Representations from Gentner (1981) of two complex sentences that differ in terms of the degree to which their elements (e.g. Ida and her tenants) are integrated or connected: (a) the representation of the sentence "Ida sold her tenants a clock", and (b) the representation of the sentence "Ida mailed her tenants a clock".

hearer. They then made up stories in which they explicitly cancelled some or all of these attributes and asked subjects to judge the degree to which the incident in the story could be regarded as a lie. For example, a story about a railway porter telling a traveller that the train to London leaves from Platform 5, when this was not true and the porter was not aware of its falsity, cancels the second two attributes. Using this method they found that different usages were considered to be better or worse examples of lying. Furthermore, the attributes that made up the representation of the verb were considered to be differentially important in characterising a good example of a lie. As we shall see in the next chapter, these results are in line with

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