Chapter Summary

• Speech as communication. A key to successful communication is the Co-operative Principle, according to which speakers and listeners must try to be co-operative. Speakers should take account of the communal and personal common ground they share with their listener(s). A speaker's initial plan for an utterance may be monitored and adjusted in the light of information about common ground. Conversation often involves an adjacency pair, in which what the first speaker says provides a strong invitation to the listener to take up the conversation.

• Speech production processes and theories. Speakers should make use of prosodic cues, but they often fail to do so. There is much pre-planning of speech. This planning involves a series of stages, starting with the intended meaning, proceeding through the formation of a grammatical structure, decisions about the words to be fitted into that structure, and the articulation of the sentence. According to spreading-activation theory, speech errors occur when an incorrect item is more strongly activated than the correct one. Expert speakers are better able than non-expert speakers to plan ahead, and so a higher proportion of their total speech errors is anticipatory. Levelt et al. (1999a) have proposed a six-stage model of speech production, in which the crucial assumption is that a single lemma or abstract word is accessed prior to morphological and phonological encoding. The evidence from tip-of-the-tongue and other studies tends to support the theory. However, the theory focuses on the production of individual words, and is relatively uninformative about the processes responsible for speech errors.

• Cognitive neuropsychology: Speech production. Patients with anomia have an impaired ability to name objects. Some anomic patients have problems with lemma selection, whereas others have problems with word-form selection. Patients with agrammatism generally produce the appropriate words when speaking, but cannot order them grammatically. The syntactic deficiencies of agrammatic aphasics sometimes extend to language comprehension. Patients with jargon aphasia speak fairly grammatically, but have severe problems with word finding, and often produce made-up words. Jargon aphasics are generally unaware that they are producing made-up words, often because of their poor comprehension of spoken material. Agrammatic aphasics and jargon aphasics show a double dissociation between syntactic planning and contentword retrieval.

• Cognitive neuroscience: Speech production. Broca identified areas of the brain that were damaged in patients having mainly speech production problems. Wernicke did the same for patients having severe problems with speech comprehension. There have been recent attempts to relate brain areas to language functions by using CT scans with brain-damaged patients, and by using PET scans with normal individuals performing various language tasks. There is more evidence for localisation of language functions in PET studies on normals. The evidence suggests that there are considerable individual differences in the areas of the brain involved in any given language function.

• Writing: Basic processes. Planning, sentence generation, and revising are the key processes in writing, but they cannot be separated neatly. Methods such as protocol analysis and directed retrospection indicate that more time is spent on sentence generation than on the other processes. Topic knowledge generally has little effect on the quality of written text, but influences the amount of cognitive effort required. Expert writers spend more time on revision than non-expert ones, and focus more on the coherence and structure of the arguments expressed. Expert writers use a knowledge-transforming strategy, whereas non-experts often use a knowledge-telling strategy. Producing an outline reduces planning time during writing, and can improve the quality of the written text. The use of word processors usually has little effect on writing quality, but can make planning and revision more effortful.

• Cognitive neuropsychology: Writing. There is evidence from brain-damagad patients that inner speech is not essential for spelling and writing. Word spelling can be based on information contained in the graphemic output lexicon or on phonema-grapheme correspondence rules. Patients with phonological dysgraphia rely mainly on the graphemic output lexicon, whereas those with surface dysgraphia mostly use phoneme-grapheme correspondence rules. Deep dysgraphics resemble phonological dysgraphics, but make semantic errors in spelling. There seem to be separate graphemic and phonological output lexicons, but it is not known whether there are one or two orthographic lexicons.

• Speaking and writing compared. The same knowledge base and similar planning skills are used in speaking and in writing, but spoken language is typically more informal than written language. There seem to be separate lexicons containing information about the spoken and the written forms of words. As a result, there are some brain-damaged patients who can speak well although their spelling and writing are poor, and others who can write accurately, but can hardly speak. The processes involved in speaking and writing are most similar during initial planning, although speakers generally have less time for planning. Dissimilarities become increasingly apparent as processing moves towards the end-product of the spoken or written word.

• Language and thought. According to the Whorfian hypothesis, language determines or influences thought. Research indicates that there are some small influences of language on memory and perception. According to Hunt and Agnoli's cognitive theory, language influences thinking by partly determining the computational costs of different kinds of information processing. The available evidence is consistent with this theory, which resembles a weak form of the Whorfian hypothesis.

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