Figure 186

Free and cued recall as a function of mood state (happy or sad) at learning and at recall. Based on data in Kenealy (1997).

given tests of free recall and cued recall (the visual outline of the map). There were strong mood-state-dependent effects in free recall, but not in cued recall (see Figure 18.6). Thus, mood state can affect memory even when learning is controlled, but does so only when no other powerful retrieval cues are available.

Most studies have focused on explicit memory involving conscious recollection of previous events. However, Macaulay, Ryan, and Eich (1993) found that mood-state-dependent effects can also be obtained on tests of implicit memory, on which conscious recollection is not required. Relevant evidence was reported by Nissen et al. (1988). They studied explicit and implicit memory in a 45-year-old woman suffering from multiple personality disorder, each of whose separate personalities can be regarded as corresponding to a different mood state.

The woman studied by Nissen et al. (1988) showed 22 different personalities ranging in age from 5 to 45. One of her personalities was Alice, who was 39 years old, studying to be a ministerial counsellor, and who worked as a nurses' assistant. Another of her personalities was Charles, who was 45 years old and an aggressive heavy drinker, and a third personality was Bonnie, 36, who was very social and whose main interests were in the theatre. There were striking personality-dependent effects on some tasks. The same story was read to five of the personalities in turn, with each personality providing almost immediate recall. There was no systematic improvement in recall across personalities (see Figure 18.7). On another task,

Story one Alice Bonnie Dorrta Charles Harriet Story two Harriet Charles Donna Bonnie Alice (first) (second) (third} (fourth) (fifth)
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