Figure 103

The ease of learning (as measured by number of examples taken to learn a concept) either a conjunctive or disjunctive concept as a function of the instructions given (to classify as alpha, or predict inflation). The disjunctive concept is consistent with the background knowledge on the ease of inflating balloons, whereas the conjunctive concept violates this knowledge. From Pazzani (1991a, Experiment 1).

set of features from the drawing relative to the latter group. This study is just one of a number of recent ones that have shown the extensive influences of background knowledge on classification (e.g., Ahn et al., 1992; Johnson & Mervis, 1998; Keil, Smith, Simons, & Levin, 1998; Lin & Murphy, 1997; Rips & Collins, 1993).

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