Figure

Memory performance on graphemic cued recall and graphemic recognition in full and divided attention conditions. Data from Mulligan (1998).

semantic processing, but has little or no effect on perceptual processing. If so, then divided attention will reduce memory performance on conceptual tests, but will not affect performance on perceptual tests.

Mulligan (1998) tested these predictions in five experiments using eight perceptual and conceptual tests. As predicted, there were effects of divided attention on conceptual tests involving explicit memory, but no effects on perceptual tests involving implicit memory. However, these findings do not make it clear whether the crucial variable is the perceptual/conceptual one or the explicit/implicit one. This led Mulligan (1998) to use two explicit perceptual tests. These tests were graphemic-cued recall and graphemic recognition, both of which involved non-words resembling words (e.g., "cheetohs" resembles "cheetahs"). In the former test, the participants had to recall the list words (e.g., "cheetohs" might cue the list word "cheetah"). In the latter test, the participants had to recognise which non-words had a similar appearance to list words.

In spite of the fact that both tests involved perceptual processing, there was a significant effect of the attentional manipulation (see Figure 7.4). These findings are contrary to the transfer appropriate processing framework. As Mulligan (1998, p. 41) concluded, the findings suggest that "performance on explicit tests, whether perceptual or conceptual, is dependent on attention at encoding."

Evaluation

Roediger's crucial assumption that memory performance depends on the similarity between the processes occurring at learning and at retrieval has proved very useful. Much of the evidence supports this assumption, and it has stimulated a considerable amount of important research. In addition, the evidence generally confirms the value of the distinction between perceptual and conceptual processes. The key limitation of transfer appropriate processing theory is that the distinction between perceptual and conceptual processes

(important though it is) is of less fundamental importance than the distinction between explicit and implicit memory. This was shown in the study by Mulligan (1998), and is also revealed in research on amnesia (see later).

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