Performance on fragmentcompletion and recognition memory tests as a function of retention interval. Adapted from Tulving et al. (1982).

• Exclusion test: participants were instructed to complete the word stems (e.g., "mer_") with words that were not presented on the list.

If conscious recollection (explicit memory) were perfect, then 100% of the completions on the inclusion test would be list words compared to 0% on the exclusion test. In contrast, a complete lack of conscious recollection would produce a situation in which participants were as likely to produce list words on the exclusion test as on the inclusion test. This would indicate that the participants could not tell the difference between list and non-list words. Jacoby et al. (1993) assessed the impact of attention on explicit and implicit memory by using full-attention and divided-attention conditions. In the full-attention condition, participants were instructed to remember the list words for a memory test; in the divided-attention condition, they had to perform a complex listening task while reading the list words, and they were not told there would be a memory test.

The findings are shown in Figure 7.2. Most studies of cued recall only use a condition resembling the inclusion test, and inspection of those findings suggests there was reasonable explicit memory performance in both attention conditions. However, the picture looks very different when the exclusion test data are also considered. Participants in the divided-attention condition produced the same level of performance on the inclusion and exclusion tests, suggesting that they were not making any use of conscious recollection or explicit memory. Participants in the full-attention condition did much better on the inclusion test than on the exclusion test, indicating considerable reliance on explicit memory. It also seemed that implicit memory processes were used equally in the divided-attention and full-attention conditions. Thus, attention at the time of learning may be of crucial importance to subsequent conscious recollection, but is irrelevant to implicit memory.

In sum, these findings confirm that the crucial distinction between explicit and implicit memory is in terms of the involvement of conscious recollection. This poses problems for researchers, because it is often hard to decide whether conscious recollection influences any given memory performance. In spite of this, there is now convincing evidence that the distinction between explicit and implicit memory is both valid and

Performance on inclusion and exclusion memory tests as a function of whether attention at learning was divided or full. Adapted from Jacoby et al. (1993).

Business Correspondence

Business Correspondence

24 chapters on preparing to write the letter and finding the proper viewpoint how to open the letter, present the proposition convincingly, make an effective close how to acquire a forceful style and inject originality how to adapt selling appeal to different prospects and get orders by letter proved principles and practical schemes illustrated by extracts from 217 actual letter.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment