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changes; as in "China is like North Korea". In short, similarity statements are asymmetric.

Tversky and Gati (1978) found evidence for these proposals in a study involving similarity judgements for pairs of countries. They first confirmed that subjects preferred similarity statements in which the prominent country was in the referent rather than the subject position. The s(q, p) column of figures in Table 10.1 shows the mean similarity judgements where the prominent country (p) was in the referent position (i.e., q is like p). The s(p, q) column shows the mean similarity judgements when the prominent concept is in the subject position (i.e., p is like q). As you can see from Table 10.1, in almost every pair the similarity judgements are asymmetric; with s(q, p) forms being judged consistently as being more similar than s(p, q) forms.

A sample of the materials used by Medin et al. (1990). The sample stimulus T is attributionally similar to A because they both have a shaded circle. B has not got this attributional similarity, but B does share a matching relation—same-colour elements—with T.

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