Figure

Areas of the left hemisphere associated with impaired object recognition for famous faces, animals, and tools. Adapted from Damasio et al. (1996).

al. (1996) who asked brain-damaged participants to name famous faces, animals, and tools. Different areas of the left hemisphere of the brain were associated with impaired object recognition for the three types of objects. As Damasio et al. (1996, pp. 499- 500) concluded, "Abnormal retrieval of words for persons was correlated with damage clustered in the left TP [temporal pole]; abnormal retrieval of words for animals was correlated with damage in left IT [inferotemporal region]; and abnormal retrieval of words for tools correlated with damage in posterolateral IT [inferotemporal region]." These areas of the brain are shown in Figure 4.9.

Damasio et al. then gave the same object-naming task to normal participants. PET data showed that different areas of the left hemisphere were activated, depending on whether the participants were naming famous faces, animals, or tools. Most strikingly, the areas involved were the same as those identified from the study on brain-damaged patients. However, it is certain that several other areas of the brain are also involved in object recognition.

There is another problem with the model of Farah and McClelland (1991). According to the model, the visual and perceptual units in the semantic system are all interconnected. It follows that patients with severely impaired visual memory for objects should also have poor memory for functional information when provided with object names. In fact, some patients have intact functional memory for objects combined with very poor visual object memory (e.g., Riddoch & Humphreys, 1993).

Object

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