Figure 612

Forgetting over time as indexed by reduced savings. Data from Ebbinghaus (1885/1913).

Third, Lockhart and Craik (1990) pointed out that their original theoretical statement had implied that processing of stimuli proceeds in an ordered sequence from shallow sensory levels to deeper semantic levels. They accepted that this was inadequate: "It is likely that an adequate model will comprise complex interactions between top-down and bottom-up processes, and that processing at different levels will be temporally parallel or partially overlapping" (Lockhart & Craik, 1990, p. 95).

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