Figure 185

Design for a study of mood-state-dependent memory together with the predicted results on Bower's (1981) theory.

determining emotional processing, indicating their joint influences. This approach was adopted by Williams et al. (1988, 1997), and a similar approach was favoured by Beck and Clark (1988).

Two points need to be made here. First, most studies have been concerned with personality traits or with mood states, but not with both together. Thus, such studies cannot provide direct evidence on the mediator or moderator approaches. Second, studies on mood and emotional processing have mostly focused on learning and memory, whereas studies on personality and emotional processing have often focused on attention and perception. Our review of the evidence reflects these imbalances.

There is some support for all four hypotheses put forward by Gilligan and Bower (1984, see earlier). The strongest support has been for mood congruity (i.e., learning is best when the participant's mood matches the emotional tone of the to-be-learned material). However, there have been several failures to show mood-state-dependent recall, thought congruity, mood congruity, and effects of mood intensity.

Experimental studies testing for mood-state-dependent memory typically make use of learning either one or two lists of words. Learning occurs in one mood state (e.g., happy or sad), and recall occurs in the same mood state or in a different one (see Figure 18.5). When two lists are presented (e.g., Bower, Monteiro, & Gilligan, 1978; Schare, Lisman, & Spear, 1984), one list is learned in one mood and the other list is learned in a different mood. Subsequently participants are put back into one of these two moods, and instructed to recall only the list learned first. It is predicted that recall should be higher when the mood state at the time of recall is the same as that at the time of learning.

Schare et al. (1984) and Bower et al. (1978) obtained mood-state-dependent recall with the two-list design but not with the one-list design. Perhaps participants trying to recall the first list with the mood appropriate to the second list thought of some of the words from the second list, and this interfered with the task of recalling first-list words.

Eich, Macaulay, and Lam (1997) reported interesting evidence of mood-state-dependent memory in patients suffering from bipolar disorder. They were initially given the task of thinking of autobiographical events to cues when in a depressed or manic mood. They were then asked to recall as many as possible of these events a few days later. When the patients' mood was the same on both occasions, an average of 33% of the autobiographical events could be recalled. This compared to only 23% when there had been a mood change between testing sessions.

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