Info

Connectionist representations 299

Chapter summary 304

Further reading 305

10. Objects, concepts, and categories 306 Introduction 306 Evidence on categories and categorisation 307 The defining-attribute view 313 The prototype view 317 The exemplar-based view 320 Explanation-based views of concepts 322 Conceptual combination 325 Concepts and similarity 326 Evaluating theories of categorisation 331 Neurological evidence on concepts 332 Chapter summary 333 Further reading 334

11. Speech perception and reading 335 Introduction 335 Listening to speech 336 Theories of word recognition 340 Cognitive neuropsychology 345 Basic reading processes 348 Word identification 352 Routes from print to sound 357 Chapter summary 365 Further reading 367

12. Language comprehension 368 Introduction 368 Sentence processing 368 Capacity theory 376

Discourse processing 379

Story processing 386

Chapter summary 397

Further reading 398

13. Language production 399 Introduction 399 Speech as communication 399 Speech production processes 401 Theories of speech production 403 Cognitive neuropsychology: Speech production 410 Cognitive neuroscience: Speech production 412 Writing: Basic processes 414 Cognitive neuropsychology: Writing 419 Speaking and writing compared 425 Language and thought 426 Chapter summary 428 Further reading 430

14. Problem solving: Puzzles, insight, and expertise 431 Introduction 431 Early research: The Gestalt school 433 Newell and Simon's problem-space theory 438 Evaluating research on puzzles 446 Re-interpreting the Gestalt findings 449 From puzzles to expertise 452 Evaluation of expertise research 461 Learning to be an expert 461 Cognitive neuropsychology of thinking 465 Chapter summary 466 Further reading 467

15. Creativity and discovery 468

Introduction 468

Genius and talent 468

General approaches to creativity 469

Discovery using mental models 473

Discovery by analogy 476

Scientific discovery by hypothesis testing 480

Evaluating problem-solving research 483

Chapter summary 486

Further reading 487

16. Reasoning and deduction 488 Introduction 488 Theoretical approaches to reasoning 491 How people reason with conditionals 492 Abstract-rule theory 502 Mental models theory 506 Domain-specific rule theories 513 Probabilistic theory 515 Cognitive neuropsychology of reasoning 518 Rationality and evaluation of theories 519 Chapter summary 520 Further reading 521

17. Judgement and decision making 522 Introduction 522 Judgement research 523 Decision making 531 How flawed are judgement and decision making? 534 Chapter summary 535 Further reading 536

18. Cognition and emotion 537 Introduction 537

Does affect require cognition? 537

Theories of emotional processing 543

Emotion and memory 549

Emotion, attention, and perception 556

Conclusions on emotional processing 561

Chapter summary 563

Further reading 564

19. Present and future 565

Introduction 565

Experimental cognitive psychology 565

Cognitive neuropsychology 568

Cognitive science 570

Cognitive neuroscience 573

Present and future directions 575

Chapter summary 576

Further reading 577

Glossary 579

References 591

Author index 657

Subject index 680

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