic Rhinitis

Seasonal airborne irritants such as grass, tree, and flower pollen cause the allergic reaction that is called hay fever. Mucous membranes lining the nose and eyes are mainly affected, but the ears, throat, and lungs may also become irritated. Symptoms include repeated sneezing, a runny nose, watering eyes, and itching of the eyes, nose, palate, and throat. Allergic rhinitis, or perennial rhinitis, is the name given to similar symptoms that occur year-round and are caused by other irritants, including dust mites and animal dander. SELF-HELP Avoid all known irritants. If symptoms are severe, try using air filters or ionizers in the home. Wear sunglasses and a hat when outdoors to shade your face. Eat lots of fresh, raw fruits and vegetables. Blow the nose gently hard blowing may burst pollen grains in the nose and increase irritation. Rub a small dab of petroleum jelly inside each nostril a few times a day to prevent the nose from becoming dry and sore. Take combination H tissue salts...

Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

Vitamin C is widely used to both prevent and treat common URTI, such as the common cold and influenza, largely based on its immune system effects, ability to reduce histamine levels and the observations that the gastrointestinal absorption of vitamin C increases in the common cold, suggesting an increased demand for this A 2004 Cochrane review of 29 placebo-controlled studies involving 11,077 participants found that regular ingestion of vitamin C in doses of 200 mg did not reduce the incidence of the common cold in the normal population however, a subgroup of six trials that involved a total of 642 marathon runners, skiers, and soldiers on subarctic exercises did find significant protective effects (Douglas et al 2004). Data from 9676 respiratory episodes suggested that regular vitamin C supplementation was consistently associated with a small reduction in the duration and severity of common cold symptoms however, the magnitude of the effect was described as small. When high doses of...

Vitamin C and the Common Cold

High doses of vitamin C are popularly recommended for the prevention and treatment of the common cold. Evidence from controlled trials is unconvincing. Chalmers (1975) reviewed 15 reports and considered that only 8 reports met the basic criteria of well-conducted scientific research. Assessment of these 8 reports gave no evidence of any beneficial effects. Similarly, Dykes and Meier (1975), reviewing only those reports that had been published in peer-reviewed journals, concluded that there was no evidence of any significant benefit. Hemila (1992) reviewed a number of studies and again concluded that there was no evidence of a protective effect against the incidence of colds. He did, however, note that there is consistent evidence of a beneficial effect in reducing the severity and duration of symptoms (a notoriously difficult subject to research). He suggested that this might be because of the antioxidant actions of ascorbate against the oxidizing agents produced by, and released...

Cromolyn for Allergic Rhinitis

In recent years, the one airway hypothesis linking disease and therapy in the lung and nose simultaneously suggests a need to briefly review the effect of the chromones on nasal allergy. Intranasal cromolyn is available over the counter as an aqueous preparation topical spray. Several studies have reported that intranasal cromolyn is superior to placebo in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) (5). In particular, a decrease in mouth breathing, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, and sneezing in 66 patients treated with intranasal cromolyn for ragweed rhinitis was observed (142). Similarly, a decrease in rhinitis symptoms and, in this case, ocular symptoms, was observed in 88 patients treated with cromolyn for pollen-induced SAR (143). A decrease in rhinitis symptoms measured by the average daily rhinitis symptom score resulted in decreased antihista-mine use with cromolyn in a small study of 47 patients (p < 0.01) (144). Perennial allergic rhinitis symptoms...

Colds coughs

Symptoms An alternately runny or blocked nose, with smelly, thick, yellowy-green catarrh, and a reduced sense of taste and smell. There may be wet, spasmodic coughing, with yellowy-green mucus and shortness of breath, which is worse for lying on the left side. Violent coughing fits tend to occur in the evening and at night they may be triggered by lying down, and frequently cause sleep to be disturbed. Pulsatilla may be prescribed for influenza when there is fever with alternate hot and cold flashes, a lack of thirst, and possibly an earache. Symptoms better For fresh air for gentle exercise for crying for sympathy. Symptoms worse For stuffy environments for lying down.

Colds catarrh

Symptoms Cold or influenza with fever, sneezing, sweating, and need for warmth. Profuse catarrh may be watery at first, then blood-stained, thick, and yellowish in color, with a smell of old cheese. Contact with cold air triggers sneezing. The nostrils may feel sore and raw. Colds may begin with a tickly throat (see right). There may be sinusitis, with pain in the facial bones and the bridge of the nose. Pain is often right-sided and extends to the ear, notably on swallowing. There may be

Allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is very common in the USA, with more than 50 million estimated sufferers 18 . Inhaled allergens (e.g. pollen, mold, animal dander) cause release of histamine and subsequent symptoms such as itching, excessive mucus production, and swelling. Symptoms are most severe in the morning 19 . Antihistamine drugs are used in therapy and can be taken orally to control symptoms such as sneezing, rhinorrhea, itching, and conjunctivitis. Several studies have been conducted by Reinberg to determine the efficacy of antihistamine medications delivered at specific times 20 . They indicated that for selected first- and second-generation Hl-receptor antagonists duration of action was prolonged when administered in the morning rather than evening.

Cold Remedies

Capsules and tablets for relieving symptoms of colds account for a large percentage of OTC drug sales. Like the cough syrups, they are a mixed bag of different formulas and strengths. Common ingredients are antihistamines, aspirin and other pain relievers, nightshade drugs to dry up excess secretion in the nose and throat, and caffeine and phenylpropanolamine to offset the sedative effects of the other ingredients. Usually these mixtures are packaged in multicolored tablets and flashy capsules to make them look exotic and powerful. Whether they affect the course of a cold or significantly reduce the symptoms is questionable. (Even when they do suppress symptoms, they may actually prolong colds by making people less aware of their illness and less likely to take good care of themselves.) What is more certain is that OTC cold remedies can affect mood, usually in undesirable ways. Alternate methods of treating colds to avoid these problems include taking hot baths, forcing fluids, eating...

Common Cold

Oral zinc supplements, lozenges and nasal sprays and gels have been investigated in the treatment of the common cold. It has been demonstrated that a transient increase in zinc concentrations in and around the nasal cavity prevents rhinovirus binding to cells and disrupts infection (Novick et al 1996) and or modulates inflammatory cytokines that may exacerbate cold symptoms. Nasal preparations A randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial with 160 people tested the effects of a nasal spray of 0.12 zinc sulfate and found that it reduced the total symptom score, but had no effect on the duration of cold symptoms or the mean time to resolution (Belongia et al 2001). The effectiveness of intranasal zinc gluconate as a preventative agent against experimentally induced rhinovirus infection was tested in a study of 91 subjects (Turner 2001). It was administered for 3 days prior to rhinovirus inoculation followed by 6 days of treatment. This regimen had no effect on total symptom score,...

Antipyretic And Antiinflammatory

Testing in different animal models has identified antipyretic activity (Mandal et al 2001). Clinical testing in randomised double-blind trials involving volunteers with the common cold suggests that this activity is clinically relevant. The mechanism of action is unlike that of NSAIDs, as andrographis does not influence the biosynthesis of any lipoxygenase pathways, but may involve promoting ACTH production and enhancing adrenocortical function (Amroyan et al 1999).

Answers To Patients Frequently Asked Questions

Andrographis has been traditionally used to improve digestion, as a liver tonic and to fight off infection. Clinical studies confirm that it is an effective symptom-reliever for the common cold, uncomplicated URTIs and pharyngotonsillitis. It has also been used to reduce the risk of developing the common cold in winter. When will it start to work

What Else May Be Important In Causing Multiple Sclerosis

Emotional stress, common infections such as colds or sinusitis, and trauma to the CNS also have been studied as possible causes both of MS and of periodic exacerbations. Except for the observation that common viral infections often precede exacerbations, no cause-and-effect relationship has been validated in scientifically controlled studies.

Pallida Echinacea Purpurea

No clear active ingredient within Echinacea plants has yet been identified. This has resulted in great variability in content of marketed products. Research has suggested that these plants may exert their activity through stimulation of cytokine production (24,25) but a clear, specific mechanism of action has yet to be defined. A number of clinical trials have been done on different preparations of echinacea for the treatment and prevention of upper respiratory infections. Some studies suggest that the duration of colds may be reduced by up to 3 days (26,27) while others have shown no significant effect (28). Conflicting results also exist for use of echinacea for the prevention of respiratory infections (28,29). A recent Cochrane review analyzed 16 randomized clinical trials of echinacea for both treatment and prevention of the common cold (30). Definitive conclusions regarding efficacy were unable to be reached owing to study limitations and variation in species of plant studied,...

Lifestyle and the Development of Atopic Disease

Taking into account that the risk of atopic sensitization and disease manifestation early in life is particularly high in industrialized western countries and that within these countries concomitant variations in the socioeconomic status and the prevalence of atopy are evident, the question was brought up of what factor related to western lifestyle might be responsible for increasing the susceptibility to atopic sensitization 10 . Studies of Swiss as well as Bavarian and Austrian children have shown that the prevalence of symptoms of allergic rhinitis and of allergen-specific IgE antibodies is much lower among the offspring of farmers than among other children in these rural areas. In a recent Swedish study, the prevalence of atopy in children from anthroposophic families was found to be lower than in children from other families, which led the authors to conclude that lifestyle factors associated with anthroposophy may lessen the risk of atopy in childhood. Several studies focussing...

Is It A Cold The Flu Or An Allergy

A cold is not the same thing as the flu. Head colds are just what they say they are limited to the head, whereas the flu will affect your entire system. A cold will come on gradually, beginning with a vague feeling of unease the sore throat may be slight chills or aches will not be severe, and fever won't usually rise above 100 degrees F. The common cold causes Allergies share a few symptoms with colds, but they have significant differences. If your cold seems to be hanging on for months, it could be an allergy. Winter allergies (known as perennial allergic rhinitis) cause sion of colds. Airplane air usually has very low humidity. To combat this, passengers should drink lots of fluids on planes and avoid alcohol, which can dehydrate the body. It's not likely that rhinovirus (the most common cold virus) can cause illness by hitching a ride on a toothbrush they must get into the nose to cause a cold. However, viruses such as the enteroviruses (found in the stomach intestines) can...

Carrie Amazing Changes in Her Lipid Profile

Carrie was in for some unpleasant surprises. While no one would have considered a 5-foot 8-inch-tall woman to be obese at 158 pounds, Carrie discovered that she had a body fat percentage of 34.5, which put her into a high-risk classification. She thought she knew a lot about good nutrition, but when we evaluated what she was eating, we saw that she was trying to eat mostly vegetarian meals and not doing a very good job of balancing out the three food groups. Her diet consisted mainly of salads mixed with small amounts of tuna, cheese, breads, too many desserts, and pasta, with an occasional chicken breast or omelet thrown in for good measure. When I explained to her why she should be eating 30 percent acceptable fats, 40 percent low-glycemic carbohydrates, and 30 percent lean protein, it was a revelation. She had been suffering from frequent colds and flu and didn't realize how she was compromising her immune system by eating only small amounts of protein.

Historical Cultivation And Usage

Garcinia kola seed plays a very important role in African ethno-medicine. The seed is employed as a general tonic, and is believed to cure impotence. Traditionally, the seeds are used in the treatment of inflammatory disorders and liver disease. Extracts of the seeds led to remarkable improvement of liver function in patients with chronic hepatitis and cholangitis after treatment for 14 days at a Nigerian herbal home (Iwu, 1982). Other medicinal uses include as a purgative, an antiparasitic, an antimicrobial, and an antiviral. The seeds are used in the treatment of bronchitis and throat infections, and to prevent and relieve colic, cure head or chest colds, and relieve coughs (Figure 26.2). Constituents include xanthones and benzophenones. The antimicrobial properties of this plant are attributed to the benzophenone flavanones, while the hepatoprotective properties have been linked to the biflavonoid constituents of the plant. Specifically, a de-fatted fraction of an alcoholic extract...

Clinical Manifestations

The most common sites of CSS involvement are the lungs, ENT organs, and nervous system (Table 2). Pulmonary manifestations include asthma, alveolar hemorrhage, infiltrates, and pleural effusions. Asthma is one of the major symptoms and is considered necessary for the diagnosis. It usually starts during adult age and may be associated with other allergic symptoms (e.g., rhinitis). The majority of patients have nervous system involvement, with peripheral neuropathy (PN) and CNS involvement occurring in 50 to 80 and 8 , respectively. Mononeuritis multiplex is the most common form of PN. CNS symptoms include stroke, meningeal symptoms, intracerebral hemorrhage, convulsions, and cognitive deficits. ENT features are common in CSS. Sinusitis is one of the major manifestations and may precede the diagnosis in 60 of patients. Allergic rhinitis and nasal or sinus polyps are frequent (70 ) (Fig. 9) (31). Although ENT features may be very similar to those of WG, they are usually milder and...

Chronic fatigue syndrome

Frequent colds and recurrent acute illnesses are common characteristic traits. There may be depression and a loss of concentration. This condition may arise following a bout of mononucleosis. Symptoms better For short naps in the evening at the seaside for lying with the knees drawn up to the elbows. Symptoms worse For physical exertion for damp, clammy surroundings for undressing.

Ear Infectionsotitis Media

Otitis media, commonly called an ear infection, is the most frequent illness of early childhood except for the common cold. Otitis media is an inflammation of the middle ear. There are two types (1) acute otitis media, an infection of the middle ear with accompanying fluid and (2) otitis media with effusion, in which the middle ear fluid is not infected. Fluid in the middle ear can persist for several weeks or months after an infection is gone. Otitis media is more common in boys, children from low-income families, those exposed to tobacco smoke, bottle-fed children (compared to breast-fed children), and children who are under two years of age and attend child care. In most cases, otitis media is accompanied by mild to moderate hearing loss (equivalent to plugging one's ears with a finger), which goes away once the fluid resolves. Some studies have shown that frequent hearing loss in children with otitis media may lead to speech, language, and school difficulties. Other studies,...

Complications of prematurity

Babies with BPD continue to need supplemental oxygen for an extended period. If they develop a bad cold or pneumonia, they may need breathing assistance, such as that provided by a ventilator. Some of these babies may need to continue using supplemental oxygen, even after they go home from the hospital. As these babies grow, their need for supplemental oxygen lessens, and their breathing becomes easier. However, they are more likely than are other children to have episodes of wheezing or asthma.

Immunomodula Tion

Red ginseng powder has been shown to restore immunity after chemotherapy and reduce the recurrence of stage III gastric cancer. The 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were significantly higher in patients taking the red ginseng powder during postoperative chemotherapy versus control (68.2 vs 33.3 , 76.4 vs 38.5 , respectively, P < 0.05). Despite the limitation of a small number of patients (n 42), these findings suggest that red ginseng powder may help to improve postoperative survival in these patients. Additionally, red ginseng powder may have some immunomodulatory properties associated with CD3 and CD4 activity in patients with advanced gastric cancer during postoperative chemotherapy (Suh et al 2002). Vaccine adjuvant activity Ginseng extract (100 mg ginsan G11 5 day) improved the response to an influenza vaccine in a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled two-arm study of 227 subjects. Compared with vaccine without the ginseng, the...

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

GSE has been used as effective medication against many types of internal and external infections caused by parasites, viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Furthermore, GSE has been shown to correct yeast imbalances. Several researchers have observed that GSE helps to eliminate Candida yeast infections, thrush, gingivitis, oral infections, colds and flu, sore throat, strep throat, and sinusitis. The beneficial mechanism of the prophylactic activity of GSE depends on the disruption of the organism's cytoplasmic membrane, thereby not allowing the viral or bacterial organism to develop resistance. GSE has been shown also to stimulate the immune system, and was reported to be highly effective against food poisoning and against cholera or dysentery infections, particularly when traveling to Third World countries. It is believed to rid the body of worms and parasites without affecting the beneficial so-called friendly bacteria. Consumption of the bioactive compounds found in grapefruit seed and...

Respiratory Mucosal Immunity Neuronal Innervation and Its Stress Related Perturbations

Since stress is such a potent modulator of the immune response and its effector mechanisms (Elenkov et al. 2000), it follows that it may be a contributor to the success of immunization, a mainstay strategy in the prevention of respiratory infections such as influenza and pneumococcal disease. In a recent trial involving young adults receiving the hepatitis B vaccine, those subjects experiencing psychological distress had significantly lower specific antibody responsiveness (Marsland et al. 2006). Drummond and Hewson-Bower (1997) found a correlation between lower serum IgA albumin ratio and stress in children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. Another study concluded that a healthy individual's increased sociability decreased the risk of viral upper respiratory tract infection (Cohen et al. 2003).

Definition and Etiology

Allergens (e.g., house-dust mite, pollen, and moulds). Nonspecific bronchial stimuli include upper respiratory tract infections, cold air, exercise, cigarette smoke, excitement, emotional stress, and chemical irritants. Aspirin and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medications provoke asthma in some patients.

Antiinflammatory Actions of Omalizumab

As previously discussed, a study in allergic individuals showed that omalizumab down-regulates FceRI expression on basophils by reducing serum levels of free IgE (55), and this process attenuates the EAR. This was again demonstrated in a study of 24 subjects with ragweed-induced allergic rhinitis (56). Alongside a decline in IgE levels (> 95 ), there was a reduction in FceRI expression on basophils at 7, 14, 28, and 42 days after starting 72-hour omalizumab treatment as compared with baseline (p < 0.0001) and placebo (p < 0.01), and the maximum reduction occurred within 14 days (median change -73 ). Similarly to its effect on FceRI expression on basophils, omalizumab was found to reduce dendritic cell FceRI expression in patients with allergic rhinitis within 14 days (median change -78 , p 0.004) (95). Dendritic cells are central to allergen presentation and the induction of Th2 responses in the LAR. The demonstration that an anti-IgE antibody inhibits proliferation of...

Allergic rhinosinusitis

Allergic rhinosinusitis is a diagnosis made clinically, as there are no definitive objective tests available for routine clinical use to confirm this entity. There are two major forms of this disorder seasonal and perennial. Thus, it is a diagnosis based on history (often by questionnaire) and physical examination. In some epidemiological studies, the presence of allergy is confirmed by results of skin prick tests or in vitro allergy testing. The prevalence of this disorder varies widely in the literature, based upon the different sources of the data (i.e., questionnaires, phone interviews, and direct examination), but the majority of the literature suggests that 20 to 25 of children and about 15 of adults suffer from this condition (1). Peak prevalence is between 10 and 30 years in most countries (2). Atopic individuals are at much increased risk for this disorder and there is a significant correlation between the report of nasal symptoms and the prevalence of allergen-specific IgE....

Allergy and Dermatitis

There is clear evidence that otitis media with effusion is highly related to an allergic diathesis. When this converts to chronic draining otitis media, the allergic component would seem to still be relevant, although direct evidence is scant (17-19). Therefore, the surgeon must consider allergy evaluation, based on a patient history of other allergic diatheses, especially of the unified respiratory epithelium. Patients with chronic draining ear and allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, and asthma are strong candidates for allergy workup before contemplating surgical treatment.

Exercise has a definite place in the Eat FatGrow Slim regime

At this juncture Turkish baths became the fashion, and I was advised to adopt them as a remedy. With the first few I found immense benefit in power and elasticity for walking exercise so, believing I had found the 'philosopher's stone,' pursued them three times a week till I had taken fifty, then less frequently (as I began to fancy, with some reason, that so many weakened my constitution) till I had taken ninety, but never succeeded in losing more than 6 lb weight during the whole course, and I gave up the plan as worthless though I have full belief in their cleansing properties, and their value in colds, rheumatism and many other ailments.

Hypothyroidism and Depression

The stress showed on Mary's face as she described how weary and depressed she felt. Her husband and children demanded too much of her and she drank to escape the pressures and responsibilities. Mary had been in our program for two weeks. She was now alcohol free and making life-style changes. Still, she had very little energy and didn't seem to be recovering very fast. As we talked, she inadvertently offered several clues to the source of her problem. She complained that even on her restricted diet she simply couldn't lose weight. Exercise was out of the question. She was just too tired, even though she slept up to ten hours a night. She was wearing a heavy sweater even though it was a warm spring day. She said she had a hard time keeping warm and was very susceptible to catching colds. By the end of our session, I had heard enough to refer her to our physician for a thyroid test. Symptoms of hypothyroidism (low thyroid function) include Susceptibility to colds and infections

Effects On The Cardiovascular System

Hypertension due to a1-adrenergic activity is believed to be the mechanism for cases of subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage reported with ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine (PPA) (34). In some cases, this might involve rupture of a preexisting aneurysm. Intracerebral hemorrhage related to cerebral vasculitis has been reported with a variety of sympathomimetic drugs, including amphetamine, ephedrine, and PPA (35,36). A recent case-control study linked the use of appetite suppressants and cough or cold remedies containing PPA to a higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke in women, resulting in a voluntary recall of all PPA-containing products in November 2000 (10).

Historical Aspects

Use of echinacea for medicinal purposes by native cultures in the high plains region of midcontinental North America long predates European contact. Whereas echinacea readily flourishes in many countries when planted in temperate climates, it is native only to the trans-Mississippian high plains region of the United States. Native Americans belonging to at least 14 different tribes chewed the roots for toothaches and sore gums and employed the juice and teas prepared from the leaves and roots to treat colds, stomach problems, and a number of other health complaints. Poultices were also used for treatment of arthritis, rheumatism, snakebite, and venereal diseases. Early settlers of European origin following initial contact quickly took up medicinal use of echinacea and the plant was highly valued. European botanists became aware of the genus in the 1700s and Moench named the genus Echinacea (in 1794) based on its spiny cone (1). Medicinal preparations (patent medicines) containing...

IIISIT to Prevent Asthma

Specific immunotherapy may modify the natural history of asthma in children, who are known to be atopic but have not yet developed asthma. Studies from the 1960s and 1970s indicate that between 5 and 10 of atopic children and young adults with allergic rhinitis will develop asthma symptoms each year, although the epidemiological context is changing and these data will need updating (29). In children with allergic rhinitis and a limited range of sensitivities, SIT with house dust mite extract has been shown to reduce the probability of developing new sensitivities (i.e., new positive skin tests to allergens other than the one used for therapy) (30). An ongoing major multicenter study is assessing whether SIT is able to prevent allergic children aged 7 to 13 years from going on to develop asthma. After three years of therapy 28 fewer children had asthma symptoms compared to the control group, and this difference has been maintained up to five years, suggesting that SIT does indeed...

Comparison of SIT with Other Types of Treatment for Asthma

Work from the 1950s and 1960s using mixed allergen extracts suggested that SIT may increase the rate of remission for children with asthma, and may also reduce the severity of symptoms in those who remain symptomatic (36). In contrast, a study that investigated withdrawal of therapy found rapid recurrence of asthma symptoms after stopping SIT, although there was more sustained relief for rhinitis symptoms (37).

Homeopathic medicine

Remedies specifically for the early stages of grief include Arnica, when the grieving person wants to be left alone, insists they are all right, rejects physical comfort, and displays the reactions of a person in shock Aconite, if there is great fear and the person is on the verge of collapse, having witnessed a violent death for example and Opium, when the bereaved is literally numb with grief, and is very frightened by the death of their loved one. In the later stages of grief, Nux vomica is indicated when there is great anger and criticism of others, and Pulsatilla is prescribed for tearfulness at the slightest provocation, insomnia, and recurrent colds accompanied by yellow or green catarrh.

Overtraining Syndrome

Colds or flu-like symptoms, and increased resting heart rate. Body weight may change according to the changes in eating habit. Musculoskeletal problems such as muscle strains, chronic muscle soreness, and minor ligamentous sprains may occur because of reduced muscle efficiency.43,46

Boiled rose hip syrup

Measure the volume of the rose hips you have picked, then pour them into a saucepan with half their volume of water (1 pint water to 2 pints hips). Boil hips and water for 20 minutes in a covered saucepan. Allow to cool, then strain through a jelly bag. For every 2 cups of juice, add 1 cup sugar. Boil for 10 minutes and pour while still hot into sterilized bottles. Label bottles when cool. Take a teaspoonful or two daily to prevent colds, or more frequently as needed for sore throats and colds.

Stress personality and coping in IBD

One way of relating stress to illness has been to link it to life events. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) is an inventory which ranks 43 stressful events with numeric values, from most to least stressful, based upon their capacity to disrupt activities and the degree of readjustment which is necessary following the event. These values are termed 'Life Change Units' (LCU). In further research using this assessment tool, Rahe (1968) demonstrated that the development of minor illnesses, such as colds and 'flu, was linked to life events.

Alternative Diagnoses

The presence and activity of certain chronic conditions such as rhinitis, sinusitis, and nasal polyposis can affect the incidence of asthma exacerbations (32). The last condition, nasal polyps, may occur in a subgroup of patients that have or develop aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) via mechanisms involving the cyclooxygenase pathway (33). AIA may be present in as many

Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS A

Severe respiratory illness that was first reported in 2002 in China, and quickly spread throughout Asia, North America, and Europe. Most of the U.S. cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred among travelers returning to the United States from other parts of the world with SARS. There have been very few cases as a result of spread to close contacts such as family members and health-care workers. Currently, there is no evidence that SARS is spreading more widely in the United States.

Echinacea E Purpurea E Pallida E Augustifolia

Today oral HMPs of echinacea are used predominantly for the prevention and treatment of the common cold. A systematic review (8) included 16 RCTs with a total of 3396 participants. Five of the RCTs were placebo-controlled. Their methodological quality was variable but, on average, satisfactory. Results suggested that some echinacea preparations have an effect over and above that of placebo. Unfortunately, the trials were highly heterogeneous in many respects. No clear evidence emerged for one echinacea species being superior to another. The authors of the systematic review concluded that ''there is, to date, insufficient evidence to recommend a specific Echinacea product, or Echinacea preparation, in the treatment or prevention of the common cold'' (8). Weighing the known risks against the benefits, it is concluded that some encouraging, albeit not compelling, evidence supports the use of echinacea HMPs for the treatment and prevention of the common cold. Its use seems most promising...

Garlic Allium Sativum

Traditionally garlic has been used for a wide range of conditions, e.g., the common cold and other infections. Today, the main indication for garlic is hypercholesterolemia. A recent meta-analysis (9) included 13 placebo-controlled, double-blind RCTs with a total of 806 patients with hypercholesterolemia. The methodological quality of these studies was good (Jadad score 3-5). The results of the meta-analysis demonstrated a weighted mean difference of 15.7 mg dL (95 CI 25.6 to 5.7). For the most rigorous RCTs, the effect size was only 9.4 mg dL and not any longer statistically significant. Our overall conclusion therefore was ''garlic is superior to placebo .but the effect is modest and of debatable clinical relevance'' (9).

Drugs of abuse have changed since the 1800smost rapidly over the past quarter century

When morphine was discovered in 1806, it was thought to be a wonder drug. Its use was so extensive during the Civil War that morphine addiction was termed the army disease.'' The availability of the hypodermic syringe allowed nonmedicinal use of morphine to gain popularity among veterans and other civilians. After 1898, heroin was used to treat respiratory illness and morphine addiction in the belief that it was nonaddicting.

Pong Pong Tree Indian Suicide Tree Sea Mango

Medicinal Plants Indonesia

Traditional Medicinal Uses In Malaysia, rheumatism is treated with embrocations of the fruits. 11 The seeds are poisonous and have been used to poison rats and dogs. 311 The seeds are also narcotic. In Indonesia, oil obtained from the seeds is rubbed on the body as remedy for colds, scabies, and rheumatism. In the Philippines, oil of the seeds is also used to treat rheu-matism. 11 It is used in Burma as an insecticide or insect repellent when mixed with other oils. 13 The bark, latex and roots are used as purgatives and emetics in India. 31113

Aspirin nsaid hypersensitivity

NSAID hypersensitivity tends to present in early adult years as rhinorrhea, nasal congestion, and hyposmia. In patients with asthma, NSAID hypersensitivity may develop concurrently or some years after the diagnosis of asthma has been established. In both groups, peripheral blood and tissue eosinophilia and pansinusitis with nasal polyposis are common. Approximately 10 of patients with steroid-dependent asthma have been found to be NSAID hypersensitive, whereas one-third of asthmatics with associated nasal polyposis and chronic sinusitis are sensitive to this class of drug. Although most normal patients tolerate these drugs, epidemiological studies suggest adverse reaction rates of up to 1 . patients with this syndrome, pansinusitis is common. Although nasal polyps may complicate ordinary allergic rhinitis (approximately 1-2 in some studies) and are a common manifestation of cystic fibrosis (up to 50 of such patients), the highest incidence of nasal polyps occurs in the patients with...

Shellfish poisoning paralytic 245

Sinusitis An inflammation of one or more of the sinuses, often as a complication of an upper respiratory infection or dental infection. (It may also be caused by allergies, air travel, or underwater swimming.) Sinusitis is extremely common and afflicts some people with every bout of the common cold. In many people, once a tendency toward sinusitis develops, the condition recurs with each viral infection. Cause Sinusitis is often caused by infection spreading from the nose along the narrow passages that drain mucus from the sinuses into the nose. As the nasal mucous membranes swell, the openings from the sinuses to the nose may be blocked. This leads to a buildup of sinus secretions, often teeming with bacteria. The disorder is usually caused by a bacterial infection that develops as a complication of a viral infection (such as the common cold). (See cold, common.) It is also possible that an infection may occur from an abscess in an upper tooth or from infected water forced into the...

Principal Mechanisms and Pathophysiology of Food Intolerance

The term 'allergy' implies a definite immunological mechanism. This could be antibody mediated, cell mediated, or due to circulating immune complexes. The clinical features of an allergic reaction include urticaria (nettle rash), angioedema, rhinitis (sneezing, nasal discharge, blocked nose), worsening of pre-existing atopic eczema, asthma (wheezing, coughing, tightness of the chest, shortness of

Condylomata acuminata

Contagious disease Any communicable disease. (Previously, the term referred to any disease transmitted by direct physical contact.) Some of the contagious diseases are actinomycosis, amebiasis, candidiasis, chicken pox, cholera, colds, conjunctivitis, diphtheria, gastroenteritis, giardiasis, hepatitis, herpes, influenza, meningitis, mononucleosis, mumps, paratyphoid fever, pediculosis, pneumonia, ringworm, roundworm infection, rubella, shigellosis, strep throat, syphilis, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, and whooping cough. coronavirus Any one of a family of viruses that includes several types capable of causing respiratory illness and the common cold, especially during the winter and spring. Coronaviruses rarely cause fatal illness in humans. Named for their appearance, which includes a sort of thorny crown when visualized under an electron microscope, they are among the most common of the cold viruses. It takes only about three days after exposure to these viruses for symptoms to...

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome A respiratory illness caused by a new strain of HANTAVIRUS (a group of viruses carried by rodents) that causes its victims to gasp for air as their lungs fill with fluid. It kills about half the people it infects, usually within a week. The syndrome was first diagnosed in this country in 1993 at a Navajo reservation in the Four Corners area of New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, and Arizona.

Allergic Conditions On The Auricle

Auricular Acupuncture

As already mentioned, the identified areas correspond to the representation of the wrist and elbow, areas which never have been related to allergy before. On the Chinese map, however, the 'Wind stream' point fengxi, which carries the whole repertory of indications such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema, urticaria and itching of uncertain origin, is located at the juncture between the hand and the wrist area. It has to be said that before standardization fengxi had been drawn by several authors as a larger area called 'urticaria area' (Fig. 5.29). In my opinion the importance given to this area by the Chinese is correct and is moreover confirmed by the indication for cutaneous pruritus given to the whole superior groove of the anthelix.

Infectious parotitis See mumps

History Influenza is as old as human history the mysterious 430 B.C. deadly plague in Athens may have been caused in part by deadly flu viruses. Historians also suspect that the mighty army of Charlemagne was destroyed by a flu epidemic of A.D. 876. The first true recorded flu pandemic occurred in the 16th century. In 1647, the flu was causing havoc in North America up through New England, where it was known variously as jolly rant, grippe, and the new acquaintance. Its current name was bestowed after the 1732 epidemic in the American colonies, when English doctor John Huxham linked the disease with an old Italian folk word that linked colds, cough, and fever to the influ

Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf

Allergic rhinitis An inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the nose caused by an allergic reaction as inhaled allergens are trapped by the nasal filtration system. In allergic rhinitis, sneezing is a prominent feature and nasal symptoms may be accompanied by itchy watery eyes and intense itching of the nose and soft palate. The disease is triggered in susceptible children by allergic reactions to pollen, mold, dust mites, and other allergens. Seasonal allergic rhinitis is called hay fever or seasonal allergic rhinitis. In this condition, both the nose and the eyes are affected. Allergic rhinitis that occurs year-round is known as perennial allergic rhinitis. Seasonal pollen allergy may exacerbate symptoms of perennial rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is the most common chronic disease in children, affecting about one in five children by the age of two or three years up to 30 percent are affected during adolescence. Boys are twice as likely to get allergic rhinitis than girls, but the...

Trigeminal Neuralgia On The

Toothache And Ear Pain

In the composite world of allergic conditions, the most frequently occurring are rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, atopic eczema and food allergy, which represent a burden all over the world. In the UK, for example, the rates reported for allergic rhinitis and asthma in the 6th report of the House of Lords were, respectively, 9.4 and 5.5 in an estimated population of 60.6 million. Very close to the rate of asthma was that of atopic eczema and far from negligible was the incidence of infants and adults suffering with food allergy (respectively 5-7 and 1-2 ). The incidence of multiple allergies (asthma, eczema and allergic rhinitis together) was also significant (3.7 ) and showed an increase of 48.9 between 2001 and 2005.50

Enhance Wound Healing

Nasal spray A RCT of 48 outpatients diagnosed with rhinitis sicca anterior found that dexpanthenol nasal spray is an effective symptomatic treatment for this condition (Kehrl & Sonnemann 1998). Two years later, another RCT compared the effects of xylometazoline-dexpanthenol nasal spray versus xylometazoline nasal spray over a 2-week period in 61 patients with rhinitis after nasal surgery (Kehrl & Sonnemann 2000) and showed that the combination of xylometazoline-dexpanthenol nasal spray was significantly superior to the other treatment and well tolerated.

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

The ubiquitous use of the Garcinia kola (GK) seed in the western part of Nigeria in the treatment of ailments has existed since ancient times. The seed is used in herbal preparations that are important in traditional African medicine for the treatment of various respiratory diseases, notably the cough and asthma (Adeniji, 2003). It is also used as an antidote to food-borne disorders and snakebites, and has been found to be effective in increasing a low sperm count, as well as sometimes being used as an aphrodisiac. As a herbal medicine, it is involved in the management of dysentery and chest colds. GK seed chewing sticks are used as oral and dental medicaments for diseases such as toothache, mouth ulcers sores, thrush, periodontitis, and gingivitis (Hollist, 2004).

Patents associated with apricot kernel

A food for curing upper respiratory tract infection, acute and chronic bronchitis, asthma, pulmonary tuberculosis, etc. with a certain therapeutic effect was reported to be made by using sweet apricot kernel, peach kernel, and walnut kernel according to a mixing ratio of 1 1 2 3 and adding the auxiliary materials of cane sugar, fine flour, vegetable oil, and ginseng powder and adopting the production processes for Chinese Guangdong moon cake, Chinese Xiaogan sesame sweets, and amber sugar-coated walnut meat. It can be made into the respective forms of cake and sweets (Jiang, and Hai, 2002).

Mangifera indica L Anacardiaceae Mango Mangga

Fruit is used in China to promote blood circulation, the fruit rind as tonic in Burma and dried slices of young fruits are used for septicaemia in Palau. 3 Its seeds are used for stubborn colds, coughs, diarrhoea, vermifuge and menor-rhagia. 4 They are also used for asthma. 9 In the Philippines, raw seeds are used to expel worms and the roasted ones are for diarrhoea. 3 The bark is used for the treatment of fever or sunstroke, cholera, rheumatism, sty in eye, ulcerated tongue (with roots of Ichnocarpus and bark of Zizyphus rugosa), haemiplegia, diarrhoea (with bark of Streblus asper, roots of Oroxylum indi-cum and Helianthus annuus), dysentery (with bark of Streblus and Spondias pinnata), poisoning, uterine haemorrhage and jaundice. 9

Vitex rotundifolia L f Verbenaceae Round Leaf Chastetree Beach Vitex

Reverse Testicular Atrophy

A tincture or for intestinal complaints. 10 In Papua New Guinea, sap from crushed heated leaves is diluted with water and drunk to relieve headaches. The fruits are used to expel worms and in Vietnam, a decoction of dried fruits has been used to treat colds, headache, watery eyes and mastitis. 10 In Thailand, fruits have been used for asthmatic cough and haemorrhoids. 10 Infusion of the boiled roots is regarded as diaphoretic and diuretic, drunk for fever, after child-birth and for liver diseases. 10

Historical Background

Khellin Structure

Cromolyn and nedocromil are members of the chromone group of chemical compounds. The chemical formula for chromone is 5 6 benz-1 4 pyrone (2) (Fig. 1). In 1968, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or CS combined with isoproterenol was introduced in the United Kingdom as the first antiinflammatory medication used in asthma (3-5). The addition of the bronchodilator was done to prevent bronchoconstriction that can occur with inhalation of a sodium salt (4). By 1973, cromolyn was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of asthma and in 1983 for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (5). Khellin (2) was the first identified chromone, which was extracted from seeds of the plant Amni visnaga, the same plant from which cromolyn was derived. It was used as a diuretic and smooth muscle relaxant, especially for the relief of ureteric colic. In 1947, Anrep et al. (6) reported the clinical utility of khellin for the treatment of asthma. Multiple compounds were synthesized using...

The History Of Herbal Medicine A Capsule Summary

Figure Chinese Traditional Medicine

All of my selected medicinal herbs have been used by Native Americans and are still being used by them today. They have used E. purpurea (purple coneflower) for everything from sore throats to snake bites.2 Being one of the most popular herbs in homeopathy, it is an immune system booster which has antiviral, antifungal, and antibacterial properties.3 Although bitter tasting (as I can attest), Echinacea root is excellent for treating headaches, fevers, bladder infections, rheumatism, hemorrhoids, and numerous other wounds and illnesses.4 V. thapsus (mullein) was used to treat coughs, congestion, and tuberculosis. In addition, Native Americans smoked the flowers to counteract pulmonary diseases.5 The flowers of A. millefolium (yarrow) were used by the Great Lakes Ojibwa Amerinds to break fevers and a root decoction was used on skin eruptions. Various other parts of this plant also are used for wounds, toothaches, diarrhea, gas, intestinal ailments, and even chapped hands.6 The Otsego...

Select the reference points for each disease

This is an interesting strategy in selecting points for treatment, even if it requires long and systematic work collecting cases with the same symptoms. Despite the great variability of response in different human beings to the same etiological factor, there are nevertheless some common recurrent symptoms which characterize a given disease. The same phenomenon occurs on the auricles with regard to the prevalent sensitization of particular areas. The term 'reference points' was introduced by the doctors of the Nanjing garrison and applied to 52 patients with 'accurately diagnosed' glomerulonephritis. The text does not specify whether the diagnosis referred to acute, subacute or chronic forms and whether nephritis was perhaps secondary to hemolytic streptococcal infection. What is interesting, however, in the list of 21 different tender points identified in the above-mentioned patients, is the variable rate of sensitization. The identified points were converted to areas according to the...

Inflammatory Disorders

Diagnosis of allergy is often based on identification of environmental allergens by skin tests and in vitro tests of allergen-specific IgE (157). G. lucidum is believed to help alleviate allergies (12). Triterpenes isolated from G. lucidum were shown to have an inhibitory action on histamine release from rat mast cells ex vivo however, the methods and results in this study were poorly described (77). There are no published reports of an allergic response to ingestion of G. lucidum, but it should be noted that some basidiomycetes may be potential aeroallergens. Sensitization to G. lucidum has been reported in patients with from asthma and rhinitis (163-165), as positive skin prick and intradermal skin tests to both spores and the fruit body extract were reported in some patients (> 16 ), as well as elevated antibodies to the fungi and proteins separated from it. Inhalation of G. lucidum spores may stimulate a base level of allergic responsiveness in susceptible atopic patients. G....

If antacids do not work or are not appropriate for my GERD what is the next step or tier ofmedications to try

You may commonly use an antihistamine these medications are for allergies and sometimes colds. Allergic reactions such as hay fever with a stuffy nose, watery or itchy eyes, itchy skin, rash, and coughing are caused by extra histamine production. So, by blocking the action of his-tamine with an antihistamine, you block its action.

Complications Related to Cesarean Delivery

Complications of vaginal birth for an infant include birth trauma (fractured limbs or injured nerves resulting in paralysis of an arm), asphyxia (lack of oxygen) causing brain damage, and acquiring an infection from the mother's birth canal (herpes simplex virus or group-B streptococcus). Complications of ce-sarean birth for infants include lacerations from the surgeon's knife and a respiratory illness caused by the failure of excess fluid to be cleared from the infant's lungs.

Anti Dental Caries Introduction

Today, dental practitioners still teach the removal of diseased tooth structure which suggests we should expect a cure. The insight however, is that it has repeatedly been shown not to remove the causative infection. There is a paradigm shift in the management of dental caries. Research in cariology is sky-rocketing, bringing out hidden facts of this age-old disease, but education and clinical practice are adopting them at a snail's pace. In clinical practice dental caries is still being treated symptomatically, just like the common cold. Clinicians have adopted a comfort level from many years of practicing 'restorative' dentistry, but unlike the common cold that does not have a cure, dental caries has abundant options to be cured and eradicated (Anderson and Shi, 2006 Carounanidy, 2010).

Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis

And soft-tissue swelling are initially seen, followed in a few days by double vision, increasing fever, and obtundation. Examination reveals a unilateral generalized reduction of ocular motion, chemosis, and proptosis. Facial skin adjacent to paranasal sinuses may be invaded by direct extension, turning progressively red, purple, and black. Fever, decreased vision, and facial swelling are the most common complaints in the first 72 hours of the disease (6). Other common complaints include facial pain and nasal congestion or discharge. Headache was found early in the disease in only 25 of patients in one large study but may be a common late finding.

Other Seed Allergies Sunflower Mustard Quinoa Buckwheat

Allergy to buckwheat has been recorded since 1961, and was first described in Japan. Buckwheat is a common seed in Asia and Russia, and its consumption is now increasing in Europe and the USA, where it is used in pasta, sandwiches, and pancakes. It has good nutritional values, and is used as a substitute for wheat flour for celiacs, as it does not contain gluten. Buckwheat is known to induce a respiratory allergic reaction in some patients, with rhinitis and asthma. However, these symptoms are rare, and might be seen in patients using a buckwheat pillow, or in those exposed to the seed when working in pancake restaurants or noodle factories.

Consequences of Long Term Undernutrition among Homeless Children

Homeless children suffer several medical problems due to undernutri-tion, including chronic and recurring physical ailments, and higher rates of fever, cough, colds, diarrhea, and obesity. In addition, a greater incidence of infections, fatigue, headaches, and anemia, as well as impaired cognitive development and visual motor integration, has been documented in homeless children.

Bibliography Of Vitamins

Chalmers TC (1975) Effects of ascorbic acid on the common cold. An evaluation of the evidence. American Journal of Medicine 58, 532-6. Douglas RM, Chalker EB, and Treacy B (2000) Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews, CD000980. Dykes MH and Meier P (1975) Ascorbic acid and the common cold. Evaluation of its efficacy and toxicity. JAMA 231, 1073-9. Hemila H (1992) Vitamin C and the common cold. British Journal of Nutrition 67, 3-16.

Child care centers and infectious disease since

The common cold, fifth disease, influenza, meningitis, and tuberculosis. Germs can be transmitted by direct contact to cause cold sores, cytomegalovirus, head lice, scabies, and streptococcal infections. Germs can be spread via the fecal-oral route to cause diarrheal diseases or hepatitis a.

Key Nutrients Involved in Host Resistance to Infection

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) Ascorbic acid is rapidly mobilized and utilized in infection and high levels of ascorbic acid are found in leucocytes. Studies in humans and animals have found a reduced T-cell response, delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity, and reduced epithelial integrity in vitamin C deficiency. Vitamin C supplementation is associated with increased lymphocyte proliferation in response to mitogen, increased phagocytosis by neutrophils, and decreased serum lipid peroxides. A role for vitamin C has been suggested in the treatment of autoimmune diseases as well as in delaying the progression of HIV to AIDS however, further research is required to confirm such a role. The effectiveness of ascorbic acid in preventing and reducing the duration of acute respiratory infection also remains controversial. Claims that high intakes of vitamin C can prevent the common cold have not been corroborated, although there is evidence of a decrease in duration and alleviation of symptoms of the...

The significance of psychosocial stress

The extent to which psychosocial factors affect the cardiovascular system through its interaction with the immune system has not been widely investigated thus far, but its potential significance is suggested by studies that have documented increased severity of the common cold related to psychologic stress and lack of social support 77,78 . As in depression, insufficient dampening of the inflammatory response related to diminished glucocorti-coid sensitivity might be of importance 52 . Whether facilitation of sustained expression of inflammatory mediators under the influence of psychosocial factors might foster cardiovascular complications remains speculative.

Chrysanthemum morifolium Flower

The flower of C. morifolium Ramat is a commonly used medical herb with mild action and a popular beverage with an aromatic odor in China. It is used for treating colds and eyes with redness and pain (43). It is potentially anticarcinogenic, since the flowers contain chlorogenic acid, flavonoids, and pentacyclic triterpenes. The flavonoids from C. morifolium have been found to exhibit anti-HIV activity (44). Several active anti-HIV compounds, including acacetin-7-O-h-D-galactopyranoside and chrysin, have been isolated from C. morifolium and found to be promising compounds for the inhibition of HIV growth (45).

The Representation Of The Nose On The

Art Intercostale Ponction

1 and 2, carrying indications such as nasal vestibular inflammation and rhinitis the second is located on the internal wall of the inferior part of the tra-gus and has the indications rhinitis, sinusitis and nose bleeds. bones, the second much more frequent group with acute coryza of possible viral origin. In both cases the same area became sensitized (on the left of Fig. 5.35, area number 1), overlapping with Nogier's olfactive point but with some differences in cases of nasal trauma both ears were usually sensitized, whereas in rhinitis the lobe was more often unilaterally tender on the same side as the more obstructed nostril. In this case even massage of the tender point could relieve the symptom through a presumed anti-inflammatory and decon-gesting effect on nasal mucosa. A third group with a similar representation is the above-mentioned group of patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (see Fig. 5.30A). It is interesting to note that vasomotor (non-allergic) rhinitis probably...

Metabolic Function and Essentiality

As noted above, CoA is required for Golgi function, involved in protein transport. Pantothenate deficiency can therefore cause reductions in the amounts of some secreted proteins. Other metabolic responses to deficiency include a reduction in urinary 17-ketosteroids, a reduction in serum cholesterol, a reduction in drug acetylation, a general reduction in immune response, and an increase in upper respiratory tract infection.

Immunizations for adults

While a serious illness precludes a vaccination, minor colds with low fevers do not interfere with immunization. Slight soreness and swelling at the injection site are normal and are not an indication that the child should not finish the series of shots. Antibiotics prescribed for another illness will not interfere with the vaccination except the oral typhoid vaccine.

Pollutants and Tobacco Smoke as Adjuvant Factors

After guinea pig and mouse experiments suggested an increase of allergic sensitization to ovalbumin after experimental exposure to traffic- or industry-related pollutants, a strong association between allergic rhinitis caused by cedar pollen allergy and exposure to heavy traffic was reported from Japan. Other investigators were unable to describe any relationship between traffic exposure and the prevalence of hay fever or asthma.

The Importance of Allergy in Asthma

There is a strong familial component to asthma, eczema, and rhino-conjunctivitis, the so-called atopic cluster. While this argues for a genetic component to asthma, the rapid increase in the prevalence of asthma means that something in the environment must be responsible. The current consensus is that environmental factors act on genetically susceptible individuals, stimulating the production of specific IgE antibodies against otherwise harmless environmental antigens, such as pollen, house dust mite, and animal dander proteins. Not everyone who develops IgE antibodies will go on to experience clinical symptoms. Indeed, only half of the people with detectable levels of antibody against grass pollen will have any sort of hay fever. Nevertheless, the more IgE antibody someone has, the more likely they are to have associated clinical symptoms. Usually, there is a progression of allergic disease, sometimes termed the allergic march, in which children first suffer with atopic eczema, then...

Management of Food Allergy

Based on the observation that children with IgE-mediated immune responses directed predominantly at conformational epitopes are more likely to outgrow egg and cow's milk allergy, clinical trials of diets containing baked egg and baked milk (in which conformational epitopes are destroyed by high temperatures) are underway at the author's institution. Children undergo OFC to baked egg milk to confirm tolerance and are followed prospectively for maximum 48 months or until they achieve tolerance to uncooked egg milk. Clinical (weight, body fat, intestinal permeability, symptoms of AD, asthma, rhinitis, acute allergic reactions) and immunological parameters (allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 antibody levels, skin prick test) are monitored. The inclusion of baked egg milk products results in substantial liberalization of the diet and improved nutrition. In addition, ingestion of baked egg milk might promote tolerance and resolution of egg milk allergy.

Seasonal Patterns of Disease

A third factor subject to seasonal changes is morbidity. In most cases the slack season is also a wet season and the environmental changes may lead to seasonal outbreaks of diseases, such as acute respiratory infections, gastrointestinal tract infections, but also other infectious diseases such as measles, malaria, and guinea worm. Overall mortality also increases. A study in Mali showed that the duration of disease episodes in the rainy season was more than double that in other seasons and that the morbidity episodes in the rainy season accounted for more than half the yearly episodes, particularly fever, diarrhea, and respiratory illness.

Motivation for Micronutrient Supplement

Major health reasons given for taking supplements include a sense of well-being and 'feeling better' (especially multivitamins minerals), preventing colds and flu (especially vitamin C), preventing chronic disease (especially vitamin E and calcium), increasing 'energy,' coping with stress, and improving the immune system. Many vitamin E users believe that the vitamin helps prevent heart disease, and most calcium users know that calcium use helps prevent osteoporosis. Using micronutrient supplements is one way by which people who may be at high risk for certain diseases try to gain some degree of personal control over their health outcomes. Ironically, many individuals who take supplements regularly report that they do not discuss the supplement use with their physicians because they believe that physicians are biased against supplements and are not knowledgeable about the products.

Bruce S McEwen Further Readings

Hemingway, A. C. Nicholson, E. Brunner, and S. S. Stansfield. (1997). Low job control and risk of coronary heart disease in Whitehall 2 (prospective cohort) study. Brit. Med. J. 314 558-565. Cohen, S., D. A. G. Tyrrell, and A. P. Smith. (1991). Psychological stress and susceptibility to the common cold. N. Engl. J. Med. 325 606-612. Cohen, S., W. J. Doyle, D. P. Skoner, B. S. Rabin, and J. M. J. Gwaltney. (1997). Social ties and susceptibility to the common cold. J Amer. Med. Assoc. 277 1940-1944. Everson, S. A., J. W. Lynch, M. A. Chesney, G. A. Kaplan, D. E. Goldberg, S. B. Shade, R. D. Cohen, R. Salonen, and J. T. Salonen. (1997). Interaction of workplace demands and cardiovascular reactivity in progression of carotid atherosclerosis Population based study. Brit. Med. J. 314 553-558. Gould, E., B. S. McEwen, P. Tanapat, L. A. M. Galea, and E. Fuchs. (1997). Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult tree shrew is regulated by psychosocial stress and...

Other Uses

Adhatoda is traditionally used to treat cough, asthma, bronchitis and colds, but has also been used to treat fever, dysentery, diarrhoea, jaundice, to stimulate the birthing process and aid healing afterwards, tuberculosis, headache, and as an antispasmodic (Claeson et al 2000). It has also been used as an abortifacient in some Indian villages.


Historical note Andrographis has long been used in traditional medicine systems in numerous countries. It has been included in the pharmacopoeias of India, Korea and China, possibly because it grows abundantly in India, Pakistan and various parts of South-East Asia. In TCM, andrographis is considered a 'cold' herb and is used to rid the body of heat, as in fevers and acute infections, and to dispel toxins from the body. In Ayurvedic medicine it is used as a bitter tonic, to stimulate digestion and as a treatment for a wide range of conditions such as diabetes and hepatitis. It is still a common household remedy and found in over half the combination tonics used to treat liver conditions in India. Also used to treat the common cold, it is sometimes called Indian echinacea.


Left untreated, allergic rhinitis also can lead to other serious conditions, including asthma, recurrent middle ear infections, sinusitis, sleep disorders, and chronic cough. Appropriate management of rhinitis is an important part of effectively managing these coexisting or complicating respiratory conditions. The type and severity of allergy symptoms vary from child to child. Airborne allergens can cause allergic rhinitis (sneezing, itchy nose or throat, nasal congestion, and coughing). These symptoms are often accompanied by allergic conjunctivitis itchy, watery, red eyes, and dark circles around the reddened eyes. Allergic rhinitis occurs in about 15 percent to 20 percent of Americans and typically develops by age 10, reaching its peak in the early 20s. The symptoms of allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis can be mild or severe and may occur only at certain times of the year or all year round. If symp


Another way to extract and preserve plant material is to use vinegar. Some plant constituents extract better in an acidic medium, making vinegar the perfect choice. Herbal vinegars are often made from pleasant-tasting herbs, and used in salad dressings and for cooking. They are also a good addition to the bath or for rinsing hair, as the acetic acid of the vinegar helps restore the natural protective acid pH of the body's exterior. Cider vinegar is a remedy for colds and other viruses, so it is a good solvent for herbs for these conditions.

Immune Function

These findings are contrasted by analyses of male smokers who participated in the ATBC study, which found that supplementation with synthetic beta-carotene had no overall effect on the risk of hospital-treated pneumonia or the incidence of the common cold (Hemila et al 2002, 2004), but instead increased the risk of colds in subjects carrying out heavy exercise at leisure but not at work (Hemila et al 2003).


Many things can cause asthma attacks. For some people key triggers can be identified. Triggers are environmental, infectious, or social causes that set off a person's asthma. Common triggers include pollens, cigarette smoking, secondhand smoke exposure, dust mites, molds, pet dander, colds, cold air, exercise, stress, and changes in weather. These triggers are sensed by the lungs and the body over-responds, causing an asthma attack. Some patients have asthma where no clear trigger can be identified. Individuals with many allergies are at higher risk for getting asthma. People with eczema (an itchy dry skin condition Treatment of asthma requires a whole life approach. Prevention of attacks is extremely important, especially in children with moderate to severe asthma. This requires a multifactorial approach involving attention to and potential changes in all spheres of a child's life, including home and school. Environmental modification includes elimination of triggers such as...


In contrast to many other fields of traditional medicine (e.g., acupuncture), the use of herbal supplements fits nicely into the Western paradigm of scientific study. Public use of such supplements has uncovered the need for the design, funding, and performance of methodologically sound clinical trials. Through initiatives from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine many popular herbs are being investigated. Clinical trials examining black cohosh for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, echinacea for the prevention and treatment of the common cold, and ginkgo biloba for the prevention of dementia are a few of the studies currently underway. Hopefully, results from such trials will help guide patients and clinicians toward judicious use of herbal supplements.


Chiropractic treatment has been used for the neuromusculoskeletal (nerve, muscle, and skeleton) system, lower back, upper back, neck and head pain, and for extremity, joint, and muscle problems. It has also been beneficial for respiratory illnesses, the common cold, sinusitis, bronchial asthma, gastrointestinal disorders, high blood pressure, heart trouble, menstrual difficulties, and emotional problems such as depression and schizophrenia.

Therapeutic Uses

Because of the bronchial muscle relaxant effect, caffeine is used in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and for the treatment of asthma. The use of caffeine in the treatment of children with minimal brain dysfunction, to increase the duration of elec-troconvulsive therapy-induced seizure, for allergic rhinitis, as well as for atopic dermatitis has also been described. Recently, caffeine has been used as a diagnostic test for malignant hyperthermia and in the diagnosis of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a complication of neuroleptic therapy. Caffeine is found in many drug preparations, both prescription and over-the-counter. Caffeine is present in drugs used as stimulants, pain relievers, diuretics, and cold remedies. When used as an analgesic adjuvant, the potency of the analgesic drug is significantly enhanced by the addition of caffeine.


Saavedra We typically establish respiratory phenotypes such as upper respiratory (rhinitis), lower respiratory (asthma) and skin (atopic dermatitis) as pheno-types. As gastroenterologists we feel a little left out because we think allergy of the GI system also has a phenotype. We don't quite understand these eosinophilia phenomena yet. But they clearly do respond to the protein management children get. So it seems to be one of those phenotypes, and from the nomenclatural point of view we also tend to confuse 'food allergy' as a phenotype, but we don't use 'aero-allergy' as a phenotype. Would you agree with that It does look like there is a difference or an association between the first and latter manifestations, like atopic dermatitis which is associated with a higher incidence of other phenotypes later in life. With GI allergy some of it seems to be food related. Does the GI tract-associated lymphoid system handle things better than the respiratory tract lymphoid system, and...

Cold common 119

Cold, common An upper respiratory infection caused by one of at least 200 different types of viruses. Colds are most likely to occur during cold season, which begins in the fall and continues throughout the spring. After one bout with a particular virus, the child will develop an immunity to that precise virus. This is why adults have fewer colds than children. crowding indoors and school openings. Between December and May several types of coronaviruses are responsible for most cases of the common cold. Besides these two types of viruses, colds may also be caused by parainfluenza, adenovirus, enteroviruses, and influenza. All of these viruses seem to be able to change their characteristics from one season to the next. While cold temperatures do not seem to bring on a cold, fatigue, stress, or anything else that weakens the body's immune system can influence a child's likelihood of getting sick. It is possible to catch a cold from other people who have colds, or from the things they...

Sambucus nigra

If ever the soul of a plant has been fought for, it is elder. An important herb through the ages, it has been described as a whole medicine-chest in one plant. Less used now than formerly, its flowers remain a wonderful fever remedy and delicious in drinks or desserts. The berries work against flu and colds, and help relieve coughs. The leaves, as an ointment, are good for bruises. Elderberries are well known for reducing the length and severity of colds and flu, and can be used to help prevent infection. They are an excellent winter standby. colds and flu

Salad Savvy

I had been suffering with asthma, allergies and colds. I had an inhaler that I carried everywhere along with medications. The information and care provided by Dr. DeMaria has improved my life. My asthma and allergies are gone and I don't get sick any more. Following Dr. Bob's advice, I cut sugar and dairy out of my diet. Every time I went back to my old eating habits, my asthma and allergies came back. Jason Lance

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