The Muller-Lyer illusion created with the use of three books.

obtained in the normal perceptual judgements. It is not clear on Gregory's theory why the Muller-Lyer illusion should be reduced in the pointing condition.

Similar findings were reported by Aglioti, Goodale, and De Souza (1995) with the Ebbinghaus illusion (see Figure 3.5). In this illusion, the central circle surrounded by smaller circles looks larger than a central circle of the same size surrounded by larger circles. Aglioti et al. (1995) constructed a three-dimensional version of this illusion, and obtained the usual illusion effect. More interestingly, when the participants reached to pick up one of the central discs, the maximum grip aperture of their reaching hand was almost entirely determined by the actual size of the disc. Thus, no illusion was apparent in the size of the hand grip. The findings remain the same, even when the participants cannot compare their hand opening with the disc as they reach for it (Haffenden & Goodale, 1998). A theoretical account of such findings is provided later in the chapter.

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