Figure 620

Mean probabilities of remember and know responses on a recognition test as a function of whether masked primes were related or unrelated. Adapted from Rajaram (1993).

than a "know" response. He carried out a meta-analysis on the published studies that obtained support for his position, and concluded (1996, p. 523):

Rather than detecting separate memory systems, attempts to distinguish between remembering and knowing are better understood as a division of positive recognition responses into those that lie above a second decision criterion (remember) and those that do not [know].

Evidence consistent with Donaldson's (1996) approach was reported by Dewhurst and Hitch (1999). They presented items as anagrams or as items to be read, followed by a recognition test. The key finding was that the participants' judgements of the source of their memories (word vs. anagram) were much more accurate (80% vs. 24%, respectively) for remember responses than for know responses. Thus, participants had access to more information about remember items than know items.

section summary

One of the implications of the various multiroute approaches is that there is no simple answer to the question of the similarity between the processes involved in recall and recognition. If there are at least two recall processes and two recognition processes, then the degree of similarity clearly depends on which recall process is being compared with which recognition process. One of the issues for the future is to identify more precisely the circumstances in which each process is used.

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